Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

Such factors may include cultural risks, economic risks, political risks, market availability risks and the general capability of the company. This paper outlines the several cultural risks an American company may face while trying to venture Into the Korean market. Some of these risks Include language; religious and educational system differences (T. Martin 2). There are various differences between the language spoken In America and that used In Korea, This does not only occur in the spoken language but also in body language.

A company which wishes to venture the Korean market has to take necessary precautions in Edgar to the language spoken. Marketing of products is an activity which requires communication. It is thus a challenge to an American company venturing Korean market. The language use In Korea Is Korean while English Is used In America. In addition; different body languages are used in the different countries. For instance, shaking hands and hugging are some of the greetings In America. In Korea, It is different where they bow as a form of greeting.

Language is a very important aspect in business (T. Martin 4). Misunderstanding in language may cause extreme risks In a easiness especially a newly setup one. In such a case, there is need for the American company which wishes to venture the market to educate their employees and representatives on the different aspects of Korean language. It is also important to use Korean people as part of staff so that they guide the Americans on the different culturally language ways. In this way, the company reduces the risk of being rejected in the new foreign market (T.

Martin 2) . In terms of religion, there are many differences between American religion and the Korean religion. In America, there is community independence where every Individual has the right to follow his or her preferred religion (Marry 4). This influences the market availability of several products in the country. On the other hand, religion In Korea is based on communism. The community believes In common issues thus greatly affecting venturing their market. It requires the company to do a research whether their products are accepted or not in the Korean country.

This Is because the strictness of their religion may restrict some products and services. This makes religion one of the strongest cultural risk which a business venturing Korean market may face (Dan 4). There are numerous educational differences between the Korean and American system. This is yet another social cultural factor which may affect business in Korea. The education system In Korea Is very much different from that in America. In America, the education system emphasis on studying and student. Students in America spend almost fourteen hours in class.

This count too much too many in Korea spent in a class. In Korea, the system is totally different. The system is mostly based on individual accomplishment and encouraging creativity. In Korea, students set their own goals and strive to achieve them. They try to come up with different systems and theories with little guidance from the teacher. There is much more about the cultural risks which an America company venturing the Korean market may face. Political differences between the two countries may also count as a challenge.

In the history, they have been a perception that the west and the east rate rivals (Dan 2). This may be a challenge which the company needs tom consider before venturing into the market. In the same aspect of political and legal procedures, there are different business law procedures in Korea. For this reason, he company may face difficulties trying to establish itself in the market. Other differences which may be challenges for the new venture in Korea include personal culture (individualism), privacy and informality (Mammary).

The above factors are different in the two countries. In conclusion, companies which venture into foreign markets needs to take several precautions before they take such a step. They need to consider several factors such as culture, political and legal affairs, economic status and market availability (Dan 2). Cultural risk which an America company venturing onto the Korean market may face includes religious, language and educational differences.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

Introduction Primary is an Irish clothing retailer, operating in Europe, in countries such as Germany, Spain, Ireland and United Kingdom. It Is a subsidiary of Associated British Foods (ABA), a British multinational food processing and retailing company. Primary first open in Dublin 1969 under the name Penne’s, and have retained the name till this day in Ireland. Over the years Primary have expanded by buying out their competitors such as British Home Stores (BBS) and Clemens and August (C), they now have 257 stores across Europe (Primary, 2013).

Primary sells clothes that are economical affordable. The company sources cheaply, using simple designs and 1 OFF in their distribution change, the source all their products (Primary, 2013). Presently Primary Clothing are worn all over the world. However, Primary only has stores and outlets in Europe. This report proposes Primary entry into the Nigerian retail market using two As (Promotions and Product), the marketing mix, marketing planning, entry and analysis of the cultural factors that may affect the process.

Insignia’s retail sector is undergoing change with international retail brands entering he country, new malls being constructed and the transformation of informal markets into more modern facilities. Shoppers a South African retailer and the biggest on the continent have been in operations in Nigeria and have branches across the country in Lagos, Baja and Procurator. They are other retailers like Spar (European retailers), Ezra and Mango who have recently opened outlets in Lagos. The retail industry in Nigeria has witnessed strong growth within the last five years and industry watchers are speculating more growth in the coming years.

