Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

In my study I will use as an example JDK Sports Fashion, which is one of the leading retailers in sport wear and how it progress using market research. The concept of JDK is influenced by giving the products and wanted brands at the correct price and in the proper places to meet with the requirement of the customers. JDK Sport has been created by John Warble and David Making in 1981 as a shop in Bury. In 1983 a shop has been opened in London and since that time JDK Sport has expanded to 900 stores in the I-J and internationally.

For more than 30 years JDK Sport has been growing through organic growth, which means its sales have been increased by it system of stores. Their growth in the last years was through acquisitions, enlarging it y buying in 2002 First sport, 2005 all sport, 2004 Scott, 2007 sank and 2012 Blacks. Their international acquisition contains buying shops in France, Ireland, and Spain. The company is retailing brands like Puma, Aids, Nikkei, Scott, Lactose and many more. These transform the company into a branded fashion with many markets not only in the I-J but internationally as well.

Market research contains examining the competitors, customers and market trend data. JDK uses market research to retrieve the level of requirements for their products and to see what it will be the impact of its decisions to have projects with good return t the end. Like going to the different marketing and opening new shops. Http://fastidiousness’s. Co. UK Using marketing research JDK has the opportunity to find what customers want and what they think about JDK products and services. This helps the company meet customer demands and overtake the competitors.

It also helped to develop a business plan to which everyone can work for his achievement. Using this knowledge company can make marketing mix to affect other clients or open stores. Product JDK as a company offers to their customers stylish sportswear for everyday needs. It protester is recognizable from the consumers, because it is from the fashionable brands and they are well known. It products are with high qualities and branding design and that is the key for it bigger sales and reputation. The company buying influence is so big that the production is willing to take its ideas and realize it.

For instance “the Aids Forest Hills and Aids Training APT footwear ranges were developed exclusively for the JDK and cannot be found in any other retailer. ” (1995-2013) Business Case Price The price politic for JDK is influenced by the cost of producing it, the profit it will achieve, the price of its opponents and what customers would like to pay. Finding the right price makes it strategy successful and accomplishes its goals. In this way company create value for money. It can choose pricing strategy. JDK can use competitive prices to sell its product at a price which is not higher than its competitors.

This one company is achieving it by buying a big quantity at lower prices. Sometimes the company can use strategic pricing by making some brands more wanted from customers and create requirements. Place In company marketing research JDK decides to function in shopping centers, on the gig street, outside of the town and e-commerce. The politic of the company is to make customers shopping very excited. As an example it shop in “Cardiff won a I-J Retail Interior of the Year reward for its design and ambiance. This included a giant table-football fixture and light boxes to display trainers. (1995-2013) Business case studies Using e-commerce an online shopping company can contact customers in a different way and meet their high expectations for good service and well maintained ordering site. Web designers regularly upgrade its site to make it much better and easier to use. In 2010 JDK was the top performer for perfect communication of its returns and deliveries, simple way of checkout and clear views of the product. Managers of the company are checking the accomplishment of all shops, by their sales and planning sales all the time so they can decide to choose other locations.

Finding the perfect location can maximize a company’s performance and profits. By opening a store in a new location the company has to consider the cost, does the location is easy enough to be reached by the right customers and how often and what competitors are there. Http://businessperson. Co. UK/ Promotion JDK promotion is to reach her consumers by focusing their attention with messages. They use above-the-line to promote their products and brands with magazines like FEM., NEE newspapers, TV and radio. As well as these advertisements JDK use posters and t-sides of buses or railway.

With below-the-line as a promotion company can reach its customers by email informing them about its products and promotions. Using celebrity sponsorship for new brands and products, the company can have potentially new customers and create interest in its trade name. Faceable and Twitter help the company to use customer suggestions and proposals as a promotion. Company’s marketing research makes JDK one of the kinds. By producing what the customers want as well as high-class brands which can be bought only from JDK make the business grow.

Combining its strategies and evaluating its marketing mix makes JDK more effective and competitive than others. 1. 2. Evaluate the benefits and costs of a marketing orientation for a selected organization There are different types of approaches of orientation and companies need to consider them when it develops their products. This process is business orientations. Product orientation is based on the product chosen by the companies instead of consumers what they want and need. Marketing orientation is based only on the consumers and their needs. Analyzing their needs companies are creating its products and services.

Production orientation is based only at production process itself and nothing else. Sales orientation is based on the price instead of consumers and their needs. In this situation companies are worried only about its selling and how to maximize it. JDK Sport is a company with marketing orientation. It based its products on customer needs. After analyzing all the information the company can decide what it will be its product and marketing mix until it can fulfill those needs. By balancing its strategies around its customers JDK Sport achieves growth for its businesses. 2. Show macro and micro environmental factors which influence marketing decision JDK Company like all other companies is affected by macro environment. Pestle Analyze Political factors can influence the company like taxes. The government is changing the tax law and that is mean that JDK has to increase its prices to the new rules. Economical factors can be the unemployment level of the area the company is situated and every year increasing wages which will reflect on JDK by increasing its wages as well. Social factors influence JDK as well, because it is more open to young people.

