Marketing research is the systematic and objective, identification, collection, analysis, dissemination, and use of information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing -Classification of Marketing Research Problem Identification Research: Research undertaken to help identify problems which are not necessarily apparent on the surface and yet exist or are likely to arise in the future.
Examples: market potential, market share, image, market heartsickness, sales analysis, forecasting, and trends research Problem Solving Research: Research undertaken to help solve specific marketing problems.
Examples: segmentation, product, pricing, promotion, and distribution research The Marketing Research Process: Defining the Problem, Developing an Approach to the Problem, Formulating a Research Design, Doing Field Work or Collecting Data, Preparing and Analyzing Data, Preparing and Presenting the Report Marketing Research Industry Full Service: Syndicated Services, Customized Services, Internet/ Social Media Services Limited Service: Field Services, Qualitative Services, Analytical
Services, Other Services Tasks Involved in Problem Definition: Discussions with Decision Makers, Interviews with Industry Experts, Secondary Data Analysis, Qualitative Research Management-Decision Problem Should a new product be introduced? Marketing Research Problem To determine consumer preferences and purchase intentions for the proposed new product. Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. The collection of primary data involves all six steps of the marketing research process Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than he problem at hand.
These data can be located quickly and inexpensively. Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data Specifications Methodology Data collection method, Response rate, Quality of data, Sampling technique, Sample size, Questionnaire design, Field work, Data analysis Error in: Approach, Research design, Sampling, Data collection, Data analysis, Reporting Currency When the Data Were Collected Objective Why were the data collected? Nature Definition of key variables, Units of measurement, Categories used, Relationships examined Dependability Expertise, credibility, reputation, and trustworthiness of the Source.
Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio scales Paired Comparison Scaling, Rank Order Scaling, Constant Sum Scaling Continuous Rating Scale: Place a mark on a continuous line Liker Scale: Degree of agreement on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale Semantic Differential Scale Seven-point scale with bipolar labels Staple Scale Unpopular ten-point scale, -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero) Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions Number of categories While there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories.
Balanced vs.. Unbalanced In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data.. Odd or even number of Categories If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be used. Forced versus enforced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of data may be improved by a enforced scale. Verbal description An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible.
Physical form A number of options should be tried and the best one selected. Developing a Multi-late Scale Develop the Constraint, Develop a Theoretical Definition, Develop an Operational Definition, Develop a Multi-late Scale (Generate a Pool of Scale Items, Reduce the Pool of Items Based on Judgment, Collect Data, Purify the Scale Based on Statistical Analysis), Evaluate Scale Reliability and Validity, Apply the Scale and Accumulate Research Findings Reliability can be defined as the extent to which measures are free from random error.
In test-retest reliability, respondents re administered identical sets of scale items at two different times and the degree of similarity between the two measurements is determined . Len alternative-forms reliability, two equivalent forms of the scale are constructed and the same respondents are measured at two different times, with a different form being used each time. Internal consistency reliability determines the extent to which different parts of a summated scale are consistent in what they indicate about the characteristic being measured.
In split-half reliability, the items on the scale are divided into two halves and the resulting half scores are correlated. The coefficient alpha, or Cockroach’s alpha, is the average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting from different ways of splitting the scale items. This coefficient varies from O to 1, and a value of 0. 6 or less generally indicates unsatisfactory internal consistency reliability. The validity of a scale may be defined as the extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences among objects on the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random error.
Perfect validity requires that there be no measurement error. Content validity is a subjective UT systematic evaluation of how well the content of a scale represents the measurement task at hand. Criterion validity reflects whether a scale performs as expected in relation to other variables selected (criterion variables) as meaningful criteria. Construct validity addresses the question of what construct or characteristic the scale is, in fact, measuring. Construct validity includes convergent, discriminate, and immunological validity.
Convergent validity is the extent to which the scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct. Discriminate validity s the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ. Immunological validity is the extent to which the scale correlates in theoretically predicted ways with measures of different but related constructs. Overcoming Inability To Answer In situations where not all respondents are likely to be informed about the topic of interest, filter questions that measure familiarity and past experience should be asked before questions about the topics themselves.
A “don’t know’ option appears to reduce uninformed responses without reducing the response rate. Respondents may be unable to articulate certain types of responses, e. G. , describe the atmosphere of a department store. Respondents should be given aids, such as pictures, maps, and descriptions to help them articulate their responses. Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer Context Respondents are unwilling to respond to questions which they consider to be inappropriate for the given context.