The industry is currently valued at about Nobility ($46. M) annually and is yet to receive any real support from the government (Businessman, 2012). 3. Market attractiveness: Nigeria is a large market, the biggest in Africa with a population of 160 million people with a young demographic of about 70% of the total population are less than arrears of age Nigerian Government in 2003 had imposed a ban on imported textiles to encourage domestic production. However, in led to smuggling of inferior clothing, some of them second hand because of the prices of selling these clothes.

The ban was overturn in 2010, although the effect of the ban still lingers (Business ay, 2012). There is still demand for these second hand clothes, known in Nigeria as ‘Bend down select’ meaning get down and pick, because usually the clothes are scattered on the floor. Thereby the introduction of the Primary will be welcome development because the clothes are financially economical and the quality is better than the clothes either produce or imported into Nigeria with the same price bracket. The market will be analyses by using Porters 5 Forces and SOOT analysis. 3. Porters 5 Forces Michael Porter’s 5 forces identifies five forces which impact Primary in Nigerian arrest such as rivalry, competition, buyer, seller and threat of new entry. Firstly, the threat of new entry into Nigeria as a developing economy, thereby there is always possibility of new entrant into the retail market. There is a lot of potential in the industry, the ban recently being overturned and prospects yet to be realized with recent foreign investments. Fig 1: Porters 5 Forces Source: Porter (1998) The availability of substitutes. They are other substitutes to Primary in the Nigerian industry.

However, most of the alternatives to Primary in Nigerian are higher end retail than financial economical. Thereby Primary can use the this opportunity to get more customer because of the quality and value of their products 3. 2 SOOT analysis This analysis is the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats that Primary would have to analyses as they expand to Nigeria. Strength Weakness Multinational Corporation leverage New Culture Technology Leading Brand Opportunities Threats New Market Political Stability Change in Government policy Power Supply Low cost work force Young Population 4.

Market Entry According to Jeanne & Hennessey (2004) the market entry strategy of a corporation would be analyzed carefully by assessing the level of risk and investment the Primary wants to have in Nigeria. In addition Corporations need to make assessments of various factors to such as political, cultural and economic to determine the entry. Figure 1: Market entry. Source: Jeanne & Hennessey (2004) 5. Market Planning Marketing planning is a fundamental to the growth and expansion of Primary. It is the planning process in a continuous process, not only conducted at the beginning but during and after the entry into the Nigerian retail market.

According to Jeanne & Hennessey (2004) market planning is crucial to Multinational Corporation. They are various forms of market planning, however the model below is the international market planning model Fig 3: International Marketing Planning Model Source: Doodle and Lowe (2001) Marketing mix is the coming together of various factors to influence the demand for a product (Kettle and Armstrong, 2004). According to Proctor (2000:212) these factors need to be interrelated with one another. In Nigeria the marketing mix that would be essential for the Primary are the 7 As of Marketing.

However, only two of the As will e discussed, Promotions and Products. 6. 1 Promotions Managing promotions internationally is a major issue for most multinationals because as they expand and move to different regions they may require adjusting or changing substantially their promotional mix. The promotions can be divided into two major strategies namely Push and Pull strategies. According to Hennessey, H. D. (2004) is a strategy directed at the end user of a product or the final buyer. The advertising. Pull campaign are advisable when the product are widely used by consumers.

They are different types of Pull strategies such as Advertising, Media, Prints and TV. Advertising in Nigeria of Primary will take into account the diverse nature of Nigeria. Nigeria official language is English, although a reasonable number of Nigerian do not understand English properly and use their three official traditional languages, namely Hausa in the North, Gobo in the East and Your in the West. In order for Primary to get across any of their adverts they would either use any of these languages depending on where the shops are located or do it in ‘Pidgin’.

