Journalism Exam 2

Phonograph
An early sound recording machine invented by Thomas Edison; the recorded material was played back on a cylinder
Gramophone
A machine invented by Emile Berlin that could play prerecorded sound on flat disks rather than cylinders
High fidelity (hi-fi)
A combination of technologies that allowed recordings to reproduce music more accurately, with higher high notes and deeper bass, than was possible with previous recording technologies
Non notated music
Music such as a folk song or jazz solo that does not exist in written form
Telegraph
The first system for using wires to send messages at a distance; invented by Samuel Morse in 1844
Wireless telegraph
Guglielmo Marconi ‘ s name for his point to point communication tool that used radio waves to transmit messages
Radio music box memo
David Sarnoff ‘ s 1915 plan that outlined how radio could be used as a popular mass medium
network
A company that provides common programming to a large group of broadcast stations
Golden Age of Radio
a period from the late 1920s until the 1940s during which radio was the dominant medium for home entertainment
soap operas
serialized daytime dramas targeted primarily at women
social music
music that people play and sing for one another in the home or other social settings. In the absence of radio, recordings, and later television, this was the means of hearing music most readily available to the largest number of people
rock n roll
a style of music popularized on radio that combined elements of white hillbilly music and black rhythm and blues
race records
a term used by the recording industry prior to 1959 to refer to recordings by popular black artists. It was later replaced by more racially neutral terms such as R&B, soul, and urban contemporary
covers
songs recorded (or covered) by someone other than the original artist. In the 1950s, it was common for white musicians to cover songs originally played by black artists, but now artists commonly cover all genres of music
girl groups
a musical group composed of several women singers who harmonize together. Groups such as the Shirelles, the Ronettes, and the Shangri-Las, featuring female harmonies and high production values, were especially popular in the late 1950s and early 1960s
British Invasion
The British take on classic American Rock n Roll, blues, and R&B transformed rock n roll and became internationally popular in the 1960s with groups such as the Beatles and later the Rolling Stones and the Who.
concept album
an album by a solo artist or group that contains related songs on a common theme or even a story, rather than a collection of unrelated hits or covers
producer
The person who puts together the right mix of songs, songwriters, technicians, and performers to create an album; some observers argue that the producer is the key catalyst for a hit album
disco
The name of the heavily produced techno club dance music of the 1970s which grew out of the urban gay male subculture, with signifigant black and Latino influences.In many ways, disco defined the look and feel of 1970s pop culture, fashion, and film
hip-hop
A cultural movement that originated in the 1970s and 1980s that features four main elements: MCing or rapping over music; DJing or playing recorded music from multiple sources; B-Boyidng a style of dancing and graffiti art
rap music
The genre arose out of the hip hop culture in New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. It emerged from clubs where DJS played and remixed different records and sounds and then spoke (or rapped) over the top
country music
Originally referred to as hillbilly or old timey music this genre evolved out of Irish and Scottish folk music. Mississippi blues and Christian gospel music and fee in the 1950s and 1960s with the so called Nashville sound
long-playing record (LP)
A record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. The more durable LP could reproduce 23 minutes of high quality music on each of 2 sides and was a technological improvement over the 78 rpm
45-rpm disk
This record format was developed in the late 1940s by RCA. It had high-quality sound but held only about four minutes of music per side. It was the ideal format for marketing popular hit songs to teenagers, though
compact disk (CD)
a digital recording medium that came into common use in the early 1980s. CD’s can hold approximately seventy minutes of digitally recorded music
digital recording
a method of recording sound – for example, that used to create CDs – that involves storing music in a computer – readable format known a binary information
analog recording
an electromechanical method of recording in which a sound is translated into analogous electrical signals that are then applied to a recording medium. Analog recording medium included acetate or vinyl discs and magnetic tape
MP3
short for moving picture experts group audio layer 3; a standard for compressing music from CDs or other digital recordings into computer files that can be easily exchanged on the Internet
format radio
a style of radio programming designed to appeal to a narrow, specific audience. Popular formats include country, contemporary hits, all talk, all sports, or oldies
shock jocks
radio personalities, such as Howard Stern, who attract listeners by making outrageous and offensive comments on the air
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) the federal agency charged with regulating telecommunications, including radio and television broadcasting
terrestrial radio
AM and FM broadcast radio stations
HD radio
Sometimes also referred to as high-definition radio, this technology provides listners with CD quality sound and the choice of multiple channels of programming, but it is not yet commonly available in mass-market or as standard equipment
satellite radio
the radio service provided by digital signal broadcast from a communications satellite. Supported by subscribers, this service covers a wider area than terrestrial radio and offers programming that is different from corporate-owned terrestrial stations. However, it is costly and doesn’t provide local coverage, such as traffic and weather reports
streaming radio
audio programming transmitted over the internet
podcast
an audio program produced as an MP3 compressed music file that can be listened to online at the listenr’s convenience or downloaded to a computer or an MP3 player. Podcasts sometimes contain video content as well
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP)
The original organization that collected royalties on musical recordings, performances, publications, and airplay
What are some of the distinct advantages radio has over other mass mediums
-Radio is everywhere, in cars, homes, workplaces, businesses
-Everyone has a radio and they are generally more affordable than other media devices
-People develop strong personal connections to radio personalities and show formats
Digital recordings such as CD’s frighten recording companies for which of the following reasons
Consumers can potentially make perfect digital copies of the music without paying for them
What did David Sarnoff predict in regards to the future of the radio industry
Radio would become more than just a tool for communication; It would provide entertainment, information, sports, music, and would become a staple in our social culture
Which of the following statements is true abut radio as we know it?
