The four forms of information used by modern information systems are voice, data, image, and video.
The number of computers and terminals at work in the world today is over 100 million
Communications technologies using data networks have essentially replaced telephone networks in today’s business settings.
Computerization has enhanced the range of features available to businesses for voice communication.
The need to store and transmit images has been a driving force in the development of networking technology.
Video networks in business are used primarily to deliver programming
Data compression is used to minimize the amount of information that must be transmitted in networks.
The major cost component for communications is the resource needed to transmit data across distance.
Wireless networks have the advantage of mobility, but the disadvantage of difficult implementation.
The basic building block of any communications facility is the transmission line.
The two media technologies currently driving the evolution of data communications networks are local area networks and cable television networks.
The most common example of packet switched technology is the modern telephone network.
traffic growth, development of services, and advances in technology
The three forces that have driven the architecture and evolution of data communications and networking facilities are
Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of information found on networks?
Transaction processing, voice, still image transfers, and large file transfers.
Among the application services lists given below, which lists the services in order such that the desired throughput rates are increasing?
Transaction processing
Which of the following is NOT one of the main application areas that serve as one of the drivers in determining the design and makeup of enterprise networks?
The concept that describes the merger of previously distinct telephony and information technologies and markets is called
Which of the following is NOT one of the four layers in the model of business-driven convergence?
Local area networks, wide-area networks, and telephone networks
The types of networks commonly used in businesses today include
Which of the following is the most commonly used standard for computer communications?
distributed computing.
In the past, the data processing function was organized around a single computer. Today, it is much more common to find many computers linked by networks. This approach to data processing is called
wireless transmission, and fiber optic cables
Two types of transmission media recently gaining in popularity in business communications are ?
Wireless local area networks
Types of networks commonly used at business premises are called
Client/Server architecture
An architecture where multiple computers provide database functions, file services, printing services, and other specialized functions on a shared basis for many users is called a
Today, all networked information is sent using digital formats
A single bit of information represents two states or values.
The terms byte and octet describe the same amount of information
Voice communication can only be done using an analog signal
PBX and Centrex systems provide similar functionality from the users point-of-view.
Services transmitting video information use a series of vector images to represent moving images.
System response time and system cost are closely related to each other.
Response time is extremely important when implementing email systems.
When transmitting video information, compression ratios can range as high as 100:1 with little loss of perceived quality.
Interlacing is a method of reducing the bandwidth requirements for video transmissions
When using analog communications, channel capacity is measure in hertz (Hz) where 1 Hz equals 1000 oscillations per second.
The United States national version of IRA is referred to as the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII
represents the most basic unit of digital information
3,400 Hz
Standard voice telephone lines, such as those found in residences, limit bandwidth to
20,000 Hz
A stereo compact disc typically requires the bandwidth for each channel to be
must be exactly 256.
When using data communications with 8-bit codes, the number of alphabetic symbols
Which of the following is the binary representation of the decimal value 22?
Which of the following is the binary representation of the decimal value 24?
Which of the following is the binary representation of the decimal value 18?
Which of the following is the binary representation of the decimal value 21?
Vector Graphics
A representation of images that uses straight and curved line segments is called
Raster Graphics
A representation of images that uses an array of pixels is called
3 bits per pixel
When using an eight-value gray-scale image, ________ bits per pixel are needed
text, voice, b/w image, color image, cd audio, HDTV
Place the following information types in order by the required data rates with the 1 needing the slowest and 6 needing the fastest.
Traditionally, data processing has been organized in a distributed model.
Centralized data processing typically involves terminals connected to large computers in a central data processing facility.
Intranets use the same communication protocols and applications as the Internet.
Like the Internet, intranets are difficult to manage.
Extranets use different protocols and applications than are used in Intranets
Replicated databases involve copying all or part of the database to additional computers
A partitioned database is by definition not a replicated database
The three types of requirements for networking resulting from DDP are connectivity, availability, and performance.
Is used to distribute content to the general Internet
Which of the following is not a feature of an Intranet?
Which of the following typically is not supported by distributed processing
Enhanced centralization of data definitions
Which of the following is not a benefit of distributed data processing
Data entry
Which of the following is not a function provided by servers in client/server systems?
centralized, structured, and partitioned.
The three ways of organizing data for use by an organization are
Two-phase commit
Real-time replication
Cascade or broadcast distribution
Near-real time replication
Messaging and queing
Deferred replication
Vertical and Horizontal
Two types of distributed data processing
Design Architecture
An increasingly common organizational approach for distributed data processing is the
The Internet grew out of a Department of Education project
ARPANet was the first message-switching network
When using circuit switching, a dedicated path of transmission facilities is established between the communicating parties.
When using message switching instead of packet switching, a dedicated path must be established between the parties for all messages that are sent.
Packet switching is like message switching except that the unit of data sent at one time is limited in size, thus requiring larger messages to be broken into pieces
A computer connected to the Internet is called a host.
The National Science Foundation was responsible for many of the policy decisions that led to the modern Internet.
In the Internet, individual hosts and/or local area networks are connected to an Internet services provider through a point-of-presence.
Commercial use of the Internet was discouraged until approximately 1988.
Hosts connected to the Internet are identified by a unique 24-bit number that identifies a network and specific host within that network.
circuit switching.
A paradigm for electronic communications where a dedicated path is opened and maintained during the exchange is called
packet switching
A paradigm for electronic communications where messages are split into blocks of data with limited size, which are then transmitted one-by-one across the network is
Telnet and FTP.
The first two important applications developed for the ARPANET where
The first “killer application” for the ARPANET was
The development of a internationally distributed collection of multimedia files addressed using universal resource locators led to the
splitting IP addresses into four octets.