Pidgin is an adulterate type on English mainly spoke by the lower class in the society. Although over the years it has gained more acceptance with the citizen, because is make an attempt for people to communicate with others in English language. The use of Radio and Bills will come very handy, because a lot of Nigeria like listening to radio and bills and posters can be placed where people can see. These will be very effective, because although TV is equally good, not everybody has a TV or the power supply to activate the TV due to the lack of power.

In contrast, Push is characterized by the distribution of a product rather than the final buyer. Incentives are offered to tillers to promote a product. Primary should also have discounts, Nigeria like all shopper love a bargain, these discount on clothing will encourage the more sales. Finally, Sponsorship and product placement either on Sport such as football which is very popular in Nigeria. Primary could also sponsorship, to various organizations and charities in Nigeria. They also have the option of using celebrities to wear their brand. 6. 2 Product: According to Sunnier & Lee (2009) they are different attributes to products.

In Nigeria we refer to the product itself, the value of the Primary products. Nigeria is a tropical country, and as such most of the clothing provided to Nigeria should be summer clothing because of the weather. Hypotheses (2001) suggests that countries have either Long term orientation or short term orientation. Nigerian are very short term oriented, they population is made of mainly younger and the political situation has not been stable until 1999, when democracy was return to Nigeria. In essence Primary needs to make clothing that is trendy to appeal to the younger generation.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

S which was worlds leading producer of cereal and convenience foods. It is hugely popular breakfast cereal brand that is being sold in 60 countries with sales turnover of $9 billion. They say when Kellogg first entered Indian in 1994, it heavily bet on transforming the Indian breakfast cereal market through switching breakfast habits of Indian consumers who were used to hot breakfast foods. Presently, Kellogg is estimated to hold about 60-65 percent of Indian’s RSI. 400 core worth of breakfast cereal markets. Another brand that made an in pack was McDonald’s.

McDonald’s made an entry into the Indian market at a very appropriate time as soon as the Indian government opened up its market to the Global brands. When they made entry Into the Indian market they faced several challenges which it needed to manage so that it could be successful In such diverse market. After discussing cases of some specific brands, we can argue that the global brands failed mainly because they failed to understand the dynamics of the Indian consumers as well as the markets they were going to sere.

So therefore they had to airframe their strategies and then enter the market with a completely changed mindset as per the market dynamics. In the article they state the global firms operating in Indian must try to be local as they can, by converting themselves Into lobar brands I. E. Being global at heart. The article to me Is very Important because it tells you most global firms fall because they don’t understand the needs of Indian consumers as well as the market characteristics but there are a few of them who have been successful brand In today’s time.

In order to be successful you need to know everything you need to the consumers you plan on selling to which In some cases the firms didn’t do that and that Is why they wasn’t very successful. Even some of the most successful brands In today’s time had committed several blunders or estates while Initially entering Into Indian market. Once you realize your mistake and learn from It you will be that much closer to being as successful you plan to be.

But In order to get there you have to have a plan and start somewhere. This research was an attempt to Investigate why some International brands, that are successful globally, fall to attract significant market share In India. Marketing By misaiming of the overall world population. Some of the global brands in Indian are Kellogg, Initial Blunders, McDonald’s, and many more. Kellogg is one of the most successful 60 countries with sales turnover of $9 billion. They say when Kellogg first entered Global brands.

When they made entry into the Indian market they faced several challenges which it needed to manage so that it could be successful in such diverse operating in Indian must try to be local as they can, by converting themselves into global brands I. E. Being global at heart. The article to me is very important because it tells you most global firms fail because they don’t understand the needs of Indian have been successful brand in today’s time. In order to be successful you need to now everything you need to the consumers you plan on selling to which in some cases the firms didn’t do that and that is why they wasn’t very successful.

