Marriage and Family exam 2

the social process of determining who does what work and for what reward is called
division of labor
the process of families deciding who will do various chores and duties is an example of
division of labor
the existence of social inequality indicates that it serves some beneficial purpose for society, according to what point of view?
functionalism
the process by which labor produces wealth that is not controlled by the laborers but by others, is called
exploitation
employees of a retail restaurant chain work to generate profit for the corporation, and that wealth is controlled by the executives. Conflict theorists call this
exploitation
Max Weber originated the concept of life chances, which refers to
the practical opportunity to achieve material success
a young adult whose parents can provide funds for college, reliable health care, and emotional support stand a better chance of achieving her material goals in life. This is an example of
social class
Being a member of a family or other exclusive group gives individual members access to all of the resources of that group. Sociologists call these resourses
social capital
a young adult who can provide letters of recommendation from respected community leaders who are friends with his parents is often more likely to get a desired position or admission. This is an example of
social capital
Members of the upper class often marry each other, maintaining the deep pool of social capital available to them. this mate selection practice is called
endogamy
for members of a social class, the everyday interactions, shared economic circumstances, distinctive ways of life, and an awareness of those patterns is known as
class identity
which of the following is NOT true about class identity?
A.it is based on more than statistical groupings based on income
B. it is stronger in societies with more social mobility
C.It persists for years, if not generations
D.it is associated with social capital, which persists even as income changes
B. it is stronger in societies with more social mobility
which of the following is TRUE about the study of social class?
almost half of US society identifies as working class
the disparity in economic status and security between upper and lower classes is called
inequality
income inequality has increased continuously since the 1960s, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A.changes in public policy
B.changes from manufacturing to service economy
C.decrease in personal responsibility and work ethic
D.deregulation of finance
C. decrease in personal responsibility and work ethic
the Gini index is
a measure of inequality
which of the following describes the change in the Gini index scores for the US in the past 60 years?
it has steadily increased since 1970
which of the following is NOT true about the poverty line?
A.it is the level of income below which sociologists define a family or individuals as poor
B. it was created in the 1960s, based on a formula that hinges on food expenses
c.its intention is to identify families who cannot meet their basic needs
D.it is a flawed measure of poverty
A.it is the level of income below which sociologists define a family or individual as poor
which of the following is NOT a problem with the poverty line as a measure of poverty?
A. the price of food has increased more slowly than other costs
B.the calculation does not include government benefits such as tax credit
C.it does not account for differences in the cost of living by region
D.it is not updated frequently enough.
D.it is not updated frequently enough
The practice of setting tax rates so that wealth is redistributed toward the poor is called
progressive taxation
poverty increased dramatically during the 2000s because of all the following, EXCEPT
A.severe economic inequality
B.recession
C.high unemployment
D.poor work ethic
D. poor work ethic
which of the following is NOT a trend in poverty in the United States?
A. Homelessness has increase
B.There are more poor married-couple families than single-parent families
C.The rate of poverty is higher among single-parent families
D.it is common for families to move in and out of poverty over time
B.there are more poor married-couple families than single-parent families
the difference between one’s class origin and class destination is known as
social mobility
which of the following facts is true about social mobility?
until recent decades, social class persistence was mitigated somewhat by estate taxes
the tendency of people to be in the same social class throughout their lives is called
class persistence
in the text’s discussion of poverty in single-parent households, which of the following is NOT one of the types of scarcity mentioned?
A.money
B.time
C.social capital
D.education
D.education
many children of single parents have a smaller extended family network on which to rely. This causes a reduction in
social capital
parents who work in jobs that require creativity and divergent thinking are more likely to raise their children to value
creativity and divergent thinking
which of the following is true about social class and parenting?
parents usually guide their children into values that will improve their chances of social mobility
Annette Lareau followed a handful of families in their daily lives in order to understand their
parenting practices
the aggressive approach to parenting that stresses assertiveness and interactions with adults, and involves filling children’s schedules is called
concerted cultivation
the parenting practice of many poor and working-class families, which allows for informal play and focus on protection and care is called
accomplishment of natural growth
which of the following is NOT true about the government’s role in our social class system?
A. the amount of government intervention with the poor is higher in the United States than in other developed countries
B.the government practices progressive taxation in the United States
C.the government sets the poverty line
D.Government played a role in the recession of the 2000s
A.the amount of government intervention with the poor is higher in the United States than in other developed countries
the text describes the social class system in the United States as a “common description,” because it is
impossible to define classes specifically
in the General Social Survey, 3.2 percent of Americans identify as
upper class`
in the general social survey, 8 percent of Americans identify as
lower class
most sociologists conceptualize social class as
ladder
the social class gap between those with internet access and those without is know as
digital divide
which of the following is NOT a reason discussed in the text for the gap in “media time” between upper income families and lower income families?
