Tourism is one of the most dynamic economic activities in the present age that plays an important role in local sustainable development.
Tourism industry is rapidly expanding (Gillian et al,201 1). This industry by combining and utilizing both internal and external sources will lead to lot benefits of social, environmental and economic and cultural and environmental. (Cooper et al,2008) Nowadays In many countries tourism is considered the main force to promote and economic development of the country and by providing a strategic opportunity is caused diversify in the local economy, employment, income and increased resources entered into the local environment. So the first option in the development of regional is tourism development. (Kodiak, 2011).
The importance of this industry and its role n economic development has caused many local, regional and national managers and planners everywhere efforts and plan to expand it. Sir Lankan, known as the “Pearl of Indian Ocean” has its unique features to attract the tourists. Once, Japan Peninsula, the capital of Northern Province was a famous place for cultural, tourist places, but for last 3 decades it was affected by the civil war prevailed in the country. The development of the area was also highly affected by this. But now, during the post war period Japan has been developed significantly. It has rebuilt its tarnished image again.
Even though, Japan has many of its industries for the development of the area, tourism is the most powerful element industry which could be increase the development of the area quickly. RESEARCH GAP A variety of researches related to tourism marketing have been done by academic researchers and they focused on following topics; Marketing sustainable development and international Tourism (Gavin Cycles,1995), Diverse developments in travel and tourism marketing: a thematic approach ( Clark Huh,1996), The role of electronic commerce in creating virtual tourism destination marketing organizations Adrian.
P and Patrick. M, 2000). In Sir Lankan also, researchers have done researches related to tourism Sustainable tourism and its potential for Sir Lankan (Till Jarvis, 2013), Potentials for regional development of tourism industry- Post war at Japan district in Sir Lankan (Manhattans and Assistants, 2013). But there are no such researches on the topic of tourism marketing. Still there is a deficiency for researches on the tourism marketing topic which is very helpful for the Japan tourism marketers to develop themselves in tourism industry.
By developing themselves they could be able to contribute to the regional development as well. RESEARCH PROBLEM From 2010, Japan is a mostly visited place by the tourists in Sir Lankan. Japan has caught the eyes of thousands of people who are keen to know what the once war- affected areas have in store. The war has ended and the roads have been opened for the people. In short, Japan has become a tourist attraction to many who visit. But the tourism marketing in Japan is at the initial phase. The hotels do not have much awareness about the tourism marketing.
So it is important to explore this problem in Japan market during post war period. 61 LITERATURE REVIEW Tourism has become a global industry and is widely considered to be one of the fastest growing industries, if not the fastest growing industry in the world (WATT, 1995). It ranks as the largest industry in the world in terms of employment (one out of every 16 employees worldwide) and ranks in the top two or three industries in almost every country on nearly every measure (Nolan and Smith, 1993) Andrea M.
Ridge. To ensure that the tourism product is recognized and accepted by the public, organizations need to spend more of their business time focusing on marketing, and n particular promotion (Gavin Cycles, 1995). However, there are many challenges that have to be faced, opportunities that have to be exploited and a re-positioning of the region as an attractive destination for travelers. Canada Jacaranda,2008) On the other hand, Broker and Burgess (2008) state that it’s a big mistake to expect continuous growth without continually implementing incremental and revolutionary innovations in a destination (Canada Jacaranda,2008). Tourism has become a very important and dynamic sector both in the world economy and particular in the developing country like Sir Lankan. Assist Aimed and Unsure Johan (2013) conducted a research about “Rural tourism” which popular in the developing countries in the recent time.
They stated that Sometimes rare plant or animal species work as the main motive behind rural tourism; sometimes traditional food, handicraft or historical places become the prime attraction. However, with the changing pace of time and environment the concept has captured a wide range of potential activities include touring, water-based activities, land-based activities, conservation activities, cultural and educational activities, health and fitness activities and gastronomic activities (Oliver & Jenkins, 2003) .
To maximize the potential of tourism and attract a wider segment of the national and international tourism community there is a need for significant investment to enhance existing and build new facilities (Tanzania Chowder, 2013). Tourist destinations make extensive use of emotions in their promotions. Vacationers are always seen to be happy and relaxed and are often depicted as being served by equally happy locals (Wheeler, 1995). Promoters also have to address harmful behaviors such as tourist harassment that would impact negatively on tourism.
Tourism promoters are therefore faced with the daunting challenge of managing the emotions and attitudes of an entire population (Anne p crick 2003). The tourism sector has been impacted by a variety of external forces which range from high fuel prices, fluctuating currency exchange (Beech, 2007), global warming, terrorism threats, changing passport regulations, CARS, hurricanes, tsunamis, a slowdown in the US economy, bland destination image (Haywood, 2007).
Tourism has become more important as a source of foreign exchange and employment (Anne p Crick, 2003). Tourism development is seen as a way of improving a country economy ND social wellbeing, but if this development is not handled carefully, tourists will migrate to competing destinations or attractions. In the future, there will be mounting pressures to develop tourism products with a sustainable focus, helping to fit in with the local environment and ensure its preservation (Gavin Cycles, 1995).