Even some of the most successful brands in today’s time had committed several blunders or mistakes while initially entering into Indian market. Once you realize your mistake and learn from it you will be that much closer to being as successful you plan to be. But in order to get there you have to have a plan and start somewhere. This research was an attempt to investigate why some international brands, that are successful globally, fail to attract significant market share in India.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

Having many retail stores can help VIVIAN create shopping environment, create attractive display, performance, and different customer experiences; increase customer awareness, provide them various choices of vodka and provide necessary Information. B. Weaknesses: – VIVIAN vodka is not cheap product,and not sold in any supermarkets, so it is quite difficult for customers to find company products if they don’t know company’s retail store’s name and addresses. Customers: Due to customers’ demands, Viand’s customer markets consist of Consumer market and Reseller market.

In Consumer market,customers actually buy products to use in should purposes, such as using in meals and parties. In Reseller market, retailers buy company products to resell to restaurants, clubs, bars and hotels. A. Strengths : ; These customer markets play Important roles In serving customer demands, providing adequate products, engaging purchases, which efficiently helps company achieve its objective, customer satisfaction, company’s good image and reputation. B. Weaknesses _Vietnamese drinkers would Like to drink some familiar bands as some competitors such as Vodka Hanoi from Halloo.

Competitors: 1 . The main competitor of VIVIAN company is Halloo company (Hanoi Liquor Joint Stock company). Http://halloo. Com. Van/This company’s products include beverage. Alcohol, wine and other liquor. In fact It Is famous for Its products named Vodka Hanoi, Neap Mom Liquor and Luau Mom Liquor. However,all raw materials utilizing in processing are domestic materials, and those materials are produced in traditional way. There are some bad news about fake and counterfeit products under this company http://en. Move. Info. Van/society/facts/17622-Hanoi-police-bust-fake-vodka-production- ring-. HTML 2. Other competitor of VIVIAN company is Than Long company (Than Long Wine Joint Stock company) http:. ‘,awe. Anglophone. Com. Van/. This company’s products consist of wines made by fermenting Vietnamese fruits such as 1 OFF it has only 1 retail agent in Hanoi, and some retail agents in 6 cities in only Northern VietNam. Than Long vodka Choices: 5 types of wine with different alcoholic strength and capacities. Price: Between 1 5,000 VEND – 40,BOND Service: Delivery to customers who place an order in the home website, sole agents are located only in the North of Vietnam 3.

Next competitor of AVIAN company is HABEAS company (Hanoi Beer Alcohol and Beverage Joint Stock corporation (HABEAS), http://www. Habeas. Com. Van/. This company products are broadly beer, wine, and beverages. There are also some bad news about company waste water polluting To Lice river http://news. Van. Dude. Van/ seamstresses/CHECK /CHIC 5/CHECK/2011 a. Strengths: By using automatic system,foreign innovative technologies and unique resources,Plan has many competitive advantages compared to its competitors.

Clearly, company’s products are not copied easily. (Vodka Science > Vivian Vodka Technology) VIVIAN has many retail stores and distribution agents in almost regions of Vietnam, which may be better in getting more market share as well as increasing customer wariness. Moreover, VIVIAN company focuses on producing vodka which make its products meet customers needs, wants and demands because Than Long company mainly produces fruit wines, not vodka. Highly investment in manufacturing with assurance from US or Germany.

The condition in manufacturing is very professional that illustrating for customer the quality of products b. Weaknesses: As mentioning above, Vivian vodka has many advantages in terms of appearance, material and technology but it still is a new brand compared to their competitors. People who drink wines frequently tend to choose the brands that are familiar to hem ( such as Halloo products like Vodka Hanoi; Luau Mom and Neap Mom liquor ), hence it would be difficult for the new ones to penetrate markets successfully. Those companies were established in sass) Additionally, the price of Avian vodka is much higher than it opponents ( about 80,000 and 30,000 VEND respectively ). This price is quite understandable due to its modern technology and high quality materials, but it will be challenging for this brand to convince the customers. Quite undifferentiated in flavor and in the packaging size compared with other competitors Avian do not eave the channels or shop for delivering its products for any individual customers compared to Than Long brand.

