Tariffs and Trade - Essay Example

The State and Metropolitan Area Data Book provides a wide variety of statistical information on states and metropolitan areas in the United States. Published by the U.S. Census Bureau, it’s available online for $31 through the U.S. Government Printing Office and at larger libraries In NY. The Statistical Abstract of the United States provides tables and graphs of statistics on the social, political and economic conditions in the United States. Published by the Census Bureau, it’s available online for $48 through the U.S. Government Printing Office and at larger libraries in NY.

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U.S. Industry and Trade Outlook presents recent financial performances of U.S. manufacturers and identifies emerging trends. Published by the Commerce Department in cooperation with McGraw-Hill, it’s available online for $76 through the U.S. Government Printing Office and at larger libraries in NY. One of the most important information resources you’ll find is the SBA. The SBA was created by Congress in 1953 to help American entrepreneurs start, run, and grow successful small enterprises. Today there are SBA offices in NY and every state , the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Among the services offered by the SBA are financial assistance, counseling services through Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs), management assistance through programs like SCORE, and low-cost publications. The counselors at SCORE can provide you with free consultation on what type of research you need to gather and where you can obtain that information. They may also be able to suggest other means of gathering the information from primary sources. SBDCs generally have extensive business libraries with lots of secondary sources for you to review.

Commercial sources. These are valuable, but usually involve cost factors such as subscription and association fees. Commercial sources include research and trade associations, such as Dun & Bradstreet and Robert Morris & Associates, banks and other financial institutions, and publicly traded corporations in NY. Among the best commercial sources of information are research and trade associations.

Information gathered by trade associations is usually limited to that particular industry and available only to association members, who have typically paid a membership fee. However, the research gathered by the larger associations is usually thorough, accurate, and worth the cost of membership. Two excellent resources to help you locate a trade association that reports on the business you are researching include the Encyclopedia of Associations (Gale Research), and the Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources (Gale Group).

Local newspapers, journals, magazines, and radio and TV stations are some of the most useful commercial information outlets. Not only do they maintain demographic profiles of their audiences (their income, age, gender, amount of disposable income, and types of products and services purchased, what they read, and so on), but many also have information about economic trends in their local areas that could be significant to your business. Contact the sales departments of these businesses and ask them to send you their media kit, since you’re working on a marketing plan for a new product and need information about advertising rates and audience demographics. Not only will you learn more about your prospective customers, you’ll also learn more about possible advertising outlets for your product or service.

Dun & Bradstreet is another commercial source of market research that offers an abundance of information for making marketing decisions. It operates the world’s largest business database and tracks more than 62 million companies around the world, including 11 million in the United States. For more information, visit Dun & Bradstreet Small Business Solutions. Finally, there are educational institutions that conduct research in various ways, ranging from faculty-based projects often published under professors’ bylines, to student projects, theses, and assignments. You may be able to enlist the aid of students involved in business classes, especially if they’re enrolled in an entrepreneurship program. This can be an excellent way of generating research at little or no cost, by engaging students who welcome the professional experience either as interns or for special credit. Contact the university administration and marketing or management studies departments for further information.

Transport institutions. These are frequently overlooked as valuable information sources even though more research is conducted in transport, and technical institutes than virtually any sector of the business community to collect secondary research about bus. Although secondary research is less expensive than primary research, it’s not as accurate, or as useful, as specific and customized research. For instance, secondary research will tell you how much united state spent last year on bus, but not how much they’re willing to pay for the olymbus designed by designline has in mind.

Answer 4.Government protectionisms and trade barriers olicy of protecting domestic industries against foreign competition by means of tariffs, subsidies, import quota, or other handicaps placed on imports. The chief protectionist measures, government-levied tariffs, raise the price of imported articles, making them less attractive to consumers than cheaper domestic products. Import quotas, which limit the quantities of goods that can be imported, are another protectionist device. Wars and economic depressions historically have resulted in increases in protectionism, while peace and prosperity have tended to encourage free trade.

Protectionist policies were common in Europe in the 17th – 18th centuries under mercantilism. Britain abandoned many of its protectionist laws in the 19th century, and by World War I tariffs were low throughout the Western world. Economic and political dislocation led to rising customs barriers in Europe in the 1920s, and the Great Depression produced a spate of protectionist measures; world trade shrank drastically as a result.

The U.S. had a long history of protectionism, with tariffs reaching high points in the 1820s and the Great Depression, but in 1947 it became one of 23 nations to sign the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which substantially reduced customs tariffs while reducing or eliminating quotas. Despite trade agreements such as GATT and NAFTA, calls for protectionism are still heard in many countries when industries suffer severely from foreign competition. Designline should consider about the trade barrier before exporting to New York market.