JDK as a company uses the latest technology like scanners in the shops, IT infrastructure, delivering its products from the warehouse to all the stores on time, etc. HAT system is used in the stores when customer wants a product for which they do not have its appropriate size to find customer size in different store without the deed to call that store. The environmental factors have another influence on the business. JDK is recycling its products by first keeping them in the store and after that sending it to the warehouse which recycles them.

Legal factor implication is when prices are down JDK need to charge the consumer the same price even this will be negative for the company. There are different factors such as new competitors, changing rules which can influence the organizational decisions and strategy that is why is very important for it to make market researches all the time. 2. Propose segmentation on criteria to be used for products in different markets Market segmentation is used by companies to focus on a different group of consumers who can give more value to its business.

There is a different marketing segmentation demographic, cryptographic, geographic and behavioral. JDK Sport uses checkout survey for building information regarding its consumer’s profile, it is carried out at the till by collecting customer’s age, gender and choice of product. This type of collecting data is more cost effective and JDK Sport is using it very effectively by understanding additional facts for their consumers. Sometimes a company can use its online information or ask questions regarding the purchase.

For example, if parents are buying products for their children or asking older customers what they think about its new range of polo shirts and casual wear. This helps not to misunderstand the results. In its survey are included 350,000 people and it is taken out for a period of two weeks’ time. This helps JDK Sport to analyze: – How long the consumers need to travel to their stores and what opportunities they have if they ecocide to open a new store in this location. – What are the customer’s gender, lifestyle and age?

A company can access this knowledge using its loyalty cards even it is expensive to run. Evaluating all the data helps the company to do in advance the level of pressure that consumers may put on its products and forecast its sales. Using the information provided by its online surveys JDK can become more competitive and have more international prospects. 2. 3 Choose a targeting strategy for a selected product/service Targeting strategy Soot analyses for JDK Company Strength Good management is used for achieving targets. Loyalty of the customers to the company.

Pricing power – JDK is keeping its consumers even they charge them more. Exclusive product, which cannot be find anywhere. Well known brand name, because consumers put additional value on it. Good technologies are used to meet consumer’s needs. Weakness High staff turnover, changing valuable employees will cost more Not very good customer service Opportunities Expanding their international market Using a different product to diversify its consumer base. To make growth of its on-line Market. Get assess of new markets Threats Economical inflation can make an impact on the company’s prosperity.

Powerful competitions Replace products at a lower price The ability of the company to keep its strength and its ability to benefit from all the chances bring it better profits and lower costs. Using Insofar matrix to evaluate the risk, JDK can choose which market strategies to use. Http://fastidiousness’s. Co. UK/ By emphasizing on the needs of the customers, JDK Sport builds business which can overtake its competition. The company uses market penetration to understand customers and giving them what they need and want.

With market penetration it can expand its market share by providing other low cost products. Using marketing development JDK Sport can access different retail sectors. The company is focusing its attention at different customers who wants to use sports brands for their casual daily life. With increased product development in a new product company can expand its new brands. JDK Sport is doing this by creating products with good characteristics and reorganizing its resources. A company can choose diversification if it decides to take different trend.

JDK Sport has done this by acquisitions. Buying Scoots, First Sport and many more companies diversified its business into global sport fashion. 2. 4 Demonstrate how buyer behavior affects marketing activities in different buying situations Primary and Secondary research of JDK Sport, regarding buyer behavior Environmental factors Buyer’s black box Buyer’s response Marketing Stimuli Environmental Stimuli Buyer Characteristics Decision Process Product Price Economic Technological Political Cultural Demographic Natural Attitudes Motivation Perceptions Personality Lifestyle

Knowledge Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post-purchase behavior Product choice Brand choice Dealer’s choice Purchase timing Purchase amount http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/consumer_behavior. Primary research JDK Sport is using qualitative and quantitative research for buyer’s behavior. Examples of quantitative researches are exit surveys, shopping bag survey and on- site fieldwork. Company exit survey is made by customers when they leave the shop.

This survey is used in all the stores to obtain information regarding customer opinion bout other locations. JDK uses the results to understand why the customers are visiting them, how often, what they like and doesn’t like in their products and brands. Company shopping bag survey is based on consumer’s carrier bags. This gives information what other shop’s customers are visiting and are these stores similar to JDK Sport. The company uses on-site fieldwork to make a research for new locations. This information includes what is the influence of its competitors and how busy the location is.

Qualitative research is based on customer opinions regarding JDK products and services. Qualitative research is a depth interviews and focus groups. The company is making depth interview with its customers to understand better their shopping behavior and their opinion about the shops. JDK Sport is making focus group’s survey in the schools and universities about its new products and brands so it can get their direct opinion. Secondary research JDK Sport uses secondary research to collect information about the market.