A.different approaches to parenting
B.financial limitations to buying electronics
C.stress and demands on time
D.differences in the amount of free time children have
B.financial limitations to buying electronics
which of the following concepts is illustrated by parent purchasing mostly pink items for their daughters(as shown in the opening photo of chapter 5)?
gender socialization
when it comes to sex selection of children, American parents
most commonly prefer one child of each sex
all are accurate statements about identity EXCEPT
A.sexual and gender identities always match in adulthood
B.the expression of identity is often a place where social change occurs
C.sexual identity is the recognition of a biological sex category
D.gender identity is the identification with social categories like boy or girl
A.sexual and gender identities always match in adulthood
the social expression of biological sex is
gender
the term for the biological category of male and female, based on anatomy and physiology, is
sex
sex and gender are different in that
gender refers to the social role based on one’s categorical sex
restroom symbols and the British stamp illustrate the ways in which males and females are depicted
in ways that show the man as superior
which of the following strategies makes women appear to be the weaker sex?
portraying husbands as taller than their wives
when it comes to biological sex differences
the physical sex differences in humans are small when compared with other species
the most popular cosmic surgery procedure for women in 2012 was
breast augmentation
the ways in which parents dress their children are important because
it helps to turn biological sexual identities into social gender identities
when a person’s chromosomal composition does not correspond with his or her sexual anatomy, it is known as
intersex
the situation in which one’s gender identity and assigned sex do not match, perhaps leading to a feeling of being trapped in the wrong body, is known as
transgender
transgender identities
present a problem for societies like the United States that have a strictly two-gender system
a sexual identity
is assigned to all children at birth
a gender approach in which one is neither exclusively masculine nor exclusively feminine is
referred to as an an androgynous approach
which of the following countries does NOT include the category of “other” on questions about gender, thereby preventing transgendered people from being granted rights?
A.Pakistan
B.India
C.United States
D.Nepal
C.United States
a key goal of the organization “Pink Stinks” is to
decrease stereotyping of girls that focuses on being pretty, passive, and obsessed with shopping
because sex and gender are so closely linked, genetic predisposition affects the behaviors of men and women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
biological
the argument that current gender differences arose over time through evolution is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
biological
gender differences are the product of social interaction that reflects men’s dominant position relative to women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
feminist
the study of maleness mirrors that of whiteness in that
males and whites were neglected in early research on structured oppression
expectations for men’s behavior compared to women’s behavior
support a narrow cultural view of masculinity
people “do gender” when they enact the social roles that conform to the commonly expected image for their sex. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
symbolic interactionist
when researchers say that masculinity is socially constructed, they mean that
there are different perspectives for what it means to be a man, depending on the setting
all of the following are key agents in socializing people to the expected gender roles EXCEPT
A.parents and siblings
B.schoolteachers
C.peer groups
D.legal systems
D.legal systems
which of the following is true about the ways that parents treat boys and girls differently?
mothers spend more time talking to daughters than they do to their sons
the process by which individuals internalize elements of the social structure, making them part of their own personality, is
socialization
gender socialization occurs
within the family through contact with family members
clothing that children wear to school reinforces gendered behavior in which of the following ways?
when girls wear dresses they are limited in the physical activities in which they can participapte
which of the following is NOT supported by religious conservatives?
A.women having greater authority than men
B.gender equality in the workplace
C.more support for a breadwinner-homemaker model
D.a high value on imparting religious values to children
A.women having greater authority than men in the home
when it comes to feminism within religion
the Islamic practice of hijab has been a source of controversy for some women
which of the following is true about the school performance of boys and girls?
girls are less likely than boys to pursue careers in math and science
people in a similar social situation and of similar status with whom an individual interacts are known as
peers
which of the following is NOT considered a “boy-typical” activity?
A.playing sports
B.fishing or hunting
C.making jewelry
D.play fighting
C.making jewelry
a primary explanation for the difference between female and male graduation rates in low-income neighborhoods os
girls’ close social connections encourage them to stay in school
when it comes to occupational sex segregationj
job screeners might bring their preconceived ideas of gender to the applicant selection process
one of the reasons the number of employed women increased rapidly after WW2 was because
women obtained more education and wanted to use their degrees
despite women’s increasing participation in work, on average they earn just________percent of what men earn.
