Linux+ Midterm

Total cost of ownership (TCO)
The overall cost of using a particular operating system is known as?
KDE
The QT toolkit is utilized by which GUI environment?
tarball
An archive of files that usually contain scripts that install the software contents to the correct location on the system is referred to as a:
C
Dennis Ritchie invented what programming language, which was then used to rewrite the UNIX operating system?
X Windows
In Linux, the core component of the GUI is known as:
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Proxy servers keep track of the information passed to each client by maintaining what type of table?
Free Software Foundation (FSF)
The GNU General Public License (GPL) was developed by which organization?
Linus Torvalds
The Linux kernel was developed and released in 1991 by:
Firewall
The iptables software on Linux is an example of what kind of software?
Red Hat
What Linux distribution is the most commonly used distribution within organizations today?
DEC PDP-7
What computer system was the first to run the UNIX operating system?
device driver
What piece of software tells the operating system how to use a specific hardware device?
FTP
what service provides a method for the efficient transfer of files over the Internet?
Freeware
What software type is software that is distributed free of charge, but the source code is not available?
minor number
When viewing the version number for a Linux kernel, what number indicates the stability of the kernel?
GNU Public License
What stipulates that the source code of any software published under its license must be freely available.
Hiring people to maintain the Linux system
Which of the following is the greatest expense for companies using Linux?
Artistic
Which type of open source license ensures that the source code of a program is freely available while also allowing the original author of the source code some control over the changes made to it?
cal
A calendar for the current month can be shown on the command line by issuing which command?
4
A hard drive or SSD can be divided into partitions. What is the maximum number of primary partitions that can be used on these devices?
exit
After a shell is no longer needed, what command can be given to exit the shell?
shell
After logging into a terminal, a user will receive an interface known as which option below?
tty1
In Fedora 20, what terminal is used for graphical login?
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
Prior to performing an installation of Linux, the hardware components of the target system should be checked against what known compatible list below?
memtest86
Select the utility below that when run will start and perform a thorough check of RAM for hardware errors:
live media image
Some Linux distributions have the ability to boot an image from install media and run entirely from RAM. What is the name for this kind of image?
vmlinuz
The Linux kernel exists as a file named:
man -k list
The apropos list command produces the same results as which command below?
/var
Under the root directory in Linux, which directory contains system commands and utilities?
DVD
What installation media source is the most common source for Linux packages?
2
What is the minimum number of user accounts that must be created at install time?
200 MB
. What is the recommended size for the /home directory?
;
What metacharacter can be used to issue tw term-31o commands to be run in consecutive order, without piping or redirecting output?
&
What metacharacter indicates background command execution?
virtual host
What term describes the physical hardware and the underlying operating system upon which a virtual machine runs?
Options
When using command-line terminal, specific letters that start with a dash (“-“) and appear after command names are considered to be:
whoami
Which Linux command can be utilized to display your current login name?
:q!
At the vi command mode prompt, what key combination below will force a quit from the vi editor without saving changes
Tab
If enough unique letters of a directory name have been typed, what key can be pressed to activate the BASH shell’s completion feature?
cd ../..
In order to move from the /home/joe/test/data to the /home/joe directory, what command below should be issued?
Ctrl+k
In the GNU Emacs editor, what key combination can be used to delete all characters between the cursor and the end of the line?
dd
. In vi, using command mode, what series of key presses below will cause the line on which the cursor is on to be deleted?
command mode
In what mode does the vi editor open by default?
ls -l
Select the command below that can be used to provide a long listing for each file in a directory:
*
Select the regular expression metacharacter that matches 0 or more occurrences of the previous character.
Emacs editor
The LISP artificial intelligence programming language can be used with which text editor below?
tac
To display a text file in reverse order, what command should be used?
cat data
To display the contents of a text file called data, what command should be used?
[1-4]
Using wildcard metacharacters, how can one indicate a number is either 1, 2, 3, or 4?
pwd
What command can be issued to confirm what directory you are in at a command line prompt?
tail -5
What command can be used to display the last five lines of a text file?
stat
What command is most effective at identifying different types of files?
~
What metacharacter can be used to refer to the current user’s home directory?
@
When issuing the ls -F command, what special character indicates a linked file?