These include government census data, Ego-demographic data and commercial market research report. Government census data is made by the government every ten years ND collect information about the peoples who lived in different areas. The research includes peoples age, occupation and number. This helps the company to decide which areas are better for opening a new store. Ego-demographic data are made by special agencies and include information about people’s marital status, their children and their activities. JDK Sport can use this data for its product development plan.

The company uses commercial market report to assess the information about new markets and international availabilities. 2. 5 Propose new positioning for a selected product/service ID sport is horizontally integrated production company. They expand its market share through acquisitions, by buying other sport brands. In this way JDK sport eliminates its competitions and become a well-known branded sport fashion not only in the UK but internationally as well. Using product line filling, by adding new branded sports to its existing ones, is JDK sport answer to her customer’s needs and demands.

New ways of positioning a product There are different ways of positioning new or existing products and services that JDK Sport can use: Promoting them on-line, by updating regularly Twitter and Faceable ages Re-shooting existing products with better descriptions or new sizes Managing the lower selling lines by merchandising them Promoting products and services on emails In store promotions and packing design In the last years, the UK trade industry has changed a lot with many demanding circumstances.

In spite of this economic inflation, JDK Sport has accomplished to keep its growth by taking its chances. Using and understanding market research company has the ability to assess consumer tendency and observe the competition. JDK Sport as a result creates very good research methods to give continuing feedback. These require using of qualitative and quantitative market information gained from customers and public researches. By knowing the customers expectations, company has created a name as the leading seller of sports and branded leisure clothes.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

A conceptual model of athlete brand image (IAMBI) is developed incorporating three key dimensions: athletic performance, attractive appearance, and marketable lifestyle. These dimensions are defined by an athlete’s on-field characteristics, attractive external appearance, and off-field marketable attributes. This study contributes to the sport branding literature by providing the first comprehensive conceptual framework of athlete brand image and offering managerial implications for building and managing the brand image of individual athletes. џ 2013 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Athlete Brand management Brand image Conceptual model 1. Introduction Recently, many athletes have been expanding their influence beyond their sport by getting involved in a variety of social activities and businesses. In light of modern media culture, those athletes are considered “a social sign, carrying cultural meanings and ideological values, which express the intimacies of individual personality, inviting desire and identification; an emblem of national celebrity, mounded on the body, fashion and personal style” (Eggshell, 1991, p. Iii). The concept of ‘athlete brand’ has emerged from their multi-functional and multi-platform nature. Athletes are considered not only as vehicles for advertisements or product endorsement, but also as cultural products that can be sold as “brands” (Gilchrest, 2005). In fact, there are numerous sport agencies currently in existence that provide a vast range of client level services. In this highly competitive industry, managing brands for athletes is becoming an essential task for agents (IBIS World Industry ports, 2008).

For example, ‘MGM, the world’s largest sport agency announced their mission statement as “Today, we help hundreds of elite athletes, coaches, industry executives and prestigious sports organizations maximize their earnings potential and build strong personal brands” (OMG, n. D. ). The brand management for athletes has grown in importance because the concept of branding is well suited for athletes as products.

Previous branding studies have documented positive consequences of successful branding such as: influencing the probability of brand choice, willingness o pay premium price, marketing communication effectiveness, and promotion of positive word of mouth (Asker, 1996; Berry, 2000; Keller, 1993; Rein, Kettle, & Shields, AAA). These benefits are also highly applicable to individual athletes, with well- branded athletes attaining price premiums on their salary, transfer fees, contract monies, and the ability to maintain fan support even when their performance has declined (Gladden & Funk, 2001).

Well-branded athletes who carry symbolic messages can attract companies seeking effective endorsers. Furthermore, the * corresponding author. Tell. +1 352 392 4042; fax: +1 352 392 7588. E-mail address: [email protected] Due (Y. J. OK). 1441-3523/$ – see front matter ; 2013 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Http://DXL. DOI. Org/ 10. 1016/J. SMS. 2013. 04. 003 A. Aria et al. Sport Management Review 17 (2014) 97-106 established brand value of the athlete will help his/her post-athletic career because well-branded athletes can leverage their brand value through their post-athletic career (Rein et al. , AAA). Rein et al. (AAA) pointed out the advantage of viewing athletes as a brand, stating “because there are a growing number of distribution opportunities available, the athlete has the potential to enter into a variety of sectors and use his or her sports career as a platform for other endeavors. Additionally, athletes are considered to be unstable products in the sport industry because of the potential risks for unexpected injuries or performance slumps. Considering those risks, athletes are truly in need of strong branding strategies. Even though winning is one of the major factors in the sports brand mix, win-loss cycles are an inevitable indention for athlete brands. Sports marketers should seek other branding strategies (e. G. , establishing of a strong brand identity) to overcome losing records and sustain loyalty (Rein, Kettle, & Shields, Bibb; Richer & Pond, 2006).

