ISYS 210 Chapter 7

Internet
a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks of all sizes. It is a network of networks.
ARPANET
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network – a project started in 1969 by the U.S. Department of Defense, was the beginning of the Internet.
Internet Backbone
a foundation network linked with fiber-optic cables that can support very high bandwidth. It is made up of many interconnected government, academic, commercial, and other high-capacity data routers.
Hypermedia
documents include embedded references to audio, text, images, video, and other documents.
Hypertext
Embedded references in hypermedia documents; consist of links users can click to follow a particular thread (topic)
DNS
Domain Name System – protocol in which domain names are converted to IP addresses; Servers using this protocol (called DNS servers) maintain lists of computers’ and Web sites’ addresses and their associated IP addresses.
URLs
Uniform Resource Locators – identify a Web page. A URL is the address of a document or a site on the internet.
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language – the language used to create Web pages. It defines a page’s layout and appearance by using tags and attributes. A tag delineates a section of the page, such as the header or body; an attribute specifies a value, such as a font color, for a page component.
Navigational Tools
used to travel from Web site to Web site – as in “surf” the Internet.
Search Engine
such as Google or Ask, is an information system that enables users to retrieve data from te Web by using search terms.
Directories
indexes of information based on keywords embedded in documents, which make it possible for search engines to find what you are looking for.
Discussion groups
usually for exchanging opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature. Group members post messages or articles that others in the group can read.
Newsgroups
typically more general in nature and can cover any topic; they allow people to get together for fun or for business purposes.
IRC
Internet Relay Chat – enables users in chat rooms to exchange text messages with people in other locations in real time.
IM
Instant Messaging – a service for communicating with others in a private “chat room” on the Internet.
Internet Telephony
using the Internet rather than the telephone network to exchange spoken conversations.
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol – the protocol used for Internet telephony.
Intranet
a network within an organization that uses Internet protocols and technologies (e.g. TCP/IP, which includes File Transfer Protocol (FTP), SMTP, and others) for collecting, storing, and disseminating useful information that supports business activities, such as sales, customer service, human resources, and marketing.
Extranet
a secure network that uses the Internet and Web technologies to connect intranets of business partners so communication between organizations or between consumers is possible.
Web 2.0
refers to the trend toward Web applications that are more interactive than traditional Web applications. Collaboration or e-collaboration is one of its key components.
Blog
(short for Weblog), a journal or newsletter that is updated frequently and intended for the general public. Blogs reflect their authors’ personalities and often include philosophical reflections and opinions on social or political issues.
Wiki
a type of Web site that allows users to add, delete, and sometimes modify content.
Social Networking
refers to a broad class of Web sites and services that allows users to connect with friends, family, and colleagues online as well as meet people with similar interests or hobbies.
RSS feeds
Really Simple Syndication feeds – a fast, easy way to distribute Web content in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. It is a subscription service, and new content from Web sites you have selected is delivered via a feed reader to one convenient spot.
Podcast
an electronic audio file, such as an MP3 file, that is posted on the Web for users to download to their mobile devices – iPhones, iPods, iPads, for example – or even their computers.
Internet2
a collaborative effort involving more than 200 U.S. universities and corporations to develop advanced Internet technologies and applications for higher education and academic research.
Gigapop
a local connection point-of-presence that connects a variety of high-performance networks, and its main function is the exchange of I2 traffic with a specified bandwidth.
IoE
Internet of Everything – refers to a Web-based development in which people, processes, data, and things are interconnected via the Internet using various means, such a s RFID devices, barcodes, wireless systems (using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi), and QR codes.
IoT
Internet of Things – refers to the physical objects that are connected to the Internet and, therefore, to all the other physical objects.
IoM
Internet of Me – a subset Internet that gathers and processes information for a given user from the entire Internet and IoT devices to deliver a personalized experience.