Micromanagement: Micromanagement Forces Opportunities Threats Demographic: – Vietnam population is 90,549,390 in 2011 according to CIA World Fastback(http:// www. Undermined. Com/g/g. Asps? ‘OFF – Most of the population is in Generation X (1965-1976) and Y (1977-1994) (Source:population by sex and by age groups in Vietnam 2010,Nielsen Pocket Book, More demands for products will be offered by customers in this age structure. More than 25% of Vietnamese population are under 19, therefore using wine at these ages re restricted by their elder people.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

If the wording in an advertising campaign says ‘All of your friends and colleagues will be impressed that you are taking this trip’ it is appealing to what human need? A. Social needs b. Esteem needs c. Safety needs d. Physiological needs 8. What can be overcome when group members are accountable for their actions and when group pride is present? A. Task complexity b. Group conflict c. Social loafing d. Group storming 9. Which of the following is one of the advantages of the voting method? A. Quantitative view b.

Accountability c. Win/lose mentality d. A and B 0. The concern that people living in low-technology societies and situations could have a richer experience of interpersonal communication than people living in high- technology cultures is known as a. The Fouler model. B. Priestley paradox. C. Presley paradox. D. The technological paradox (NOTE! The REAL exam will have 40 multiple-choice questions that you will have to answer. ) Answer both short answer questions in the booklet provided. Each question is worth 10 points.

Provide a communication situation at home or in the workplace in which you would deed to employ an assertive verbal skill. Your analysis should identify specific assertiveness verbal skills and evaluate and discuss how these skills can be used to alleviate, or possible increase, conflict and come to a satisfactory agreement for both parties. Correct answer: (See pages 297-for correct answer. ) Nine verbal skills to help be more assertive are; say no, dismiss and redirect, questioning to prompt awareness, fogging, forcing a choice, broken record, ask for specifics, workable compromise and threats.

Students should identify the assertive verbal skills that best cater for their communication situation. They can also provide examples of dialogue to demonstrate how the verbal skill is used in practice). 2. What are the two models of knowledge management? What are their phases? What are the four kinds of culture that exist in organizations, according to Cameron and Quinn (2006)? What are two examples of bad organizational culture? How does this affect organizational communication? How can you improve knowledge management?

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

Design/methodology/approach – A mix of secondary and primary search Is used: analysis of academic literature, market research data and organizational data, as well as Interviews conducted with members of the Renault Marketing Team. Findings – The planning and implementation of integrated marketing communications Is complex and Involves a wide range of deferent management tasks.

These Include: situation analysis and Identification of marketing communications opportunities; choosing the right marketing communications agency; campaign development and implementation, including the selection of the marketing communications mix, creative execution and media planning; campaign valuation; planning of follow-up campaigns; and managerial coordination between all tasks and parties involved to ensure integration of marketing communications initiatives throughout the campaign.

Originality/value – Applies marketing communications theories to a real-life example and illustrates comprehensively the management tasks Involved In the planning and Implementation of Integrated marketing communications campaigns. Provides hyperlinks and references to organizations and bodies relevant to the marketing communications industry as well as academic literature. Keywords Marketing communications, Marketing planning Paper type Case study Marketing Intelligence & Planning up. 524-538 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0263-4503 DOI 10. 108/02634500910964083 Introduction The country-of-origin (COO), conveyed through marketing communications messages, can act as an important informational cue in consumers’ buying decision-making process when evaluating products and brands (Verge et al. , 2005). Research suggests that the image consumers have of the country the product or brand originates from influences their purchase intentions (Yak’s et al. , 2007). In particular, here is evidence that familiarity with and attitude towards the country impacts on how consumers evaluate products and brands from that particular country (Kina, 2006).

Therefore, this phenomenon – termed the coo-effect – is a crucial factor organizations need to consider when planning marketing activities (AY-Assault and Baker, 1998; Easiness and Harding, 2008), such as integrated marketing communications campaigns. Depending on the image consumers have of the COO in the target market, stressing the COO in marketing communications messages can either enhance or deteriorate attitudes towards the marketed product or brand Monsoons, 1993). It is, therefore, important for marketers to first understand how the COO is perceived in the target market.

