ITGS – Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence
Creating a system that produces results comparable to human intelligence.
Artificial Neural Network
AI system that attempts to mimic the neurons and synapses in the human brain.
Boolean logic
Logic in which clauses can have one of two states – such as yes or no, true or false.
Chaining
Use of logical statements to come to a conclusion.
Feedback loop
Use of previous answers (right or wrong) to improve the decision making process next time.
Fuzzy logic
A logic system that allows for true, false, and variations in between.
Hand writing recognition
System to recognise human writing and convert it to text.
Heuristics
General rules for performing a task, used to improve the perform of searching algorithms in AI applications.
Expert systems
Software designed to make the same decisions that a human expert would, in a given knowledge domain.
Expert system shell
Software used to create expert systems.
Inference engine
Part of an expert system which attempts to relate the users input with knowledge stored in the knowledge base.
Inference rule
Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
Knowledge base
Area of an expert system where all facts about the knowledge domain are stored.
Knowledge domain
Area of knowledge in which an expert system specialises.
Knowledge engineer
Programmer responsible for entering expert knowledge into an expert system.
Machine learning
Technique for making a computer produce better results by learning from past experiences.
Natural language processing
Techniques for processing human languages to enable a computer to understand their meaning. Apple’s ‘Siri’ is an excellent example.
Speech recognition
Computer system that can process spoken language and understand its meaning.
Pattern recognition
Computational Intelligence technique where computers are trained on examples and learn to recognise similarities between them.
Turing test
Proposed test to see if a computer is intelligent or not.
User interface (UI)
Part of an expert system that accepts users inputs and presents answers.
Android
Robot designed to look like a human, with lifelike skin and other features.
Autonomous
Robot which operates without human intervention.
Computer vision
Techniques to let computers and robots see and understand the world around them.
Humanoid
Robot designed generally like a human – bipedal, upright, and arms, and a head.