It depended on a series of inventions and discoveries over forty to sixty year period
The statement that radio became a companion medium, means which of the following
became the medium listened to while doing something
Which federal act resulted in the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission
Radio Act of 1927
The method of recording sound that involve storing it in a series of numbers is called which of the following
digital recording
The BBC represents the convergence taking place in the sound industry for which of the following reasons
It now transmits its broadcasts via the internet as well as over the air
All of the following except ________ were part of RCA
Columbia Broadcasting System
Whis is Guglielmo Marconi a figure in the history of radio?
-He pioneered new technology that advanced the uses of long distance radio transmission
-He discovered/invented wireless radio technology, this is why he’s considered the father of radio
-He was a businessman who found commercial success with radio, The Marconi Company was one of the very fist commercially successful mass media companies in the world
kinetoscope
an early peep peep show-like movie projection system devweloped by Thomas Edison that could be used only by individual viewer
feature length film
a theatrica movie that runs more than one hour
studio system
a factory like way of producing films that involved having all of the talent, including the actors and directors, working directly for the movie studios. The studios also had almost total control of the distribution system
block bookings
requiring a theater owner to take a whole series of movies in order to get a few desirable, headliner films. This system was eventually found to violate antitrust laws
synchronized soundtrack
sound effects, music, and voices sychrinized witht he moving images in a movie
talkie
a movie with sychroonized sound; these quickly replaced silent films
House Un-American Activities Committee
a congressionaol committee chaired by Parnell Thimas that held hearings on the influence of communism on Hollywood in 1947. These activities mirrored a wider effort to root out suspected communists inall walks of American life
Hollywood Ten
a group of ten writers and directors who refused to testify before the House of Un-American Activities Committee about their political activities. They were among the first people in Hollywood to be blacklisted
blacklist
A group of people banned from working in the movie industry in the late 1940s and 1950s because they were suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers. Some of them, such as a few screenwriters, were able to work under assumed names, but others never worked again in the industry
multiplex
a group of movie theaters with anywhere from three to twenty screens that share a common box office and concession stand. Laregly a suburban phenomenon at first, they replaced the old urban Art Deco movie palaces
blockbuster era
a period from the late 1970s tot he present day in which movie studios make relatively expensive movies that have a large, predefined audience. These movies, usually chock-full of special effects,are packaged with cable deals and marketing tie-ins, and they can be extremely lucrative if they are able to attract large repeat audiences
production code
the industry-imposed rules that controlled the content of movies from the 1930s until the current movie ratings system came into ise in 1968
ancillary or secondary markets
movie revenue sources other than the domestic box office. These include foreign box offices, video rights, and television rights, as well as tie-ins and product placements
Edward Muybridge and Etienne Marey are famous for which of the following?