Acknowledging the unique nature of the sports products including those of athletes, Rein et al. (Bibb) emphasized that “sports products can only survive with new brand thinking” (p. 30). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the construct of athlete brand image and propose a conceptual model of athlete brand image (IAMBI). This study identifies specific dimensions of athlete brand image through an extensive literature review. The IAMBI provides a theoretical understanding of athlete brand image and offers a structural framework for managers and agents in the development and management of athlete brands. . Theoretical background 2. 1 . Definition of athlete brand Defining an athlete brand is a fundamental step in the process of model development. Several scholars have attempted to define “human brand”, but a common consensus has not yet been achieved. A brand in sports is defined as “a name, design, symbol, or any combination that a sports organization uses to help preferential its product from the competition” (Shank, 1999, p. 239). According to this definition, all individual athletes can be considered as brands because every athlete has a name, distinctive appearance, and a personality.

Consistent with this, Thomson (2006) broadly defined the human brand as “any well-known persona who is the subject of marketing communications efforts” (p. 104). On the other hand, according to Keller, “A brand is something that has actually created a certain amount of awareness, reputation, prominence, and so on in the market place” (Keller, 2008, p. 2). Till (2001) discussed athlete brand in a limited sense, and implied that only athletes who have earned a significant amount of money from endorsement contracts can be considered as brands.

By applying these basic concepts, we define an athlete brand as a public persona of an individual athlete who has established their own symbolic meaning and value using their name, face or other brand elements in the market. 2. 2. Brand equity and athlete brand image Branding is generally understood to be a strategy for establishing a trademark the public associates exclusively with an entity (Stories, 2008). From an academic perspective, branding is often discussed in terms of developing, building, managing, and measuring brand equity (Asker, 1996; Ross, 2006).

Brand equity is often defined as the added value attached to the brand name or other brand elements (Asker, 1996), and includes both financial and customer-based perspectives of value (Gladden, Milne, & Sutton, 1998). However, recent brand management literature tends to understand ‘brand equity focusing only on the consumer’s perspective, while ‘brand value’ indicates quantifiable elements in relation to its financial worth (Ragging & Leone, 2009).

Although consensus for a definition of brand equity has yet to be reached, consistent with the majority of previous studies (Asker, 1991; Keller, 1993), this study concentrates on the consumer’s perspective of brand equity. Asker (1991) and Keller (1993) have conducted extensive research on brand equity, and are viewed as perhaps the two foremost authorities on the topic. Shaker’s (1991) framework emphasizes the contents of brand equity, and includes brand name awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, and brand associations.

Alternatively, Keller (1993) developed a customer-based brand equity model, suggesting that costive equity is developed when customers have high levels of awareness and familiarity with the brand, and hold strong, favorable, and unique brand associations in memory. Although Asker (1991) and Keller (1993) have taken different approaches in understanding brand equity, both emphasized the importance of brand associations in the process of building a strong brand.

In fact, subsequent marketing studies have found that brand choice and brand loyalty are highly influenced by the image that consumers make with a brand (Bauer, Saucer, & Exile, 2005; Bauer, Saucer, & Exile, 2008; Chem., 2001; Low & Lamb, 2000). Importantly, marketing a sport property (e. G. , team or individual athlete) is “all about selling an image” while other product brands may have many other tangible brand elements (e. G. , quality and price) that could be managed (Cordoned, 2001, p. 13). Given this important distinction, the focus of this study is an athlete’s brand image.

Brand image has been defined as the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands (Dobbin & Khan, 1990), and involves the perceptions of a particular brand as reflected by the brand associations held in a consumer’s memory (Keller, 1993). Based on these definitions, ‘brand image’ and ‘brand association’ are often used interchangeably in the literature (e. G. , Bauer, Saucer, et al. , 2005). Keller (1993) further classified the types of brand associations into overall brand attitudes, brand attributes (I. E. Product-related attributes and non-product-related attributes), and brand benefits (I. E. , functional benefit, symbolic benefit, experiential benefits). Brand attributes are “those descriptive features that characterize a product or service – what a consumer thinks the product or service is or has and what is involved with its arches or consumption” (Keller, 1993, p. 4). Attributes are further classified into product-related attributes, which are the necessary features for performing the product or service function, and non-product attributes, which are the external features of a product or service.

These external features include price information, packaging or product appearance information, user imagery, and usage imagery (Keller, 1993). Lastly, brand benefits refer to “the personal value consumers attach to the product or service attributes – that is, what consumers think the product or service can do for them” (Keller, 1993, p. ). Although Seller’s classification of brand associations (1993) provides an in-depth understanding of the multidimensional brand image construct, the classifications are still controversial.

First, in the marketing literature, attitude is defined as an affective reaction toward the product or service (Lutz, 1991) and is often considered as attitudinal loyalty. For example, attitude is often modeled as a dependent variable of image management (Burner & Hansel, 1996; Homer, 2006; Karmic & Ship, 1998). Second, Keller (1993) implied that the associations are not independent of each other ND some benefits correspond with attributes. In fact, a previous brand image free- thought listing survey identified only two benefit dimensions: solicitation and commitment (Ross, James, & Barras, 2006).

