What software type is software that is distributed free of charge, but the source code is not available?
When viewing the version number for a Linux kernel, what number indicates the stability of the kernel?
What piece of software tells the operating system how to use a specific hardware device?
The mutt software is an example of what type of mail service software on Linux?
Mail User Agent
In what year was the source code for the Linux kernel released?
The GNU General Public License (GPL) was developed by which organization?
Free Software Foundation (FSF)
In Linux, the core component of the GUI is known as
What service provides a method for the efficient transfer of files over the Internet?
The overall cost of using a particular operating system is known as?
Total cost of ownership (TCO)
Which type of open source license ensures that the source code of a program is freely available while also allowing the original author of the source code some control over the changes made to it?
What two Linux distributions below utilize the Debian package manager by default?
The two different implementations of X Windows are called
What two options below are examples of common UNIX flavors?
Macintosh OS X
Open source software (OSS) is freely developed and continuously improved by a large community of software developers
Each computer on a network requires a unique way to identify itself and to refer to other computers. This is accomplished by using IP addresses.
Many programming function libraries and UNIX-like commands appeared in the 1989s as a result of the work on the GNU project.
On closed-source operating system, hot fixes for software bugs are deployed very quickly
The term hacker refers to someone who illegally uses computers for personal benefit or to cause damage.
Database Management Systems (DBMSs)
Are a collection of programs and tools designed to allow for the creation, modification, manipulation, maintenance, and access of information from databases
The ___________ implementation of X Windows is the latest implementation, and is based on the original MIT X Windows project that was released as OSS in 2004
At minimum, Linux typically requires only two partitions to be created: a partition that is mounted to the root directory, and a partition for virtual memory.
A swap partition contains a filesystem
By default, Fedora 20 allows the root user to log in to the GNOME desktop
When a user interacts with his computer, he interacts directly with the kernel of the computer’s operating system.
In the past, SATA hard disks were referred to as Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
In Linux, the command _____________ displays currently logged-in users
To print the current date and time, type the command _________
What metacharacter indicates background command execution?
A calendar for the current month can be shown on the command line by issuing which command?
When using command-line terminal, specific letters that start with a dash and appear after command names are considered to be
In Fedora 20, what terminal is used for graphical login?
Prior to performing an installation of Linux, the hardware components of the target system should be checked against what known compatible list below?
Hardware compatibility list (HCL)
The Linux kernel exists as a file named
What installation media source is the most common source for Linux package?
Under the root directory in Linux, which directory contains system commands and utilities?
What metacharacter can be used to issue two commands to be run in consecutive order, without piping or redirecting output?
A hard drive or SSD can be divided into partitions. What is the maximum number of primary partitions that can be used on these devices?
In order to switch between terminals in Linux, a user can press what two keys in combination with the F1-F6 keys?
Which filesystems below perform journaling?
What two commands below will halt a Linux system immediately?
shutdown -H now
The more command should not be used on binary fikes
Linux uses a logical directory tree to organize files into different folders
The command strings /bin/echo displays the raw binary characters inside the /bin/echo binary executable program
Which of the following key combinations, commonly used in the vi editor command mode, displays current line statistics?
What command can be used to display the last five lines of a text file?
What command is most effective at identifying different types of files?
Select the command below that can be used to provide a long listing for each file in a directory
Using wildcard metacharacters, how can one indicate a number is either 1, 2, 3, or 4?
In what mode does the vi editor open by default?
At the vi command mode prompt, what key combination below will force a quit from the vi editor without saying changes?
To display a text file in reverse order, what command should be used?
The LISP artificial intelligence programming language can be used with which text editor below?
In the GNU Emacs editor, what key combination can be used to delete all characters between the cursor and the end of the line?
What two regular expression characters can be used to match the characters at the beginning or end of a line, respectively?
Select below the command and the associated alias available on most Linux systems that displays a long listing for each file in a directory?
Select the two filename extensions that are associated with C++ programming language source code files:
Filenames that start with a period, such as .file, are referred to as _____________ files
In a file listing, the 9 characters following the file type (for example, -rwxr-xr-x) refer to the file’s ____________
An alternative to the vi editor that offers an equal set of functionality is the GNU ___________
Text wildcards used to ease the searching of specific text information are called _____________
If a file’s permissions are set to 760, what permissions are available to the group assigned to the file?