The conducted early experiments on depicting motion with photos
Movie attendance peaked in which year
in 1946
Who developed the earliest portable movie cameras
Auguste-Marie and Louis Jean Lumiere
In the 1930s and 1940s, the studio required theaters to schedule a large number of lesser movies in order to get one or 2 major films. This practice was known as
block booking
What percentage of new movies actually turn a profit
20%
Which of the following was the movie that sold the most tickets of all time
Gone with the End
The large number of smaller theaters grouped together that replaced the large Art Deco movie palaces are known as which of the following
multiplexes
The movie that revolutionized Internet based promotion of films was which of the following
The Blair Witch Project
The blacklist of the 1940sand 1950s was driven by which of the following
a fear of communism
Box office sales are currently considered
flat
community antenna television (CATV)
an early form of cable television used to distribute broadcastc channels in communities with poor televison reception
Big Three Networks
the original televsions broadcast networdks: NBC, CBS, and ABC
videocassete recorder (VCR)
a home videotape machine that allows viewers to make permanant copies of television shows and, thus chose when they want to watch programs
direct broadcast satellite (DBS)
a low-earth-oribit satellite that proveds televisoin programming via a small, pizza sized satellite antenna; DBS is a competitior to cable TV
high definition television (HDTV)
a standard for high wuality digital broadcasting that features a high-resolution picture, wide screen format, and enhanced sound
standard digital television
a standard for digital broadcasting that allows six channels to fit in the broadcast frequency space occupied by a single analog signal
television networks
a company that proveds programs to local stations around the country; the local afiliiate stations chose which programs to carry
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
a nonprofit broadcast network that orivides a wide range of public service and educational programs. It is funded by government appropiations, private industry underwriting, and viewer suppport
Big Four Networks
the broadcast landscape we know today; the big three networks plus the FOX network
PeopleMeter
an electronic box used by the ratings company Nielsen Media Research to record which television shows people watch
sweeps
the four times during the year that Nielsen Media Research measures the size of the individual televison station audiences
rating point
the percentageof the total potential television audience actually watching a particular show. One rating point indicates an audience of approximately 1.14 viewers
share
the percentage of television sets in use that are tuned to a particular show
telenovelas
spanish-language soap operas in both latin and americ and the United States
public access channels
local cable televison channels that air public affairs programming and other locally produced shows
video on demand
televison channels that allow consumers to order movie, news, or other programs at any time over fiber optic lines
cutting the cord
replacing traditional padi video services such as cable or staellite television, with internet based stresming services
Which of the following is the federal agency charges with regulating telecommunications including radio and television broadcasting
FCC
Which of the following is an argument against the unifying bond theory describing TV culture
The audiences are fragmented due to differences in accessibility and technology
Which of the following created the Public Broadcasting System
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
What are telenovelas
Spanish language television soap operas
What did FCC chairman Newton Minow say about TV
it is a vast wasteland
What is the 5th highest rated TV network in the US
Univision
Why is the 1960 presidential debate between Nixon and Kennedy significant
It set the standard for success when pursuing the presidency. Victory now hinged on a favorable television persona
Audience members can now interact with cable and broadcast television by doing which of the following
ALL OF THE ABOVE
-skipping commercials using DVR
-calling up movies on demand
-vote for the outcome of reality programs
The so-called v chip Is designed to do which of the following
stop children from seeing offensive programs on v chip equipped TV sets
Viacom and CBS split into two separate companies for which of the following reasons
They wanted to give their investors two separate stocks to invest in
internet
A diverse set of independent networks, interlinked to provide it’s users with the appearance of a single, uniform network; the Internet is a mass medium like no other, incorporating elements of interpersonal, grouo, and mass communications
packet switching
A method for breaking up long messages into small pieces, or 0ackets, and transmitting them independently across a computer network. Once the packets arrive at their destination, the receiving computer reassembled the message into its original form
ARPAnet
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network; the first nationwide computer network, which became the first major component of the internet
TCP/IP
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, which controls how data are sent out on the internet; IP stands for Internet Protocol, which provides the address for each computer on the internet. These protocols provided common rules and translations so that incompatible computers could communicate with each other
electronic mail (email)
A message sent from one computer user to another across a network
instant messaging (IM)
Email systems that allow two or more users to chat with one another in real time, hold virtual meetings that span multiple cities or even countries and keep track of which of their buddies are currently logged onto the system
listservs
Internet discussion groups made up of subscribers that use email to exchange messages between as few as a dozen people or as many as several thousand
hypertext
Material in a format containing links that allow the reader to move easily from one section to another and from document to document. The most commonly used hypertext documents are Web pages
World Wide Web
A system developed by Tim Berners-Lee that allows users to view and link documents located anywhere in the world using standard software
uniform resource locator (URL)
One of the three major components of the Web; the address of content placed on the Web
hypertext transfer protocol (http)
A method of sending text, graphics, or anything else over the Internet from a server to a Web browser
hypertext markup language (HTML)
The programming language used to create and format Web pages
Mosaic
The first easy to use graphical Web browser, developed by a group of student programmers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
social media
Web sites that allow users to generate content, comment, tag, and network with friends or other like-minded people
broadband service
A high speed continuous connection to the Internet using a cable modem from a cable television provider or a digital subscriber line from a phone company
aggregator sites
An organizing Web site that provides surfers with easy access to email, news, online stores, and many other sites
Weblog (blog)
A collection of links and commentary in hypertext firm on the world wide wen that can be created and posted on the internet with relatively little effort. Blogs can be public diaries, collections of photos, or commentaries on the news
citizen journalism
Journalism created by people other than professional journalists, often distributed over the internet
hacker ethic
A set of values from the early days of interactive computing that holds that users should have absolute control over their computer systems and free access to all information contained on those computers. The hacker ethic shaped much of the development of the internet
cookies
Tiny files that Web sites create to identify visitors and potentially track their actions on the site and the web
Digital trespassers
People who break into institutional computers
On a web site cookies are which of the following
files used to identify and track visitors at a websites
The World Wide Web became the standard for posting documents on the Internet because its creator did which of the following
gave it away for free
Paul Baran’s idea of cutting messages into small pieces and sending them on the easiest route was known as which of the following
packet switching
Who developed TCP/IP, the original specification for the Internet’s protocols
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf
The movie that revolutionized Internet-based promotion of films was which of the following
The Blair Witch Project
The Internet is difficult to regulate on a federal or state level because _________________.
