JRL 101 Ch. 9 and 10

Cyberspace
-Describe the internet and the interactions that take place there
-Taken from word cybernetics (science of communication and control theory)
-Used in 1982 magazine story by William Gibson
-Also coined cyberpunk (Style of writing and movies that deal with the blurring of the lines between humans and computers)
Why was I Love Lucy considered controversial when it first came out?
-Ball is white and Arnaz (husband) is Hispanic
-Wanted to be broadcast live from California
What year did all US TV broadcasting become digital?
-2009
What is a V-Chip?
-An electronic device allowing parents to block programs with certain content ratings
-Started to be included in TV sets
Who is Jorge Ramos?
-He is an evening news anchor at Univision.
-Spanish immigrant
Univision
-Nations 5th largest broadcast network
What are Spanish-language TV soap operas primarily called?
-Telenovelas
-Make up top 15 of the top 20 Spanish programs
-Popular in both Latin America and US
“Users should be able to link to any document at anywhere in the world” was a principle upon which the World Wide Web was based on, but who was the man behind it?
-Tim Berners-Lee
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf are known for what?
-Created rules for networks to communicate with each other
-Protocol known as TCP/IP
TCP/IP
-Transmission Control Protocol: controls how data are sent out on the internet
-Internet Protocol: provides the address for each computer on the Internet
Individual stations became cautious about broadcasting serious programs that contained nudity, violence, or harsh language because of what 2004 Super Bowl event?
-Justin Timberlake exposed Janet Jackson’s breast for nine-sixteenths of a second
Three media outlets that could be considered a “click and mortar” media outlets
-Gannett
-NBC
-Disney
What is “click and mortar” media outlets?
-Legacy Media companies that publish news online
-Have larger economic and journalistic resources than the than do the dot-coms and include existing media companies
World Wide Web became the standard for posting documents on the documents on the Internet because the creator did what?
-Berners-Lee gave the software away for free
“It’s the first prime-time network series in four decades to led by an African American woman.” What show is this?
– Scandal
What cyberpunk author has expressed concern over that people will get such specialized news through online filters that they will be isolated from news they need?
-William Gibson
What is packet switching?
-Method for breaking up long messages into small pieces, or packets, and transmitting them independently across a computer network. Once the packets arrive at their destination, the receiving computer reassembles the original message into its original form
“They have lost 1/3 of all their viewers to cable, syndicated programming, and independent stations.” Who are these Big Three TV networks?
-NBC
-CBS
-ABC
Three technological ways people connect to the Internet
-Computer
-Smartphone
-Tablet
What factors are behind the fact that our definition of what broadcasting is has changed?
-The convergence of TV and the Internet
What is the biggest advantage of distributing a movie over the Internet instead of theaters in terms of cost?
-Low cost
What is the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967?
-Established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to provide funds for a wide range of noncommercial programs, including public service and educational programs
What major company is known for doing TV ratings in the US?
-Nielsen Media Research
What movie revolutionized Internet-based promotion of films?
-The Blair Witch Project
-405: First big hit on the internet
What percentage of the world’s population has access to the Internet?
-40%
What percentage of the US population has access to the Internet?
-75%
What show made PBS attract its first significant audiences?
-Sesame Street
PBS
-Public Broadcasting Service
-Nonprofit broadcast network that provides a wide range of public service and educational programs
-Funded by government appropriations, private industry underwriting, and viewer support
Name three ways audience members can interact with cable and broadcast TV
-Video on demand – order movies, news, or other programs that are digitally delivered at anytime over fiber-optic lines
-Active participants in the programming (American Idol, SNL)
-DVRs – record programs and view them whenever they wish
What was broadcast networks’ initial response to HBO going air in 1975?
-Requested permission from FCC to start sending out its programming nationwide via satellite
-Initial response: Big Three did not object
HBO
-Home Box Office
-First service to make leap from merely providing access to providing programming
“They can be punished if they are critical of the government” is applicable to bloggers of what country of 1.3 billion citizens?
-China
What was the ARPAnet?
-Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects agency
-First nationwide computer network
-First major component of the Internet
What was Twitter’s big innovation?
-It was a medium that combines elements of mobile text messaging, online instant messaging, and a good dose of blogging
-Let people connect using messages no longer than 140 characters
What Web browser was the first to be able to handle graphics?
-Mosaic
-Created by a group of student programmers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
What will be the next-generation Internet be used primarily for?
-Converging the old media (newspapers and magazines) and putting it all online
-Email, IM, Listervs, Newsgroups, and discussion boards
What’s the purpose of network affiliates?
-They work with TV networks
-TV network is a company that provide programs to local stations around the country
-Local affiliates stations choose which programs to carry
“They are the channels you pay extra for and that do not carry commercials” are what sort of channels? Two examples
-Premium Channels
-HBO
-Showtime
Who invented the basic technology for TV?
-Philo T. Farnsworth
-Developed principle ideas at 14
-Produced a working TV transmission system at 21
Why are TV networks now showing more diverse programming than before?
-Before: TV shows were showing a world of white, middle class males
-This led to protests from Latino and African American groups
-Now: Some improvement but minorities are still underrepresented
Why could video games be considered a new mass medium?
-Center for online community
-Profitable part of pop culture
-Major element of media synergy
Why do critics worry that TV has strong influence on young people? Give three examples
-Spend a lot of time watching TV (Average person spends 4 hours a day watching TV, 15 hours a week, and 21 hours a week the TV is on while the person is doing other things)
-Dominates free time (Spends half leisure time watching TV and more than 1/3 of US population watches TV in the evening)
-Children spend 4.5 hours a day watching TV
Why was the conversion from analog to digital TV broadcasting delayed by several months in 2009?
-Analog sets went dark without either conversion box or cable/satellite
What is the Internet?
-New mass medium incorporating elements of interpersonal, group, and mass communications
Ted Turner
-Cable Pioneer
-Inherits failing billboard company from father
-Buys channel 17 in Atlanta
-Buys Atlanta Braves and Hawk sports franchises to provide programming for channel
-CNN: first 24 hour news network
-Developed idea of repacking content across multiple channels
-1996: Faces financial trouble and is taken by Time Warner