The researcher should manipulate the context so that the request for information seems appropriate. Legitimate Purpose Explaining why the data are needed can make the request for the information seem legitimate and increase the exponents’ willingness to answer. Sensitive Information Respondents are unwilling to disclose, at least accurately, sensitive information because this may cause embarrassment or threaten the respondent’s prestige or self-image. Place sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire.
Preface the question with a statement that the behavior of interest is common. Ask the question using the third-person technique (see Chapter 5): Phrase the question as if it referred to other people. Hide the question in a group of other questions which respondents are willing to answer. The entire list of questions can then be asked quickly. Provide response categories rather than asking for specific figures. Use randomized techniques. Choosing Question Structure:unstructured questions are open-ended questions that respondents answer in their own words.
Structured questions specify the set of response alternatives and the response format. A structured question may be multiple-choice, dichotomous, or a scale. Multiple-Choice Questions: In multiple-choice questions, the researcher provides a choice of answers and respondents are asked to select one or more of the alternatives given. Dichotomous Questions: has only two response alternatives: yes or no, agree or disagree, and so on. Often, the two alternatives of interest are supplemented by a neutral alternative, such as “no opinion,” “don’t know,” “both,” or “none. Choosing Question Wording: Define the issue in terms of who, what, when, where, why, and way (the six Was). Who, what, when, and where are particularly important. Use Ordinary Words, Use Unambiguous Words, A leading question is one that clues the respondent to what the answer should be, Dual Statements – Positive and Negative Questions that are in the form of statements should be worded both positively and negatively. Determining the Order of Questions Opening Questions:The opening questions should be interesting, simple, and non-threatening. Type of Information As a general guideline, basic information should be obtained first, followed by classification, and finally, identification information. Difficult Questions Difficult questions or questions which are sensitive, embarrassing, complex, or dull, should be placed late in the sequence. Effect on Subsequent Questions General questions should precede the specific questions (funnel approach). The General Ordering of Questions in a Questionnaire Qualifying/
Screening Questions Focus on respondent inclusion criteria To determine if a respondent is eligible to participate in the survey Who in your household does most of the shopping for groceries? Introductory Questions/warm-ups Broad, easy questions To break the ice and put the respondent at ease How often do you shop for groceries? Main Questions: Easy Related to the information needed but easy to answer To focus on the survey topic and reassure the respondent that survey is easy How important Is each of the following factors in selecting a supermarket?
Main questions: More difficult Related to the information needed but may be difficult to answer To obtain the rest of the information needed How would you rank order the following eight supermarkets in terms of your preference to shop? Chirography’s/ Lifestyles Not relevant in all surveys To obtain personality related information Please indicate your degree of disk/agreement with the following statements Demographics Personal information To classify the respondents What was your household’s total annual last year?
Identification Information Name, address, telephone To identify the respondent Name: Budget Large Small Time available Long Short Population size Small Large Variance in the characteristic Large Small Cost of sampling error High Low Cost of installing errors Low High Nature of measurement Nondestructive Destructive Attention to individual cases No Yes Form and Layout *Divide a questionnaire into several parts. *The questions in each part should be numbered, particularly when branching questions are used. *The questionnaires should preferably be preceded. * The questionnaires themselves should be numbered serially.
Protesting*protesting should be done always. *All aspects of the questionnaire should be tested, including question content, wording, sequence, form and layout, question difficulty, and instructions. *The respondents in the pretest should be similar to those who will be included in the actual survey. * Begin the pretest by using personal interviews. *Pretest should also be conducted by mail, telephone, or electronically if those methods are to be used in the actual survey. *A variety of interviewers should be used for pretests. *The pretest sample size is small, varying from 15 to 30 respondents for the initial testing. After each significant revision of the questionnaire, another pretest should be conducted, using a different ample of respondents. *The responses obtained from the pretest should be coded and analyzed. Census or Sample:Census A complete enumeration of the elements of a population or study objects. Sample A subgroup of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study. Element: 18 year old evangelicalism Unit: Households with 18 year old familiarities Frame: Upcoming Summertime: Domestic United States Inviolability Sampling Techniques Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.
Often, respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. Use of students and members of social organizations *mall intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents*department stores using charge account lists*”people on the street” interviews Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the Judgment of the researcher. Est. markets*purchase engineers selected in industrial marketing research *bellwether precincts selected in voting behavior research*expert witnesses used in court Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted Judgmental sampling. *The first tag consists of developing control categories, or quotas, of population elements. *Len the second stage, sample elements are selected based on convenience or Judgment.