Not one person or entity actually owns it
According to Tim Berners-Lee, which of the following is a principle upon which the Web is based?
Users should be able to link to any document at anywhere in the world.
Broadband access is _____________________ to income and education levels
directly proportional
Which of the following tends to be true of user-written encyclopedias such as Wikipedia
-The content gets bogged down by trivia and political debates.
-They tend to have articles on a wide range of topics.
-The articles vary in quality
Radio and the Internet have which of the following in common?
They both were initially developed as tools for machine-assisted interpersonal communication and data sharing.
advertising
defined by the american marketing association as “any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor
indistrialization
the movement from work done by hand using muscle or water power in small shops to mass production of goods in factories that used energy sources such as steam power or electricity. It was part of the modernization process
modernization
the process of change from a society in which people’s identities and roles are fixed at birth to a society where people can decide who they want to be, where they want to live, what they want to do, and how they want to present themselves to the world
economy of abundance
an economy in which there are as many or more goods available as there are people who want to or have the means to buy them
brand name
a word or phrase attatched to prepackaged consumer goods so that they can be better promoted to the general public through advertising and so that consumers can distinguish a given product from the competition
local advertising
advertising designed to get people patronize local stores, business, or service providers
direct action message
an advertising message designed to get consumers to go to a particular place to do something specific, such as purchasing a product, obtaining a service, or engaging in a behavior
national advertising
advertising designed to build demand for a nationally available product or service and that is not directing the consumer to local retail or service outlets
indirect action message
an advertising message designed to build the image of and the demand for a product, without specifically urging that a particular action be taken at a particular time and place
advocacy ads
advertising designed to promote a particular point of view rather than a product or service. Can be sponsored by a government, corporation, trade association, or nonprofit organization
public service ads
advertising designed to promote the messages of nonprofit institutions and government agencies. The messages are typically produced and run without charge by advertising professionals and the media. Many of these ads are produced by the Ad council
business to business (trade) ads
advertising that promotes products and services directly to other businesses rather than to the general consumer market
open contract
an arrangement that allows advertising agencies to sell space in any publication (and eventually on broadcast outlets as well) rather than just a limited few
the big idea
the goal of every advertising campaign – an advertising concept that will grab people’s attention and make them take notice, remember, and take action
brand image
the image attached to a brand and the associated product that gives the product a personality or an identity that makes it stand out from similar products and stick in the mind of the consumer
media planning
the process central to a successful ad campaign of figuring out which media to use, buying the media at the best rates, and then evaluating how effective the purchase was
CPM
cost per thousand exposures to the audience – a figure used in media planning
zoned coverage
when a newspaper targets news coverage or advertisements to a specific region of a city or market
drive time
the morning and afternoon commutes in urban areas; the captive audience makes this a popular time to advertise on radio
targeting
the process of trying o make a particular product or service appeal to a narrowly defined group. groups are often targeted using demographics, geographics, and psychographics
clutter
the large number of commercials, advertising, and other nonprogramming messages and interruptions that compete for consumer attention on radio, television, and now the internet
subliminal advertising
messages that are allegedly embedded so deeply in an ad they cannot be perceived consciously. there is no evidence that subliminal advertising is effective
intergrated marketing communication
an overall communication strategy for reaching key audiences using advertising, public relations, sales promotions, and interactive media
advertorial
advertising materials in magazines designed to look like editorial content rather than paid advertising
product integration
the paid integration of a product or service into the central theme of media content. this is most common in television programming or movies, but it can be found in books, magazine articles, web pages, o even songs