{}
Which character(s) below represent extended regular expression metacharacter(s)?
Ctrl+g
Which of the following key combinations, commonly used in the vi editor command mode, displays current line statistics?
-F
Which switch below can be added to the ls command to show a list of files and their type?
5
Select the mode below that corresponds to setting r-x:
write
What permission (when assigned to a file) grants a user the ability to open, read, and edit the contents of a file?
In a file’s mode, a permission that is unavailable is represented by what character?
ln
In order to create a hard link, what command must be used?
vim file1
I order to quickly create an empty file, what command can be used?
chmod 7777 filename
In order to set all of the special permissions on a certain file or directory, which command below should be used on a file named filename?
/boot
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard specifies what directory as containing the Linux kernel and the boot loader configuration files?
/root
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard specifies what directory as the root user’s home directory?
$
The contents of a certain variable in memory can be viewed using which metacharacter below in combination with the echo command?
the mode of the file
The section of an inode that stores permissions is referred to as what?
g+r-w
What argument can be used with the chmod command to add read permission and remove write permission for a group on a file?
rm
What command below takes a list of arguments specifying the absolute or relative pathnames of files to remove?
cp
What command can be used to copy files?
It removes all extra ACL assignments on a given file.
What does the setfacl -b command do?
-r
What option, when added to the rm command, is commonly referred to as the -resume option?
execute
What permission (when applied to a directory) allows a user to enter the directory and work with directory contents?
write
What permission grants a user the ability to open, read, and edit the contents of a file?
superblock
What section of a filesystem contains information about the filesystem in general?
7
When using the chmod command, the mode rwx can be represented by which number?
w
In the fdisk interactive mode, what letter can be used to save changes to the partition table and exit?
pvcreate
What command below can be used to create a new physical volume?
character
A device that transfers data in a character-by-character fashion is referred to as what type of device?
tracks
Data is read from physical hard drives in concentric circles known as which of the following?
filesystem corruption
Errors on a filesystem are common on most filesystems. What do these errors indicate?
swapoff
In the event that you wish to disable a swap partition, what command must be used?
root
In what filesystem are most of the operating system files contained?
du
Select the command below that shows the size of a directory and its contents in kilobytes:
mke2fs
Select the command that can be used to check an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem:
fdisk
Select the command that can be used to create partitions that will be stored in an MBR after installation:
edquota
The quotas for certain users can be edited by using which command?
-t
The mkfs command can be issued with what switch in order to specify a filesystem type?
mount -a
To mount all filesystems in the /etc/fstab file that are intended to mount at boot time, what command can be used?
/dev/ttyS1
What character device file represents the second serial port on a system (COM2)?
fsck
What command can be used to check different kinds of filesystems on Linux for errors?
udf
What file system below is used by software programs that write to a CD-RW or DVD-RW drive?
82
What hex code is associated with a Linux swap type partition?
df
Which command below provides the easiest method for monitoring free space on mounted filesystems?
/dev/hdb1
Which device file below represents the first primary partition on the second PATA hard disk drive?
–loop
Which option, when used with the mount command, enables loopback mode so that an iso image can be mounted onto a directory?
RAID-Z
A ZFS volume that uses a variable stripe size and requires a minimum of three hard disks to protect against single disk failure is known as:
journald
In Fedora 20, the logging system used to record the messages normally stored within the boot.log, messages, and syslog files has been replaced by a journaling database system called?
chroot
Select the command that can be used to change the root filesystem to a different directory, such as when in a rescue environment
RAID5
What RAID level is commonly referred to as disk striping with parity?
target ID
Each SCSI device attached to a system must be assigned an ID number. What is this ID number called?
segmentation fault
If a Linux installation ends abnormally and the screen displays a fatal signal 11 error, what type of error has occurred?
7
In a SCSI chain the highest priority SCSI device is given what SCSI ID?
zfs get all
In order to list all configuration parameters that can be modified for a subfilesystem, what command should be issued?
1024
In some cases, the installation process fails to place a boot loader on the hard disk properly; this is often caused by hard drives with over what number of cylinders?
15
Most Parallel SCSI controllers are capable of supporting up to how many devices?
loadavg
Select the file in the /proc directory that contains statistics on the performance of the processor
127
The first software RAID volume on a system will use a multiple disk device file that starts with what number?
