Intro Computers Ch 4

Computer network
Computers and other hardware devices that are connected to share hardware, software, and data
Wireless network
Connection where wireless signals are used to send data through the air between devices, instead of using physical cables
Star Network
Topology; a network that uses a host device connected directly to several other devices
Bus Network
Topology; a network that uses a central cable to which all network devices connect
Mesh Network
Topology; a network that uses multiple connections between network devices
Architecture
The way networks are designed to communicate
Client-server network
A client is a computer that requests and uses network resources from a server
Peer-to-peer (P2P) network
A network in which the computers on the network work at the same functions level, and users have direct access to the network devices
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Network of personal devices for one individual that is designed to enable those devices to communicate and share data
Local Area Network (LAN)
Network that covers a relatively small geographical area, such as a home, an office building, or a school
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Network designed to service a metropolitan area, typically a city or county
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Network that covers a large geographical area; internet is the worlds largest
Intranet
Private network, such as a company LAN, that is designed to be used by an organization’s employees and is set up like the internet with data posted on Web pages that are accessed with a Web browser
Extranet
Company network that is accessible to authorized outsiders
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Private, secure path across a public network (usually the internet) that is set up to allow authorized user private, secure access to the company network
Bandwidth
Amount of data that can be transferred in a given time period
Analog signals
data with continuous waves
Serial Transmission
Data is sent one bit at a time, with each bit in the byte taking a separate path
Parallel Transmission
Message is sent at least one byte at a time, with each bit in the byte taking a separate path
Synchronous Transmission
Data is sent in blocks and the blocks are times so that the receiving device knows when they will arive
Isochronous Transmission
The entire transmission is sent together after requesting and being assigned the bandwidth necessary for all the data to arrive at the correct time
Simplex transmission
A type of data transmission in which data travels in a single direction only
Half-duplex transmission
A type of data transmission in which data can travel in either direction but only in one direction at a time
Full-duplex transmission
A type of data transmission in which data can move in both directions at the same time
Circuit switching
A method of transmitting data in which messages travel along a dedicated network path. ex: Landline telephone
Packet switching
A method of transmitting data in which messages are separated in to packets that travel along the network separately and then are re-assembled in the proper order at the destination
Broadcasting
A method of transmitting data in which data is sent out to all nodes on a network and is retrieved only by the intended recipient
Twisted-pair cable
Least expensive; a networking cable consisting of insulated wire strands twisted in sets of two and bound into a cable
Coaxial cable
A networking cable consisting of a center wire inside a grounded, cylindrical shield, capable of sending data at high speeds
Fiber-optic cable
Networking cable that contains hundred of thin, transparent fibers over which lasers transmit data as light
Protocol
Set of rules that determines how devices on a network communicate; HTTP HTTPS FTP SMTP POP3
Switch
A device that connects multiple devices on a wired network and forwards data only to the intended recipient
Router
A device that connects multiple networks together and passes data to the intended recipient using the most efficient route
Wireless access point
Device used to grant network access to wireless client devices
Bridge
A device that connects two LANs
Asynchronous transmission
Data is sent one byte at a time, along with a start bit and a stop bit
Wired network
A network in which computers and other devices are connected to the network via physical cables