These results imply that when consumers are asked to think about the brand, they tend to recognize only one aspect (I. E. , attributes or benefits). This is consistent with previous advertising studies (e. G. , Choc & Rifer, 2007; Ionian, 1990) that identified the adjectives to describe endorsers in order to assess the endorsers’ image. Bauer, Saucer, et al. (2005) explained the allegations between brand attributes and customers’ benefit by applying the means-end chain model (Stuntman, 1982).

They suggested that product attributes are the means for consumers to obtain desired benefits. On an unconscious level, the product attributes are ideally linked to desirable benefits for the consumer. Therefore, this study focuses only on the attribute features of athlete brands. We understand an athlete’s brand image as a consumers’ perception about athlete brand attributes. 2. 3. Application of brand image In fact, previous studies have found that brand image is an important antecedent of fan loyalty (Bauer et al. 008; Bauer, Saucer & Schmitt, 2005). If sport marketers can understand what creates brand associations or which association factors make an athlete a strong brand, they can develop marketing strategies to create new, favorable brand associations and reinforce existing positive brand associations (Gladden & Funk, 2001). Because brand associations differ across brands and product categories (Low & Lamb, 2000), it is necessary to examine what kinds of brand associations become important in developing a strong athlete brand.

Sports consumers hold unique associations in memory when thinking of certain athlete rand’s. The purpose of the current study is to identify athlete brand-specific brand associations. Although few studies have directly examined athlete brand image, there are some related studies applicable to athlete brand image. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive literature review in sport team branding and athlete endorser image studies to identify the crucial brand associations in developing brand equity for athletes. 2. 3. 1.

Endorser image Athlete image management has often been discussed in studies regarding product endorser image rather than a brand itself (Choc & Rifer, 2007; Ionian, 1991; Till, 001). Sahara (2007) defined an endorser as a ;well-known person used in advertising whose function is to sell products” (p. 128). However, considering their multi- functional, symbolic status, athletes are more than Just endorsers. As Seen and Lukas (2007) stated, “celebrity product endorsement is a form of cooperating.. .The essence of co-branding is a public relationship between independent brands” (p. 23), recent endorsement studies have begun to discuss endorsers as independent brands and consider their relationship as ‘co-branding rather than simply endorsers and endorsers. Although the celebrity endorsement studies have established a rich history of research, due to the difference of the goal orientation, those research fields are not well linked. However, the identified components of effective endorsers are applicable for athlete branding because athletes’ self-branding activities include a self- endorsement perspective.

Therefore, the theories discussed in the endorser image research support the development of the athlete brand association model and generate implications for brand management. Athlete and celebrity endorsement search has attempted to examine the ‘image’ that influences the effectiveness of celebrities and athletes as product endorsers. Ionian (1991), for example, examined the impact of celebrity spokespersons’ perceived image on consumers’ intention to purchase endorsed products.

This source credibility model (Ionian, 1990) provides a crucial theoretical basis for athletes to be established as brands. Many scholars agree that a brand includes a promise for future satisfaction (Berry, 2000; Clifton & Simmons, 2004; Ragging & Leone, 2007), and therefore, athletes have to be credible for satisfying consumers’ future needs. Also, in the general brand management literature, brand credibility has been considered to be an important antecedent of brand loyalty or brand choice (Order & Swat, 2004; Kim, Morris, & Swat, 2008).

Order and Swat (2004) defined brand credibility as “the believability of the product information contained in a brand, which requires that consumers perceive that the brand have the ability (I. E. , expertise) and willingness (I. E. , trustworthiness) to continuously deliver what has been promised. ” Therefore, credibility is considered as an essential element for athletes not only to be endorsers, but also to be established s brands. Credibility is considered to have two primary components, trustworthiness and expertise (Order & Swat, 2004).

Trustworthiness implies that it is believed a brand will deliver what it has promised, while expertise implies that the brand is perceived as capable of delivering the promise (Kim et al. , 2008). Ionian (1990) also added physical attractiveness as a dimension of source credibility based on Josephs (1982) study, which experimentally proved that physically attractive communicators have a more positive impact on opinion change, product evaluation, and other dependent measures.

The dimensions (attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise) proposed by Ionian (1990) are also applicable for athlete brand image. Choc and Rifer (2007) further extended the celebrity image dimensions to include genuineness, competence, excitement and sociability. Those dimensions were confirmed as independent dimensions from credibility dimensions: attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise (Ionian, 1990). The athletic star power dimensions identified by Brainstem and Ghana (2005) also extended and modified those endorser characteristics into sports stars.

Star power was nationalized as the power and the unique characteristics of a specific individual that make him or her “star worthy’ (French & Raven, 1959). Based on four endorser effectiveness frameworks: the source attractiveness model (McGuire, 1985), source credibility model (McGuire, 1968) the meaning transfer model (McCracken, 1989) and the product match-up hypothesis (Gamins, 1990), Brainstem and Ghana (2005) identified athletic star power factors (I. E. , professional trustworthiness, likeable personality, athletic expertise, social attractiveness and characteristic style).