Thus the tourism marketing planning process ends with the clients when post- implementation of strategies information flows back to practicing marketing executives through a continuous market research and feedback mechanism, so that new marketing strategies and tactics can be developed. In Sir Lankan, despite the lobar financial uncertainties since 2008 having a significant impact on the travel and tourism industry in many countries, the industry has, overall, shown remarkable economic resilience (Petrodollar et al 2010). The travel and tourist industry contributed IIS$6. Trillion to the world’s GAP in 2012 (WATT 2013) so the capacity for tourism to generate income is not disputed. However, in Japan tourism is at an infant stage and is poorly organized. In most of the farms, hotels, infrastructure facilities are not sufficiently available. METHODOLOGY Qualitative method is selected for this research study, because there is lack of alliterative method researches in Japan regarding the tourism marketing. But in this research phenomenological approach has been used by the researcher as this is the appropriate method for this study.
Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. In general terms, scientific research consists of an investigation that: ; seeks answers to a question ; Systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question ; collects evidence ; produces findings that were not determined in advance ; produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the duty Qualitative research shares these characteristics. Additionally, it seeks to understand a given research problem or topic from the perspectives of the local population it involves.
Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations (Nathan Mack, 2005). 162 The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. It provides information about the “human” side of an issue – that is, the often contradictory behaviors, levels, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals.
The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. It provides information about the “human” side of an issue – that is, the often contradictory behaviors, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals (Norris Brick unadjusted Green, 2007). The purpose of the phenomenological approach is to illuminate the specific, to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the players in a situation (Stan Lester, 1999).
The researcher determines if the research problem is best examined using a phenomenological approach. The type of problem best suited for this form of research is one in which it is important to understand several individuals’ common or shared experiences of a phenomenon. It would be important to understand these common experiences in order to develop practices or policies, or to develop a deeper understanding about the features of the phenomenon. Population The population for this study consisted hoteliers in Japan and foreign tourists who came to visit Japan Peninsula.
Sampling Technique One of the most common sampling strategies is purposive sampling. According to presented criteria relevant to a particular research question sample size, which may or may not be fixed prior to data collection depend on the resource & time available. Purposive sampling is therefore most successful when data review & analysis are done in conjunction with data collection (Nathan Mack, 2005). This research was consisted a purposive sample. Sample was restricted to 3 hoteliers in Japan and one foreign tourist from Basque country.
Instruments Data are collected from the individuals who have experienced the phenomenon. Often data collection in phenomenological studies consists of in-depth interviews and multiple interviews with participants. Polyhedron (1989) recommends that researchers interview from 5 to 25 individuals who have all experienced the phenomenon. This qualitative approach using in depth interviews with hoteliers and tourists were conducted. In depth interviews is an appropriate method for capturing & understanding informants’ lives, experiences or situations in their own experiences & words (Taylor, 1994).
In depth interviews are most suitable for the phenomenological research. The respondents share their opinions and viewpoints without any interruption. This study fully concentrated on in depth interviews by using preset question based on a primary interview question as open- ended question format. Data analysis method Phenomenological data analysis steps are generally similar for all psychological phenomenology’s who discuss the methods (Monstrous,1994; Polyhedron, 1989).
Building on the data from the first and second research questions, data analysts go through the data (e. G. , interview transcriptions) and highlight “significant statements,” ententes, or quotes that provide an understanding of how the participants experienced the phenomenon. Monstrous (1994) calls this step horticulturalist. Next, the researcher develops clusters of meaning from these significant statements into themes. These significant statements and themes are then used to write a description of what the participants experienced (textural description).
A code in qualitative inquiry is most often a word or short phrase that symbolically assigns a assumptive, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data. The data can consist of interview transcripts, participant observation field notes Journals, documents, artifacts, photographs, video, websites, e-mail correspondence and so on (Ashland, 2003). They are also used to write a description of the context or setting that influenced how the participants experienced the phenomenon, called imaginative variation or structural description.
Monstrous (1994) adds a further step: Researchers also write about their own experiences and the context and situations that have influenced their experiences and reflect these personal statements at the beginning of the phenomenology or include them in a methods discussion of the role of the researcher (Marshall & Oarsman, 2006). Commonly there are four steps in qualitative analysis, such as; interim analysis mooing, data entry & storage and coding & developing category system. At the same time there are some forms do qualitative data take. Such as; field notes, audio recordings & transcripts (Barman & Bell, 2011).
For this room, researcher conducted in depth interviews and those interviews were digitally recorded, translated & transcribed. Questions for In-Depth Interviews Questions were asked as open ended where opinion was sought and the exponents were urged to share their experience. This was done to give scope to the respondents to express themselves generously about their feelings regarding tourism marketing in Japan district, the possibilities to develop tourism marketing in Japan, the tourist 163 spots in Japan, the progress of Japan district through the development of tourism marketing and the ways to start the tourism marketing.