The problems of using IP numbers for addressing hosts in the Internet are resolved
IP addresses
The Domain Name System (DNS) is comprised of four elements. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
Variable-depth hierarchy for names, distributed databases, and distribution controlled by the database.
The key features of the DNS database are
Protocol architectures are a set of complementary protocol modules governing communication between entities in a network.
TCP/IP is a protocol architecture
UDP provides guaranteed delivery of messages
LANs and WANs are usually isolated entities.
A router is a more complex intermediate system than a bridge.
syntax, semantics, and timing.
The key elements of a protocol are
Which of the following is a commonly used set of standards for computer communications?
A device that connects networks with differing addressing schemes, packet sizes and interfaces is called a
32 bits
The current IP specification uses addresses to identify hosts that consist of
128 bits.
The newer IPv6 specification uses addresses to identify hosts that consist of
Services Access Point
Protocol Data Unit
Transmission Control Protocol
Internet Protocol
User Datagram Protocol
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
File Transfer Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Open Systems Interconnection
Systems Network Architecture
Database applications are among the most common client-server implementations.
Most client/server environments emphasize the use of a GUI.
Middleware is used to overcome lack of standardization.
Traditional client/server architecture is also called 3-tier architecture.
Intranets are expensive to implement, but inexpensive to maintain.
Client-server computing is fundamentally based on networking
In a 3-tier client-server implementation, the client is typically a “thin client.”
server-based processing model uses a “fat server” rather than a “fat client.”
Implementing an extranet removes the need for a company to maintain a public web site
Network-based processing
Which of the following is not a class of client/server processing?
ease of administration and transaction tracking.
Advantages of a web/database system as compared to a more traditional database approach include
A computer that houses information for manipulation by networked clients.
Client (DEF)
A set of function and call programs that allow clients and servers to intercommunicate.
Middleware (DEF)
A networked information requester that can query a database or other information.
Server (DEF)
Software that improves connectivity between a client application and a server
A method for addressing, creating, updating, or querying relational databases
Application Programming Interface
API (Name)
Structured Query Language
Graphical User Interface
GUI (Name)
Remote Procedure Call
RPC (Name)
In general public and Internet mail systems offer access to a wider range of services and more robust applications.
Upon receipt, the SMTP receiver must decide whether to place the message in the appropriate user mailbox or local outgoing mail queue.
In order to be compliant, a mail system must include all five of the additional MIME headers
MIME subtypes of the multi-part type are used to describe how the different parts of a message go together.
The simplest form of electronic mail is a single-system facility where all users of the facility to exchange messages.
SMTP is the standard protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite for transferring email between hosts
SMTP does not place any requirements on the contents or message bodies of mail it processes
SMTP returns an end-to-end acknowledgement to the originator to indicate that the message was successfully delivered to the recipient.
SMTP can be used to send executable files and other binary file types.
The key driving force behind the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is to enable VoIP
user agent functions.
Email functions visible to a user, such as facilities for preparing and submitting messages, filing, replying, and forwarding, are considered
message transfer agent functions.
Email functions concerned with the protocol operations needed to transmit and deliver messages are considered
SMTP does not guarantee that all messages are delivered.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding SMTP processing of messages?
A widely used extension to the RFC 822 framework that expands what can be sent via email is called
Which of the following is NOT a standard MIME content type?
When using HTTP, an application program that establishes connections for the purpose of sending requests to a server is called a
When using HTTP, a network data object or service that can be identified by a URL is called
When using HTTP, an application program that accepts connections in order to service requests by sending back responses is called a
User type
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-level protocol for setting up, modifying, and terminating real-time sessions between participants over an IP network. SIP supports five facets of establishing and terminating multimedia communications. Which of the following is NOT one of these facets?
SMTP adds log information to the start of the delivered message that indicates the path the message took. and SMTP standardizes the message character set as 7-bit ASCII
SMTP is not concerned with the format or content of messages, except for two exceptions. Which two of the following are these exceptions?
Two notable consumer electronic gadgets that are impacting the traffic load on networks are the digital versatile disc and the digital still camera.
A digital versatile disc can store approximately 100 times more data than a CD-ROM.
Typically, more complex routing protocols are used between autonomous systems within a larger internet and relatively simple routing protocols are used within each autonomous system
A QoS facility allows the Internet to treat all classes of traffic equally in order to optimize the services provided to all users.
An internet routing protocol is used to exchange information about reachability and traffic delays, allowing each router to construct a next-hop routing table for paths through the internet.
Few networks, each with many hosts
Which of the following describes class A networks?
Medium number of networks, each with a medium number of hosts
Which of the following describes class B networks?
Many networks, each with a few hosts
Which of the following describes class C networks?
The maximum number of Class A network addresses is
Network topology refers to the way individual end stations access the network prior to transmission of user data.
The original commercial Ethernet, as well as the original IEEE 802.3 standard, operated at 100 Mps.



On a bus topology LAN, each station can send and receive data to or from another station independent of other bus activity.
A MAC frame includes various bit patterns to enable a receiver to correctly recognize key parts of the information contained in the frame.
In the MAC frame, the start of frame delimited (SFD) provides the receiver with the starting point of meaningful data in the frame.
Every MAC frame must include two addresses, which allows an alternative receiver to be designated in the event an error occurs.
Two general approaches to connecting multiple LANs are bridges and switches.
In general, the performance of a LAN declines with increased lengths of connections and/or the number of devices using it.
Because of increased functionality of modern layer 2 switches, bridges have been replaced by these types of switches.
A broadcast recipient address means that all devices connected to the LAN are to receive the message.
A layer 3 switch is just another name for a router
Gigabit Ethernet
Which of the following LAN technologies has the highest capacity?
10 Mbps
Which of the following is not one for the speeds found in modern Ethernet LAN?