There are many examples of organizations and entire industries that have used consumers’ favorable associations with the COO and a specific product or service category in order to create effective marketing communications campaigns: Emirates Airlines is positioned as providing excellent in-flight service quality, in line with the luxury hospitality image of the Emirates; campaigns for French fragrances, such as Channel and Dior, often feature images of Paris to reinforce the association between he products’ COO and romance and beauty; KEA have used Swede’s reputation for being a social, family oriented nation to position their business across continents; Japanese electronics producers, such as Sony and Panasonic, take advantage of their country’s reputation for being leading in high-tech consumer gadgets; and marketing communications campaigns for German cars, like Volkswagen and Audit, often include German features (Pursing durra Technical) to exploit consumers’ association of high quality, reliable manufacturing with Germany.

Related to the coo-effect is the phenomenon of consumer ethnocentrism, which is he overall tendency to evaluate domestic products as better than imported ones (Baker and Machine, 1995; Cleveland et al. , 2009). A large body of research supports the notion that this tendency has a strong impact on consumers’ choice of products (Shims and Sahara, 1987; Padlock’s and Hyssop, 1990; Evangelistic et al. , 2008). For example, research suggests that the COO is a strong factor impacting on consumers’ decision making when buying a car (Aimed and disastrous, 1996) – particularly in the five European key markets of Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the I-J (Netting, 2006).

Industry data show that most of the top ten best-selling cars in Demolisher’s, while the French and Italians prefer cars that originate in their home markets (Loafer, 2002). This ethnocentric loyalty is the result of clever marketing communications campaigns which have created country-specific, favorable brand images that appeal to the manufacturers’ target groups in the domestic markets. In light of the above, the Director of Marketing Communications at Renault Germany faced a particular challenge when the French headquarters decided that Renault had to expand its share in the German market. In order to reach this objective, he had to carefully plan and implement a new integrated marketing communications strategy (Mohammad et al. , 2005).

To do so, he followed a pre-defined set of actions (Figure 1). Situation analysis and identification of opportunities First of all, he and his team engaged in a phase of thorough research in order to analyses the market situation and identify potential opportunities for his brand. The market research consisted of a collection and analysis of secondary and primary data. Secondary data is information that already exists and that has been collected or another purpose. In many cases, market research is started by collecting such secondary data in order to establish a first understanding of the situation and to define problems and objectives for following primary research (Kettle et al. , 1999; Wilson, 2006).

The advantages of secondary research are that it is normally faster, cheaper and easier to conduct than primary research. Secondary datasets also often contain data an individual organization cannot collect on its own, because the information is not directly available or too expensive to collect. In this case, at Renault he Director of Marketing Communications and his team made use of data from tracking surveys carried out by large market research institutes, such as the Shillelagh’s four Constructing (SGF, www. SGF. Com, accessed 3 March 2009), and readership surveys conducted by leading car magazines, such as auto, motor undo sport (www. Auto-motor-undo-sport. De, accessed 3 March 2009).

These surveys are carried out at Integrated marketing 525 526 1. Situational analysis ; Internal: Organization; product ; External: Competitor; consumer; market communications opportunity ; Marketing communications objectives ; USPS (Unique selling point) ; Key target audiences 3. Agency selection ; Creative brief ; Invitation for pitch ; Selection of most suitable agency (Expertise and creativity) 4. Campaign development and implementation ; Choice of marketing Communications mix ; Creative execution ; Media Selection 5. Campaign evaluation ; Before, during and after campaign ; Tracking studies ; Evaluate effectiveness and efficiency of campaign Figure 1.

Stages in the planning and implementation of integrated marketing 6. Future planning ; Remain in consumers’ mindset ; Reminders Follow-up campaigns several points in time to track, for example, consumers’ changing attitudes towards car brands and tend to consist of large, representative samples. For example, the auto, motor undo sport readership survey included more than a 100,000 participants over a one-year period. After a detailed analysis of all the secondary data available, the Director concluded that for German consumers safety was one of the most important criteria when choosing a new car – and that they perceived the brands the market leaders in this attribute.