What two commands below will grant all permissions to username bob on file1, assuming that bob is the file’s owner?
chmod 777 file1
chmod a+rwx file1
chmod a+rwx file1
What two commands below can be used to locate files on a filesystem?
What two commands below will work recursively if specified with the -R option?
The __________ command only searches directories that are listed in a special variable called the PATH variable in the current BASH shell.
To copy a directory full of files in Linux, you must tell the cp command that the copy will be ________ (involve files and subdirectories too) by using the -r option
___________ defines a standard set of directories for use by all Linux and UNIX systems, as well as the file and subdirectory contents of each directory.
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
Shell scripts do not require the execute permission in order to be run the same way binary programs are run.
You can use wildcard metacharacters with the find command
The SGID allows regular users to execute a binary compiled program and become a member of the group that is attached to the file.
In a file’s mode, a permission that is unavailable is represented by what character?
The contents of a certain variable in memory can be viewed using which metacharacter below in combination with the echo command?
What permission (when applied to a directory) allows a user to enter the directory and work with the directory contents?
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard specifies what directory as the root user’s home directory?
In order to set all of the special permissions on a certain file or directory, which command below should be used on a file named filename?
chmod 7777 filename
What does the setfacl -b command do?
It removes all extra ACL assignments on a given file.
What permission grants a user the ability to open, read, and edit the contents of a file?
What command can be used to copy files?
Select the mode below that corresponds to setting r-x
What argument can be used with the chmod command to add read permission and remove write permission for a group on a file?
The ___________ command can be used to create and work with up to 128 primary partitions on a GPT hard disk using an interface that is nearly identical to fdisk
An extended partition can contain many subpartitions called
The ________ of a VG decides the block size for saving data since it cannot be safely changed later
physical extent size
When you insert a DVD while in a GUI environment, it is automatically mounted by the system to a directory underneath the /media directory that is named for the label on the DVD
Each device attached to a system can be represented by multiple device files
In Linux, you are restricted to using only one type of filesystem on a system
The more filesystems that are used on a system, the less likely a corrupted filesystem will interfere with normal system operations
Volumes can contain a filesystem but they cannot be mounted to directories within the Linux filesystem hierarchy
What file system below is used by software programs that write to a CD-RW or DVD-RW drive?
In the event that you wish to disable a swap partition, what command must be used?
Data is read from physical hard drives in concentric circles known as
The mkfs command can be issued with what switch in order to specify a filesystem type?
Errors on a filesystem are common on most filesystems. What do these errors indicate?
Select the command that can be used to check an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem
What command below can be used to create a new physical volume?
What character device file represents the second serial port on a system (COM2)?
Which device file below represents the first primary partition on the second PATA hard disk drive?
In what filesystem are most of the operating system files contained?
Select the commands that can be used to extend a volume group and logical volume respectively
What two commands below can be used to edit a GPT based hard disk’s partitions?
The ________ environment variable contains a list of directories to search for executable programs
Most commands that are run by the shell are run in a separate ______, which is created by the current shell
Any command that can take standard input and transform it into standard output is call a _____ command
Given the syntax command && command, the command on the left of the && construct is executed only if the command on the right of the && construct completed successfully
To prevent a file from being cleared by the BASH shell and append output to the existing output, you can specify three > metacharacters alongside the file descriptor
You are limited to using one pipe metacharacter on the command line to pipe information from one command to another command
You can use the sed command to remove unwanted lines of text
Any command that can be executed on the command line can also be placed inside any environment file
The standard output and standard error from a terminal screen within the bash shell can be redirected to a file on the filesystem using what shell metacharacter, followed by the absolute or relative pathname of the file?
Select the test statement that can be used to determine if A is numerically greater than B
[ A -gt B]
What operator below is known as the NOT operator?
Select the escape sequence that is used for a form feed
Select the metacharacter that can be used to send the standard output of one command to another command as standard input
What character is used to delimit most Linux configuration files?
The environment variables that are set by default and their current values can be viewed with what command?
The ability to extract, manipulate, and format text using pattern action statements belongs to which command below?
What number represents the stdin file descriptor?
What construct is intended for use in processing a list of objects, such as files, directories, users, printers, and so on?
What two Bash environment variables represent the current working directory, and the absolute pathname of the current shell, respectively?
Select the two escape sequences that represent a horizontal tab and a vertical tab, respectively?