Reliability and Validity of Analysis The outside researchers experienced in qualitative methodology were asked to conduct an audit of our empirical processes to insure the dependability of the data. This outside researcher went through our field notes, coding schemes, random samples of focus group transcripts and documentation to assess whether the conclusions reached were believable.
To insure validity, present study followed five interrelated procedures recommended for qualitative research (Silverman and Marxist, 2008): (a) respondent validation, (b) reputability, (c) constant comparison, (d) comprehensive data treatment, and (e) deviant-case analysis. Respondent validation, also known as member checks (Crewel 2007), requires that researchers go back to the respondents to validate the endings that emerge from the data. To do so, researchers shared the findings with the study participants and asked them to offer their views on our interpretations of the data and the credibility of the findings.
The data collection and analysis begin with a relatively small data set which is subsequently expanded based on the emergent categories. Data collection was stopped when no further new findings emerged after reaching theoretical saturation (Strauss and Carbon 1998). Comprehensive data treatment means that the researchers examine the data thoroughly and comprehensively prior to drawing conclusions. Since all the interviews were translated, transcribed and corded by the researcher. Limitations and Future Recommendations This research study has some limitations and recommendations as well for the future researchers.
The first and foremost is the area limitation. The research has been done only in Japan Peninsula. It can be done in other parts of the Japan district like Clinching, Manner, Vanity, Multitude as well as in the whole country. This research only concerned on the views of some hotel managers and tourists. It could include the general public and the professionals related with the tourism studies, cause their knowledge and perceptions would be different from the population. So in the future there is a possibility to include these populations as well.
As a student researchers due to the time constrain, any software was not used in this research. This is also a limitation of this study. This study could be explored with the use of NOVO software. CONCLUSION This study tries to find the perspective of tourism marketing in Japan district during post war period. It cannot be achieved within a short term period but it’s a continuous process for long term period. The tourism marketing can be genealogically advanced. Now there is a deficiency in tourism marketing awareness and it is not in practice in Japan nowadays. In Japan, there is lack of knowledge in strategic marketing. In this manner, there is no tourism marketing in Japan. But in 5 years it can be developed” (Bastion Hotel Manager) Researcher has found out huge opportunities for tourism marketing in Japan through these research findings. In the post war scenario there is a better development in the infrastructure like road development, communication, hotel accommodation, traveling, banking etc. Therefore, hotels have more opportunities for tour packages in Japan district. Miss there is lot of possibilities.
You get e-marketing, and in all the foreign magazines you can put about Japan, and tourism magazines can carry out about Japan. So that type of marketing can be done. If you do that kind of marketing the tourism in Japan can be improved…. Definitely. See the climate, there is no rain here. Foreigners like this climate. There is no rain. But we need rain for cultivation. But these are the things foreigners like, because they like sun light. In their countries they have too such rain. ” (Toolkit Hotel manager) According to Manhattans and Assistants (2013) there are many tourist places in Japan.
They are historic places and buildings, parks and forests, religious places, natural areas and beaches. Anemia Hindu temple in the island – Unengaged….. Interesting culture.. Tamil culture.. Interesting people the Tamil people. The beautiful sea. Ah yeah.. We visited Library in Japan” (Tourist from Basque country) Through tourism marketing phenomenological research it has been found out that there are so many advantages to the Japan district. The increase in employment for he local people, development of local businesses, foreign income, development of local areas along with this the hotel industry will be developed as well. There are so many opportunities for tourism marketing…. I don’t know exactly.. I took the tourists to the signaling kingdom. But they don’t know it. They go inside and took many snaps” 164 (Treat Oho Hotel Manager) Japan people must get together as a team to develop the places so that we can show the places to the world in an attractive way. The tourism marketing should be in a creative and effective way. The best way is to be the adventurous motion. When the tourists go back to their homes they should feel happy and satisfied. Anemia you can develop in many ways.
You can have local tourist, you can have foreign tourists….. By email by magazines by leaflets by awareness program. We are going to do from the Northern Hoteliers Association. We already had a campaign like this in July @ BENCH. And then we gave leaflets to everybody. Like that the Ceylon tourism board also must involve and do these things. Because then only people will know that its safe to travel to Japan, there are hotels like this, there are facilities like this. ” (Toolkit Hotel manager) Japan, after its post war situation has more opportunities for tourism.
The destination has more power to attract foreign tourists as well as the locals who are in the other part of the island. Most of the people didn’t visit Japan for 30 years because of the civil war. Now it is the real door opened for everyone to visit Japan. The beaches, historic places and buildings, the atmosphere and the local products attract tourists from all over the world. Japan Peninsula needs more development in tourism. Tourism marketing should be developed to encourage more tourists to come and spend their vacation in Japan recently.
Japan tourism marketing needs a sustainable development so that it will last for a long time period as well as helpful to the coming generation. Managerial Implication According to Joe Wang (2008) introducing the “Tourism course” in the academic institutions in Japan, specially at University of Japan. This course will help to disseminate the tourism marketing knowledge among the students as well as the hoteliers in Japan. The arrival of Sir Lankan Tourist Board to Japan is inevitable. There is a huge need for the Sir Lankan Tourist board in Japan for the area development.