Renault lagged way behind in terms of safety receptions of the most popular German as well as some imported car brands. In order to understand in more depth, why consumers were perceiving Renault cars as not being particularly safe and whether this was in fact one of the main reasons for not buying the brand, the Director of Marketing Communications and his team conducted further primary research. Primary research is usually carried out for a specific purpose at hand. In order to derive meaningful decisions from a study, the data collected must be relevant, accurate, current and unbiased. Primary research can be broadly divided into qualitative and quantitative research.

Both of those ethos can provide data on markets, their structure, key competitors, trends and consumer behavior and attitudes (Proctor, 2000). However, both approaches differ, since qualitative research can explore more in depth consumers’ impressions and motivations, whereas quantitative data provides a structured overview of opinions of a large group of consumers (Wilson, 2006). To complement the secondary data available, the primary research took mainly place in the form of focus groups, guided discussions with a small group of potential Renault customers in order to explore their motivations for driving cars from the competition and under what resistances they would switch to Renault.

The results confirmed the two main finding from the secondary data analysis: (1) The safety attribute was one of the decisive factors for Germans when buying a car. (2) Renault cars were not perceived by German consumers as being as safe as German cars and even some other imported car brands. 527 Therefore, the Director of Marketing Communications decided that the only way forward was to directly attack the main German competitors as well as other major car import brands on the attribute of safety. He believed that a creative, well integrated marketing communications campaign could reposition the brand to one of the safest and most reliable ones in the German market (refer to Figure 2 for the positioning map).

The opportunity he spotted was that Renault had factual evidence for this positioning strategy: eight of the organization’s car models won the European New Car Assessment Programmer Mercedes Renault Audit BMW Volvo Move Porches Saab Desirable Figure 2. Positioning map 528 (Euro NCAA, www. Renounce. Com, accessed 20 November 2008) Crassest competition with five stars. This result made Renault officially the manufacturer of the safest cars n Europe – an excellent unique selling proposition (USPS; Frazer, 1983), given the market situation. Therefore, the overarching strategic marketing communications objective for the campaign was set to enhance the desire for the brand amongst German consumers through an increase in awareness of Renaults unique safety features.

As market research showed that the most profitable target audience for the campaign were potential new car buyers, male, 30-49 years old, with an income of over e, all marketing communications initiatives were planned and developed with a focus on this particular market segment. Choosing the marketing communications agency Although a marketing communications opportunity and target group were identified, various questions remained for the Director of Marketing Communications: . What elements of the marketing communications mix should be used? . What should the creative execution look like? How should the campaign be evaluated? In order to find the best answers to these important questions, he prepared a creative brief – mainly outlining key existing market data and campaign objectives – and invited various marketing communications agencies to present their ideas and pitch for the account.

After this process, he and his team decided to work with Publics (www. Publics. Com, accessed 20 November 2008) and Normal Hamburg (www. Normal. Com accessed 20 November 2008) on the project. While Publics is a large and well-established international advertising agency network, Normal Hamburg is a relatively new agency with only 25 employees. The latter has been attracting great industry attention over the last ten years thanks to their extraordinary creative approaches to campaign planning and design (Rattan, complement each other well, due to their levels of expertise in different parts of the racketing communications mix, as well as their creative approach (Agley, 1986).

Selection of the marketing communications mix and creative execution As it was the direct objective of the campaign to increase these consumers’ awareness of the safety of Renault cars, it was decided to use the following message content for the communications campaign: “Die christen Autos common us Franchise” (“The safest cars come from France”). The task of the agencies was to identify how this message could be conveyed to the target audience in the most effective and efficient manner (Scowls and Kicker, 1998). In general, there are various marketing communications mix elements available to marketers, such as advertising, public relations, personnel selling and sales promotion (Pickett and Frederick, 2005). Advertising delivers communication via a recognizable advertisement in a medium.

The delivery of the unmodified message is guaranteed for an agreed rate. As such, advertising allows to effectively target the specified audience through the use of appropriate channels, as marketers have full control over who is targeted when and how. Since this is important for a repositioning campaign to be successful, Normal Hamburg recommended that the key marketing communications mix element used in this campaign should be advertising, consisting of cinema commercials. Supported by viral marketing initiatives and TV screenings, a new company web site that would link into the theme of the campaign, as well as a print advertising campaign (Kindergartens Heartburning (AWG), 2007).