As such, endorser image dimensions have been considered from various angles. In this study, we integrated and modified those identified endorser image dimensions based on Seller’s framework (1993), and attempt to provide structural understanding of athlete brand image dimensions. 2. 3. 2. Sport team branding Although previous literature focusing solely on athlete brands is lacking, several sport team branding studies have been conducted. Unlike other tangible products, the sports consumers’ needs, expectations, and image for sports products are unique (Gladden et al. 1998). Thus, the sport-specific dimensions found in the sport team rand image studies might be applicable to the dimensions of athlete brand image. Specifically, the team sports brand association research by Gladden and Funk (2001 , 2002) and Ross et al. (2006) are two relevant studies that can provide a foundation for an athlete brand image construct. By adapting Seller’s conceptualization of brand associations (1993), Gladden and Funk (2001, 2002) developed the team association model (TAM) to examine brand associations of sports teams.

Gladden and Funk (2002) identified 16 brand association dimensions through an extensive literature review and included: reduce-related attributes (I. E. , success, star player, head coach, team’s management), non product-related attributes (I. E. , logo, stadium, tradition, product delivery), symbolic benefits (I. E. , fun identification, peer group acceptance), experiential benefits (I. E. , escape, nostalgia, pride in place), and attitude (I. E. , importance, knowledge, affective reaction).

In a related study, Ross et al. (2006) developed the team brand association scale (TABS) to examine brand associations in professional sports teams. Ross et al. Questioned the structure of the brand image dimensions reposed by Gladden and Funk. In fact, several researchers (Low & Lamb, 2000) have argued that Asker (1991) and Seller’s (1993) brand image dimensions may not reflect the consumers’ image precisely because Asker and Seller’s models have not been empirically tested. Ross et al. 2006) asserted that the literature review and brainstorming sessions conducted by Gladden and Funk were not enough to identify the appropriate brand associations in sport. Therefore, Ross et al. (2006) identified brand association dimensions through a free-thought listing technique and strict psychometric analysis to confirm the dimensions’ validity. The final scale identified 1 1 dimensions underlying professional sports team brand associations and included success, history, stadium, team characteristics, logo, concessions, solicitation, rivalry, commitment, organizational attribute, and non player personnel.

Some of the factors identified in the TAM (Gladden & Funk, 2001) and TABS (Ross et al. , 2006) were also supported by a qualitative study. Richer and Pond (2006) investigated how legendary sports teams with high brand equity (I. E. , Toronto Maple Leafs and football club Barcelona) have built and leveraged their brand equity. Richer and Pond (2006) identified four common fundamental factors where two teams establish their brands: winning tradition, intense rivalry, longevity and tradition and powerful fans.

Based on the sports team branding literature, we further identified and modified the athlete brand specific associations to include competition style, rivalry, symbol, life story and relationship effort. 3. Model development: athlete brand image The dimensions of the athlete brand image model proposed in this paper were identified through a comprehensive literature review of the previously discussed research fields: (1) endorser image studies that explore the factors for being an effective endorser, and (2) sports team branding studies that explore the sports team brand association dimensions.

The model of athlete brand image is primarily based on Seller’s (1993) classification of attribute dimensions (product related attributes and non-product related attributes). We adopt Seller’s customer-based brand equity model (1993) here because the model highlights the multidimensional structure of brand associations. In applying the schema to the athlete brand context, we consider athletic performance as a product related attribute (on-field attribute) since athletes typically develop their brand status based on their continued excellence in their sport (e. . , Andrews & Jackson, 2001, p. 8). Gladden et al. (1998) also stated that success should be the most important creator of brand associations and brand equity over time. We consider here other off-field characteristics (I. E. , marketable lifestyle) as equivalent to non-product related attributes. The physical attractiveness was initially included in the off-field attributes. However, the appearance of athletes could be considered both on-field and off-field attribute (e. G. Body fitness). Furthermore, athletes’ appearances may serve as a “trademark’ of their brands. Since this trademark management is a major building block in most branding practice (Stories, 2008), we decided to place the attractive appearance as a primary dimension that parallels athletic performance and 101 Table 1 Definitions of athlete brand image dimension. Dimension Definition Sub-dimension Athletic performance An athlete’s sport performance related features Athletic expertise

An athlete’s individual achievement and athletic capability (winning, skills, proficiency in their sport) An athlete’s specific characteristics of his/her performance in a competition An athlete’s virtuous behavior that people have determined is appropriate (fair play, respect for the game, integrity) An athlete’s competitive relationship with other athletes Competition style Sportsmanship Rivalry Attractive appearance An athlete’s attractive external appearance Physical attractiveness Symbol Body fitness Marketable lifestyle An athlete’s off-field marketable features Life story Role model Relationship effort

An athlete’s physical qualities and characteristics that spectators find esthetically pleasing An athlete’s attractive personal style and trademark An athlete’s body fitness in his/her sport An appealing, interesting off-field life story that includes a message and reflects the athlete’s personal value An athlete’s ethical behavior that society has determined is worth emulating An athlete’s positive attitude toward interaction with fans, spectators, sponsors and media marketable life style in the model.

