A user manual is a document for novice users that explains how to use or operate something, such as a software program. Usually organized topically or by task. Serial number A manufacturer’s identification number consisting of three alpha characters plus a six-digit numeric code. The first alpha character is ‘X’ followed by a two-character dealer code. A serial number appears as XDDnnnnnn, where nnnnnn is a unique number allocated by the dealer. Warranty There are two general types of warrantees: One is provided by the manufacturer of a product such as roofing material or an appliance.
The second is a warrantee for the labor. For example, a roofing contract may include a 30 year material warrantee and a 5 year labor warrantee. Many (but not all ) new homes come with a one-year warranty. Any major issues found during the first year should be communicated the builder at once. Small items can be saved up and presented to the builder in a letter on the 11 month anniversary of the closing. This gives the builder one month to make the necessary corrections. Copyright A copyright a set of special and exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular use of an idea or information.
In a way, it is a “right to copy” certain things. Most of the time, these rights are have an expiration date. The symbol for copyright is (c) (Unicode U+00A9). A copyright are in books, internet websites, and any other sources of information provided by others. It is a type of “intellectual” property. To use information from a website or book that has a copyright is called plagiarizing; unless you source the site or book then it is not. License (multi user, single user, site license) To license means to give permission.
A license is the document that proves that permission. A multi-user license is a license that is granted to many different people. A single user license is granted to a single person or user. A site license is a software license often required by software makers to use software with any kind of commercial charge. For example, a site license may be purchased by operators of a video game center, after buying a certain game. The license gives them the right to install many copies on their computers.
Compression/Decompression Compression (also known as data compression or source coding) is the process of encoding information using fewer and less complicated “bits” in terms of computer science and information technology. One popular example of compression that many computer users are familiar with is the ZIP file format, which, as well as providing compression, acts as an archiver, which is a program that stores many files in a single output file. Decompression is just the act of reversing compression. Back-up
In terms of information technology, back-up refers to the copying of data so that these extra copies may be restored after that data may have been lost. The main reasons people use a back-up are for two reasons: to restore a computer back to a safe state after a crash down and loss of data (also known as disaster recovery); and to restore small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted. Back-ups are the last defense against data loss since it is less efficient and convenient to use, unlike archives and fault-tolerant systems.
Back door (trapdoor) Again, in terms of information technology, back door is a method of bypassing normal authentication or securing remote access to a computer, while not getting caught. Back door may take the form of an installed program on your computer or may be a modification to a legitimate program. Upload/Download Uploading and downloading are terms with similar meanings that are used to describe the transfer of data (electronic) between computers or other electronic systems.
To download something is to receive data from a remote system, such as a website, and put it on your computer’s hard disk. To upload is to load a file that is already on your computer. Wizard A wizard (also known as a druid) is a computer program that leads the user by giving step by step instructions to do a task. The most commonly used wizard was the Internet Connection Wizard. The wizard guides the user by creating a connection to the internet. Template There are many meanings for a template in the areas of information technology.
First of all, template metaprogramming is a programming technique used by a compiler to generate temporary source code. In computer programming, templates are a feature of the C++ programming language that allow codes to be written without consideration of the data type with which it will eventually be used. A template (file format) is any of various standardized file types used by computer software as a pre-formatted example on which to base other documents or files. GUI, command-line interface, voice recognition Graphical User Interface (more commonly known as GUI):
Graphical User Interfaces, or GUIs (pronounced gooeys by some) is the user interface for the interaction with a computer that generally involves the inclusion of images and graphics along with text to display information to a user. The most popular operating systems in the market include Windows and Mac OS, both of which are graphical user interfaces. Graphics user interfaces have changed the way we look at computers and it make it much more user-friendly than past computers. Command Line Interface Command Line Interface (CLI) is the interaction with a computer where both the input and the output are text.
Generally, most users will never have to use the Command Line Interface when interacting with computers; however there is a minority that still utilize the CLI for specific tasks. Graphical User Interface vs. Command Line Interface There is a debate as to which interface is considered better. Although the Graphical User Interface is usually considered as superior to the Command Line Interface, there are quite a few arguments for the use of CLI. Arguments FOR Graphical User Interfaces: – Easy to learn – Efficient use of monitor ‘real-estate’ (Displays information effectively)
– Presents all functions and commands in easy menus and toolbars, as opposed to having to memorize text commands in CLIs Arguments FOR Command Line Interfaces: – CLIs are much more resource efficient; uses less RAM – Steeper learning curve for knowing commands, but once learned can lead to increased efficiency – Repetitive tasks can be achieved using simple loops and scripts, where a GUI doing the same task would involve endless clicking and dragging (Click the button at this part of the screen, click this menu option, click this tab, etc. )
It is usually safe to say that GUIs are best for simple tasks, but when it comes to repetitive and/or complex tasks, a CLI is better suited for the job. It’s for this reason that most operating systems that use a Graphical User Interface generally include some sort of Command Line Interface, for example the Command Line Interfaces in Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS are respectively known as the Command Prompt and Terminal. Voice Recognition A new form of data input is through voice. The computer converts a sound signal and translates it back into doing some sort of command.
The technology is still a work in progress, yet the technology can already be seen in some programs, such as Microsoft Office and the Opera web browser. The main flaw in voice recognition lies in the process of converting the “sound signal” into the desired command. Generally, users are required to ‘voice train’ their voice recognition software, by reading passages of text so the computer can recognize how you pronounce words and phrases. This is problematic as voice training takes time, and requires lots of voice training to retain an accurate measure of your speech.
Another flaw in current speech recognition technology is that would have to be done in a quiet environment, as background noise would distort the received ‘sound signal’ and lead to executing the wrong commands. Although it is still a work in progress, voice recognition has high potential of becoming a primary input method for computers. The efficiency increase of using computers would be very high. For example saying “System Properties” is much faster than having to use your mouse to move the pointer to Start, then Control Panel, then click the System Properties icon.
Social and Ethical Issues The issues associated with interfaces in essence are next to nothing, but these interfaces are the tools in which unethical conduct such as piracy and hacking are carried out with. As we continually simplify the interaction with computers, we would also be simplifying the process of piracy and hacking, thus attracting more people to carry out such unethical acts. In other words, security is a trade off of simplicity, where no solution really exists, besides the conventional security measures we take when using computers (firewalls, antivirus software, etc. )