In order to stress the superlative that the safest cars come from France, the Director of Marketing Communications at Renault decided together with Normal p Hamburg and Renault that the cinema and TV commercial, which was also disseminated wrought the viral campaign on the internet, had to demonstrate that Renault cars were safer in comparison to those of other car manufacturers from competing countries-of-origin, mainly Germany, Japan and Sweden. To reinforce the factual basis for this claim, the agency decided to recreate in detail the Euro NCAA Crassest scenario for the commercial “Crassest”. However, instead of showing how cars with Crassest-dummies slam into the barriers, the agency decided to film the collision of stereo-typical national food items with the walls (Figure 3): for a start, a giant German usage is driven into the barrier bursting into thousands of pieces. The same happens to a Japanese Sushi roll and a Swedish crossbreed: both pretty much disintegrate on impact.

The last contestant is a soft French baguette which is thrust into the barrier, and surprise: it survives the test with hardly any damage as it can fully absorb the shock (through crumpling and uncoupling its front ; The scenes are shown in slow-motion and the forceful images stand in stark contrast to the accompanying music, the passionate song Scatterbrain (I will wait) by singer Rain Kitty, which was recorded in 1939. Media planning Besides, the creative execution of the commercial, Normal Hamburg and the Director of Marketing Communications at Renault also had to decide which media channels to choose to reach the intended marketing communications objective. They identified cinemas, the internet, TV and print as appropriate channels and a good media mix – with each channel complementing the other.

Figure 4 gives an overview of the time periods in which the different media were used. Cinemas were seen as the most important media class, as it is possible to produce cinema commercials with extended length, higher artistic 2005 2005 2006 IQ Cinema Internet (viral) (website) Print Figure 3. Timeline of media used Figure 4. Scenes from the commercial “Crassest” value and in general higher quality than TV commercials. The Director of Marketing Communications felt that these attributes were particularly important to impress the audience and underline the creative focus of the campaign. In the third quarter of 2005 “Crassest” was shown in multiplex cinemas across 141 German cities.

In support of the cinema launch, a viral campaign was started that initiated the diffusion of the commercial on the internet – by viewers sending the link on to each other by email. Viral campaigns have become a major trend in marketing communications (New Media Age Online, Bibb) as industry data suggest that they are effective in spreading messages amongst consumers whilst being cost efficient (New Media Age Online, AAA; since organizations do not have to pay for consumers exchanging emails with each other in social networks or posting commercials on shared blobs). Within a few weeks thousands of viewers had seen “Crassest” on Youth (www. Youth. Com). From December 2005 to April 2006 the campaign was extended through the broadcasting of the commercial in two-week periods on TV.

In support of the TV campaign, the commercial was screened again in cinemas in April and May 2006. Finally, from autumn 2006 onwards “Crassest” could be seen continuously on TV in commercial breaks during selected programmers. TV was chosen as a complementary media-class to cinema, as a wider target audience could be reached which helped to generate higher levels of awareness. Moreover, synergies with and sponsorships of particular programmers were possible. Direct response was also generated by appealing to consumers to visit the newly created Renault web site. In parallel, to the TV campaign, a web site was developed that was directly linked to the campaign message: www. Sicker. De (Sicker h safe; Figure 5).

The planned use of the internet as a media-class was seen as complementary to the use of cinema and TV, as it is recognized as a flexible and relatively cheap way of reaching a wide target audience. It can also appeal to multiple senses as sound and visual features can be embedded in web sites. Moreover, due to their interactive properties, web sites can contain a lot of information which individual customers can choose from. On the new Renault web tie, users could identify how safe their car was according to the latest Euro NCAA Crassest results. In addition, the interactive web site contained a wide range of additional information on car and road safety. Finally, in parallel to the TV campaign and the launch of the web site also a print campaign was started.