The sub-dimensions were adopted and modified from endorsement and sports team brand association dimensions. The detailed definitions and adaptation process of each sub-dimension is provided below (Table 3. 1 . Athletic performance Athletic performance refers to an athlete’s sports performance related associations, and is further divided into: athletic expertise, competition style, sportsmanship and rivalry. Athletic expertise involves an athlete’s individual sports achievements and capabilities (e. G. , winning, skills, and proficiency in their sport).

Gladden et al. (1998) suggested that success is probably the most important creator of brand associations and brand equity over time. However, success in sports often means more than simply the winning records of the athletes. The winning does not have to be consistent success but can be the extraordinary records which define their brands as competitive (Richer & Pond, 2006). Furthermore, we discussed in the introduction, developing athlete brands based only on winning is risky because losing is inevitable.

Therefore, the factor focuses more on expertise. Trail, Robinson, Dick, & Guillotine (2003) suggested that there are different types of fans, each viewing success in various ways. One type of fan highly identifies themselves with the team and cares bout winning, while another type of fan is Just a spectator who seeks a well-played, back-and-forth game. Those fans are motivated more by the skills and knowledge of the athletes than Just winning. Expertise has been identified as a critical characteristic for endorsers.

Havilland, Janis and Kelley (1953) found that “expertness” and “trustworthiness” are major dimensions of the source credibility of endorsers, and Ionian (1990) further identified the expertise dimensions as expert, experienced, knowledgeable, qualified, and skilled. In addition, an athlete endorsement study reported that athletic expertise is most effective in making athletes recognizable in a target market (Brainstem & Ghana, 2005). Competition style refers to an athlete’s specific characteristics of his/her performance in the competition itself.

Ross et al. (2006) identified team play characteristics to be specific characteristics that a team displays on the field (I. E. , how the team scores), as one of the team brand associations. The spectator motivation literature has also found that identification with the team or player is one of the most important factors for fans’ loyal behavior (Trail et al. , 2003). If the athlete has a clear and unique playing Tyler that fans can easily identify with, strong identification will likely develop and lead to loyalty.

Sportsmanship refers to an athlete’s virtuous behavior and is often defined by fairness, integrity, ethical behavior, and respect for the game, opponents, and teammates (e. G. , Sessions, 2004; Shields & Premiered, 1995). Sportsmanship can be a symbolic message for the athlete brand, and is very important when trying to attract consumer trust. This dimension was chosen as an athlete specific factor of trustworthiness given that Ionian (1990) defined the dimensions of trustworthiness s dependable, honest, reliable, sincere, and trustworthy in the celebrity endorser- credibility scale.

Free Sample: Marketing paper example for writing essay

Marketing - Essay Example

That is, you would be asked to conduct research on an organizational problem or issue and come up with “solutions” within the usual time and resource constraints. The usefulness of this research is dependent on, among other things, the appropriateness of the research methodologies and approaches that are used, as well as the rigor of the analyses. One of the key purposes of a university is knowledge discovery and this is not restricted to professors. As students, it is expected that you will learn research skills and use them in advancing your knowledge and societal development.

The research project will be conducted in groups. The written component, valued 20% of the course grade, will be evaluated on several criteria, including style (how well the paper is organized, quality of written communication, etc. ), the adequacy, relevance, and quality of the literature review, the quality of the data analyses, the viability and practicability (how implantable) of the recommendations. Your presentation is worth 15%; the grading criteria will include style (flow, quality of aids, eye contact, timing, etc. ) and content (adequacy of material covered, how well questions are answered, etc. ND 5% of your grade will be determined by members of your group (see peer evaluation on the course website). Objectives of the Project This project will help students to: 1 . Develop skills in doing literature searches, including the identification and evaluation of sources (relevance, credibility and validity). 2. Conduct empirical research using a variety of methodological approaches – both positivist/quantitative and interpretative/qualitative. 3. Critically evaluate the information/articles used and data collected so as to assist in problem identification and potential solutions. 4.

Learn/refine skills in the proper attribution of information and sources cited in the paper. 5. Analyze, synthesize and organize the information/data into a structured paper. 6. Present the research findings to the class. Summary of the Assignment This project has three components: a written paper (20%), a presentation (1 5%), and peer evaluation (5%). Essentially, your group (of about 5-8 persons) will study a current compensation issue facing an organization (or organizations) in Canada or elsewhere. There are multiple sources of information for this issue: the news/press, Journals, managers and employees, your own experiences, and so on.

The instructor will provide more details during the first class. Your written paper should be approximately 20 pages, excluding the list of references (Arial or Times New Roman, 12 pitch, with 1″ margins; double-spaced). You should cover at least the following in the paper: An introduction (the importance of the topic/issue, etc. ) A literature review: Details of the issue (what it is, etc. ), and a review/analysis of relevant articles on the subject (articles should come from Journals and books, as well as other sources such as newspapers, magazines, websites, etc.

