An example is: In America one gets upper, middle and lower class. Social: Reference groups are the different groups with which the person interacts with, this has an influence on people to buy certain products. Family has a great influence on a person’s behavior. Family is the most important when it comes to consumer-buying organizations in a society. Online social networks influence people’s opinions on certain products. People exchange information over social networks. Roles and status are the groups that people belong to. This includes family, clubs and organizations.
This describes the people’s role and status in society. Personal: The personal characteristics of a buyer can influence their decisions, characteristics such as age, life cycle, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, personality and self-concept. The buyers age influences their decisions in buying because it depends on what interests them. There are different stages in life cycles. The family life cycle can be traditional but these days it is becoming less traditional, there are more unmarried and same- sex couples. Marketers are catering to more and more alternative life cycles.
A person will only buy certain goods and services according to their profession. The economic situation of a buyer will affect what they buy and include personal income, savings and interest rates. The person’s lifestyle also affects their process of buying products. The person’s activities, interests and opinions (Axis) are there to help measure the consumer’s lifestyle in the environment, how they interact. The consumer has a certain, unique personality. Their personality has certain traits (friendly, sociability etc). A company/brand also has a personality.
Brands create hose personalities to be more appealing to consumers that have similar personalities. Self-concept also known as self-image, is how the consumer sees themselves in terms of attitudes, beliefs and self-evaluations. Psychological: include motivation, this refers to what motivates the consumer to buy the product. Needs turn into motives and the motives is what make us purchase the product. Perception is the way the consumer select, organize and interpret information. This forms three perceptual processes. Selective attention: is where people are aware of certain points but ignore the others.
Selective distortion is where people tend to interpret information in the way that it will support what they already believe. Selective retention is where one remembers the good points about the brand they favor whereas they forget about the competing brands good points. Learning, this influences the change in behavior, this is generally from experience. Reinforcement and repetition helps boost learning of the consumer. Belief is a strong idea of something that is based on knowledge, opinion and faith. Attitudes are how someone feels towards and idea or object.
The consumer’s attitude can influence how they feel awards buying a product. 2. There are four different types of buying decision behavior. These are complex buying behavior, variety-seeking buying behavior, habitual buying behavior and variety-seeking behavior. A complex buyer pursues extensive decisions when they are unfamiliar with the product because they do not purchase it often. The buyer will spend time finding out information about the product. These products are generally: a house, car etc. A dissonance buyer is not influenced by brand but is highly involved in the purchase of the product/item (egg: a table).
A habitual buyer is a buyer that recently buys an item, the item is low cost and not hard to find (such as, food). A variety-seeking buyer is a buyer that sees a large difference among brands. There is low consumer involvement (egg: changing between different soaps for a difference). 3. The five characteristics that a buyer must go through before adopting a product is: Awareness – The consumer has become aware of the electric car through advertisement but only knows limited information of the car. Interest – The buyer is interested in the product (car) but wants to find out more information about the product.
Evaluation – The buyer has shown interest in the product and now wants to see whether it a good product. Trial – The consumer decides to try out the product and in this case it is a test drive of the car. Through this the consumer is able to find out if it is a good product or not. Adoption – The buyer is satisfied with the product and decides to purchase it based on the rate of adoption. The consumer has adopted the product 4. Core Benefit – this focuses on the product. What is the consumer actually buying and what are they going to get from the product. Actual Product – Marketers now deed to create the product based on the core benefit.