Intro to Computers Chpt 7

Sputnik
Soviet Union launched it in 1975. During this time the U.S. and Soviet Union were fighting the Cold War. Sputnik’s launch led to fears that the U.S. was falling behind in the technology race.
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
created by Eisenhower, it was made to jumpstart U.S. technology for the military. One project was to create a Galactic Network that would connect smaller networks around the world
Internet
started as a project at ARPA in the 1960s, and was designed to communicate systems that had multiple pathways through which information could travel so that losing on part of the system wouldn’t cripple the whole thing. It took about ten years to develop.
ARPANET
the original system was called this, and connected four sites. The four sites were the University of California, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California, and the University of Utah.
CSNET
created by the National Science Foundation, it would connect the computer science departments at universities using the ARPANET technology.
NSFNET
created by the National Science Foundation, gave other academic disciplines access to supercomputing centers and connecting smaller networks together
Internet Backbone
the high-speed connection points between networks. NSFNET was the primary backbone by the 1980s
Network Access Points
Internet backbone was privatized and the locations that made up the new backbone were established in Chicago, New Jersey, San Francisco, San Jose, and Washington D.C.
Internet Exchange Points
the backbone of the Internet is composed of number Internet exchange points around the world today.
Internet
is the physical entity, a network of computer networks.
World Wide Web
just one way that information moves on the internet, Email, instant messaging, file sharing, and making calls are other ways that you might use it
Hypertext
text that contains links to other texts or objects such as images. It allows you to navigate through pieces of information by clicking the links, or hyperlink
Internet2
a second Internet designed for education, research, and collaboration. It’s faster than regular Internet. It was created because the Internet was overtaken by commercial and social uses. Membership to it is limited to colleges, universities, and other educations institutions, museums and art galleries.
Bandwidth
the data transfer rate of a network and is measured in kilobits per second, megabits per second, or gigabits per second.
Dial-Up
the least expensive type of connection, you use your regular phone lines to connect to the network. It is the slowest type of connection. Maxes at 56 Kbps
Broadband
anything over 200 kbps, which is at least four times faster than dial- up. There are several options, such as cable, DSL, fiber optic, and wireless technologies
Cable Internet Access
offered by your cable TV provider and uses the same wires to carry both signals. Some also offer digital phone service
DSL
digital subscriber lines, uses telephone lines to carry digital signals. They are much faster than ordinary telephone lines.
Fiber-to-the-Home
the fastest of the broadband alternative, with top speeds of 300 mbps. Tends to be more expensive, and is available in limited areas
FiOS
the primary FTTH service, which is Verizon
WiMAX Mobile Internet and LTE
4G cellular network standards include this. The signals are transmitted by a series of cellular towers
Satellite Internet Access
a more global and more expensive options. It service speeds are comparable to DSL. You must have a clear view of the sky.
Wi-Fi
uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed network connections
Municipal Wi-Fi
offered in some cities and towns
Hotspots
wireless access points that are available in many public locations
HTML- Hypertext Markup Language
the authoring language that defines the structure of a webpage
Web Browser
program that interprets the HTML to display webpages as you browse the Internet. The first was Mosaic, which was released in 1993
Internet Explorer
first released in 1995, it has become the leading web browser, it is included in Windows computers.
Firefox
the first version of Mozilla was released in 2004. It looks similar to Internet Explorer and is free and easy to install.
Chrome
was released in 2008, has a streamline interface but is still similar to IE and Firefox but does not have as many features. The main focus is on speed.
Safari
the most popular web browser for Macs and is bundled with OS X and is available for free download on Windows
Mobile Browsers
small screen devices such as tablets and smartphones use mobile browsers. They are also known as microbrowsers.
Home Page
can mean the first page of a website that appears when you open it
Plug-In
third party program, such as Adobe Reader
Add-On
created for a specific browser to add features to it. Firefox is king of add-ons
Toolbar
browser gives you quick access to the features of the application that installed it
URL- uniform resources locator
address of the website you want to visit
Website
consists of one or more webpages, all located in the same place
HTTP
protocol that tells your computer what type of page you’re looking at.
top-level domain
.com, .org;represents that type of website you’re visiting
Domain Name
precedes the TLD and is also called the Second Level Domain; quizlet
third-level domain
.www;represents the computer on the google domain
IP Addresses
Internet protocol addresses, composed of numbers, which can be hard to remember, which is why the DNs system was developed
DNS
domain name system enables you to use a friendly name
Boolean Operators
helps refine your search. It defines the relationship between words or groups of words and is used to create a search filter
Search Engines
huge database that send out software called spiders or bots, to crawl the web and gather information, which is then indexed. Helps search engine stay up to date
Metasearch
engines that search other engines