IST 101 CHAPTER 7

Which of the following would be an indication that a website reviewing the benefits of vitamin C that you are visiting is not a credible source?
The site is sponsored by a vitamin C manufacturer.
The ‘s’ in https stands for _____.
secure
A plug-in is a third-party program, such as Adobe Reader.
True
For which of the following uses was the Internet2 NOT designed?
commercial
The United States government developed the naming system for the internet.
False
When you search for the term “football” in a search engine, you are likely to only get a dozen results.
False
Programs that interpret HTML to display a webpage are called _____.
web browsers
Which of the following statements about cable Internet is TRUE?
You share the bandwidth with your neighbors.
It is recommended that you have more than one web browser installed on your computer because some websites are viewed better on a specific browser.
True
Search engines send out spiders to gather information for the web.
True
How did the internet start?
The U.S. Department of Defenses ARPA project in the 1960s to design a communications system that had multiple pathways through which information could travel so that losing one part of the system wouldn’t cripple the whole thing. It took 10 years to develop the technology. The original system was called ARPANET and connected four sites.
What four cites did ARPANET connect to?
UCLA, the Standord Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah.
What did the National Science Foundation (NSF) create?
They created the Computer Science Network (CSNET) in 1979, it connected the computer science department at universities using ARPANET technology. Then in the mid-1980s, NSF created NSFNET, giving other academic disciplines access to supercomputing centers and connecting smaller networks together.
By the late 1980s who was the primary Internet Backbone?
NSFNET
What is Internet backbone?
the high-speed connection points between networks.
In 1995, NSF did what, that lead to what?
NSF decommissioned the NSF backbone, the Internet backbone was privatized, and the first five large Network Access Points (NAPs) that made up the new backbone were established.
Where did they establish the NAPs?
Chicago, New Jersey, San Francisco, San Jose, and Washington, D.C.
Today’s backbone is composed of _____________.
numerous Internet Exchange Points around the world.
What is the Internet?
net; is the physical entity- a network of computer networks.
What is the World Wide Web?
web; is just one way that information moves on the Internet.
VoIP
voice over IP
The web is made up of _____.
hypertext
What is hypertext?
Is the text that contains links to other text or objects such as images. It enables you to navigate through pieces of information by clicking the links, or hyperlinks, that connect them.
The milestone of having a million Internet nodes- networks or web servers – was reached in ______.
1992
How did Netscape come to be?
In 1993, Marc Andreessen led a group of graduate students and released the Mosaic point-and-click graphical browser for the web, which became Netscape and was the dominant web browser in the 1990s. These events lead to a user-friendly Internet.
What did Microsoft release?
Windows 95 and Internet Explore, making personal computers easier to use and more popular.
How many users were there in the beginning of 2012?
2.27 billion
What was the original use of the Internet?
research and education
What is Internet2?
is a second Internet designed for education, research, and collaboration, very much like the original Internet– only faster.
What is the very high speed Backbone Network Service? (vBNS)
In 1995, when NSFNET was decommissioned, a small part of it was retained just for research, it later evolved into the Internet2 project.
What is faster, Internet or Internet2? Why?
Although the Internet is composed of a mix of older telephone cables and newer fiber-optics, the Internet2 backbone is all fiber. The data travels much faster and is less prone to corruption.
What was the original Internet?
ARPANET
What is the second Internet design?
The Internet2, it is designed for education, research, and collaborations.
What is Internet service providers? (ISPs)
Companies that offer Internet access.
What is bandwidth?
It is the data transfer rate of a network and is measured in kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps).
What is Broadband?
FCC defines is as anything over 200 Kbps, which is 4X faster than dial-up. It is for speed and have several options: cable, DSL, fiber optic, and wireless technologies.
Dial-up
DSL
Cable
Satellite
Fiber
50 Kbps
384 Kbps- 20 Mbps
1 Mbps- 105 Mbps 400 Mbps
512 Kbps- 15 Mbps
15 Mbps- 300 Mbps 500 Mbps
Dial-up
The least expensive; use your regular phone to connect to the network. Very slow, maxing at 56 Kbps. Phone lines weren’t design to carry data.
DSL (digital subscriber line)
uses telephone lines to carry digital signals. Unlike normal phone lines that are designed to carry analog signals (sound), DSL lines are designed to carry digital signals and are much faster than ordinary telephone lines. Average speed is 384 kbps – 20 Mbps. One problem with DSL is the distance limitations. You must be within 3 miles of the DSL service provider’s facilities. Aging phone lines can also significantly slow down DSL.
Cable Internet Access
is offered by your cable TV provider and uses the same wires to carry both signals. Ranges from 1 Mbps – 105 Mbps but are typically 16 Mbps – 25 Mbps. A drawback is that you share the cable, and thus bandwidth, with your neighbors. This could potentially negatively impact your Internet speed if many neighbors are online at the same time.