/proc/meminfo
To ensure that Linux has detected the correct amount of RAM in the system after installation, you should view the contents of what file in the proc directory?
SCSI-3 Ultra2 Wide
What SCSI type supports speeds of up to 80 MB/second?
mdadm
What command is used to manage a software RAID configuration after installation?
ioports
What file in the /proc directory contains a list of memory address ranges reserved for device use?
/proc/cpuinfo
What file in the /proc directory contains information about a computer’s CPU?
modules
What file under the proc directory contains information regarding what modules are currently loaded into the Linux kernel?
ZFS volume
What is the term for a ZFS managed filesystem that is created from ZFS pools?
/var/log/boot.log
You are troubleshooting an issue that occurs on a Linux system during the boot process. What file can be viewed on most Linux systems to see processes that started successfully or unsuccessfully specifically during the boot process?
for
What construct is intended for use in processing a list of objects, such as files, directories, users, printers, and so on?
!
What operator below is known as the NOT operator?
env
A list of all exported environment and user-defined variables in a shell can be viewed with what command below?
<
In order to redirect a file to the standard input of a command, what metacharacter should be used?
n
Select the escape sequence that starts a new line when used with echo:
f
Select the escape sequence that is used for a form feed:
|
Select the metacharacter that can be used to send the standard output of one command to another command as standard input:
[ A gt B ]
Select the test statement that can be used to determine if A is numerically greater than B
awk
The ability to extract, manipulate, and format text using pattern action statements belongs to which command below?
echo $PS1
The default BASH shell prompt is set by an environment variable. What command can be used to view this variable?
set
The environment variables that are set by default and their current values can be viewed with what command?
>
The standard output and standard error from a terminal screen within the BASH shell can be redirected to a file on the filesystem using what shell metacharacter, followed by the absolute or relative pathname of the file?
#!
What character combination at the start of a shell script are referred to as a hashpling, and allow for the specification of the shell that interprets the contents of the script?
colon
What character is used to delimit most Linux configuration files?
tr
What command can be used to replace characters in a file sent via Standard Input?
/etc/profile
What environment file is always executed immediately after login for all users on the system, and sets most environment variables, such as HOME and PATH?
2
What number represents the stderr file descriptor?
read and execute
What permissions are required to execute a shell script in a manner similar to any other executable program on the system?
wc
Which command can be used to count the number lines, words, and characters in a file?
systemctl
When using Systemd, what command can be used to start, stop, and configure daemons to start automatically when the system starts?
grub-mkconfig
After modifying the /etc/default/grub file, what command should be run to rebuild the grub config files?
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/
In Fedora 20, where are user configured settings for Xorg stored?
2
In Linux, what runlevel is also known as the multiuser mode?
system-config-keyboard
In order to change keyboard layout if X Windows can’t detect the layout, you should use what CLI command?
(hd0,0)
In standard GRUB notation, select the option below that represents the first hard drive in a system, and the first partition on that hard drive.
image=
In the /etc/lilo.conf file, what keyword should be specified in order to provide the absolute pathname to the Linux kernel?
chkconfig
On Linux systems that use the traditional UNIX SysV init, what command below can be used to list and modify the runlevels that a daemon is started in?
xvidtune
Once X Windows is configured, what command can be used to fine tune the vertical and horizontal refresh rate?
4GB
The GUI components and related software take up how much space on a typical Linux installation?
/boot
Under what directory is the Linux kernel stored?
grub2-install
What command below can be used to re-install GRUB2 in the event that the boot loader becomes corrupted?
lilo -U
What command below can be used to uninstall the LILO bootloader from an active partition?
grubby
What command can be used to configure the LILO, ELILO, GRUB, and GRUB2 bootloaders?
/etc/systemd/system/default.target
What file controls the default runlevel when using Systemd?
graphical.target
What is the default target on a system with a GUI installed?
quiet
What keyword tells the Linux kernel to avoid printing errors to the screen during system startup?
Stage1
What stage of the GRUB boot loader typically resides on the MBR / GPT?
service
Which command below can be used to start, stop, or restart any daemons in the /etc/init.d directory?