Research methodology An examination and analysis of the issue in the organization selected Recommendations on how to manage the issue You must also include a list of the articles cited, using the PAP style. This paper must be handed to the instructor at the time of your presentation (except for the first set of groups to present). The presentation may follow the headings above (but you can choose to be innovative and be different). Not all members of your group are required to do the presentation; you may choose at least two people to present, given the time limits.

The presenters will stand at the front of the class. Just remember that your group will receive the same mark, so choose your presenters wisely. Due to time constraints, the presentation will be limited to approximately 20 minutes and about 5 minutes for a question and answer period. There is a penalty for going above the time limits, so please rehearse your presentation in advance. It is a good idea to assign back-up presenters if you are unsure of your ability to attend that particular class. The peer evaluation forms will be made available on the course website and will be due when the paper is submitted.

The purpose of these evaluations is to ensure that each member is consistently making valuable contributions to group work in and outside of class. Teamwork and interaction not only with the class but also within your team will allow you to discuss the course material in a more intimate and meaningful forum. Further explanation of these forms will occur in class. You should evaluate each member with regard to progress in your group assignment, and participation in group activities in and outside of class relating to this course. Please make sure that your group name is at the top of your sheets at submission.

This is a CONFIDENTIAL evaluation; please do not collaborate with your team members. Each individual in the class must submit a peer evaluation for his/her group. Carefully evaluate each team members’ behaviors during the activities with your group and fill out the form provided to you. This form must be handed in by the end of the class in which you make your presentation. Late peer evaluation forms will not be accepted, but you may submit it early, as the form will be provided to you prior to the class. Make sure that you put your group name and your name and student number at the top of your sheet.

Specific Instructions for the Written Paper A. Form Groups, Select a Topic and Presentation Week 1. Form groups (5-8 students). The professor can help with this task, if necessary. 2. Think about a topic and organization(s) for your research. This may take a few weeks. The professor will guide you in this task. 3. Sign up for the presentation time/week in the “presentation form” provided by the professor. B. Search for Information/Data on Your Topic 1 . Skim the text to get an idea of the issue that may be covered in the research project.

Once you agree as a group on a topic (you should determine the topic in insulation with the targeted organization(s)). Ideally, your paper should focus on a specific aspect of the general topic (e. G. , if your topic is pay-for-performance, you can choose to do a more detailed analysis of stock options). 2. Use appropriate search strategies to locate material on your topic. The professor may organize a guest lecture by a librarian to help familiarize you with library sources, referencing, etc. It is strongly recommended that you use business/management databases versus general web/online searches to locate the academic articles. . Evaluate the readability and usefulness of the material/articles located. Do not use material from websites and other sources where the accuracy or authenticity of the information is questionable (for example, if the author is not stated or the details of the primary sources are not mentioned). 4. There is no limit on the amount of articles that you can consult and cite. Ideally, your research should include mostly peer-reviewed articles, as well as material from the web or online sources, government reports, the popular press (e. G. Business magazines), and/or newspapers. 5. In your primary search, you can conduct interviews or surveys to help with your research, among other methods. Please discuss this with the professor. Details of the interviews (including questions) and surveys must be provided to the professor (and included in the report), as we will have to get approval from the university research ethics office. 6. Carefully analyze and synthesize the main findings. C. Write a Paper on Your Issue 1 . Use the information collected to write a 20-page paper (plus or minus a few pages). 2.

You should attempt to organize and synthesize the research articles in a holistic ND coherent manner – under a literature review section. Critically evaluate these articles/previous research as you see fit. 3. Ensure that proper attribution is made as appropriate; that is, cite your sources. Use the PAP format. 4. State the general research problem/organizational issue. 5. Describe your methodology; that is, state how you obtained and analyzed the data to address the research issue. 6. Present your findings in a structured/organized manner. 7. Discuss your findings – explain why think these specific results were obtained.

Did you find anything unexpected? If so, how do you explain them? Use previous theory and empirical research to help you with these explanations, as well as your own intuitions. 8. Discuss the limitations of the research. 9. Present recommendations to the organization (if this is required). 10. Check your final paper for appropriate headings, grammar, spelling, etc. Before you submit it. 11. Submit the paper by the deadline. Mid-Term Examination: 25% A mid-term examination will be held during the sixth week of the course. It is imperative that you attend the mid-term since there will be no other alternative dates to write a make-up exam.

The mid-term exam is a closed-book exam covering materials covered in class. The format will most likely be a combination of multiple choice and essay/short answer questions. You will be advised of the format prior to the midterm date. Final Examination: 35% The exam will be held during the formal examination period for the semester, in a room and location to be announced closer to the exam date. More details will follow as the semester progresses. There will be no other alternative date to write the final exam. The final exam will most likely be a combination of multiple choice and essay/ worth answer questions.