81
compared to jobs dominated by men, jobs dominated by women
have lower status and lower pay
the study in which children were asked to rate the status and pay of the fictional job of “tenic” demonstrates that
gender expectations lead to more favorable evaluations of jobs associated with men
sexual identity is important in today’s society because of the
freedom of sexual choice
fundamental self-description often depends on gendered categories that are tied to
sexual identities
sexual identity includes all of the following EXCEPT
A.frequency of sexual activity
B.biological identity
C.sexual orientation
D.gender identity
A.frequency of sexual activity
sexual orientation refers to a pattern of sexual_____with regard to one’s gender identity.
attraction
asexual behavior is estimated to describe___percent of the population
4
the term queer includes all of the following sexual orientations, EXCEPT
A.bisexual
B.homosexual
C.heterosexual
D.asexual
C.heterosexual
Sam is not sexually attracted to either gender and shows little interest in sexual partners. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
asexual
Shanae is sexually attracted to people of the same gender and engages primarily in same-sex sexual activities. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
homosexual
Dante is sexually attracted to people of both genders, but is currently in a relationship with an opposite-sex partner. This form of sexual orientation is best described as
bisexual
sexual identity can best be described as a
fluid identity that can vary
which of the following is true regarding same-sex sexual behavior and the role of gender?
men and women are equally likely to engage in same-sex sexual behavior
disliking someone because they identify as lesbian, bisexual, or gay is referred to as
homophobia
John chose a new sear on the opposite side of the room after his classmate “came out” during a lecture on sexual orientation. This illustrates
homophobia
Queer theory suggests that scholars and scientific researchers could best understand sexual orientation as
fluid and diverse
currently, approximately______of Americans believe that homosexuality is morally wrong
on-half
in terms of social support, Americans are____accepting of homosexuality than____.
more; teen sex
the process of revealing one’s sexual orientation to family, friends, or other significant people is referred to as
coming out
coming out is a significant event in the life of someone who identifies as queer because
sexuality is part of self-identity
current research regarding the cause of sexual orientation indicates that which of the following is UNLIKELY to play a role?
A.genetic components
B.prenatal hormones
C.social interactions
D.religious convictions
religious convictions
according to the text, the book And Tango Makes Three illustrates that homosexual behavior occurs
in many species
human sexual behavior in a modern society is LEAST impacted by
A.evolutionary adaptation
B.cultural variations
C.symbolic understandings
D. capacity for change
A.evolutionary adaptation
which of the following has NOT contributed to a modern culture that is more accepting of sexual activity?
A.modern birth control
B.declining religious beliefs
C.acceptance of premarital sex
D.decreased parental supervision
B.declining religious beliefs
the first scientific study of sexual activity is know as the____report
Kinsey
premarital sexual activity is fairly common, with____percent of people reporting sex prior to marriage.
95
on average, men report about twice as many sexual partners as women. This is evidence of a
double standard
about_____of women report being forced to have sexual intercourse against their will.
one-quarter
on average, married couples have sex
once a week
married sex, as compared to sex for singles, is characterized by
higher frequency
evidence for the continuing role of the sexual double standard can be found in the fact that
men prefer to marry women with less sexual experience
the test suggests that lower-class families do not control the sexual behavior of female teens because
they are less able to protect their daughters from exploitation
teen sex is described as being more male-oriented because
males receive greater social rewards
the national survey that examines teen sexual behavior is known as the
Youth Risk Behavior Survey
which of the following is true regarding teen sexual behavior?
fewer than half of all teens have had sex
a study comparing the sexual outcomes for Dutch and American teens found that the more permissive Dutch environment is associated with
less monitoring of teen sexual behavior
according to the text, the single biggest concern for society regarding teen sex is
teen pregnancy
“shotgun” weddings decreased during the middle of the
1960s
“shotgun” weddings decreased as
acceptance of single parenthood increased
decreased teen pregnancy rates have resulted primarily from
improved use of contraceptives
of the negative outcomes commonly associated with teen sexual activity, research supports that
teen pregnancy is associated with lower educational attainment
the STD that had the most impact on partners’ communication about sex and sexual health is:
HIV/AIDS
the most common STD is
HPV
the relationship between an individual’s education, family structure, health care, and behavior with regard to sexual activity is studied as______by sociologists.
sex education
access to education and health care, the role of poverty, amd the impact of social distance help explain the higher STD rate of which racial group?
blacks
sexually transmitted diseases affect a higher percentage of the population of which social group?
poor`
sexually transmitted diseases affect a higher percentage of the population of which racial group?
black
research shows that the most common cause of erectile dysfunction is
age
sexual disorders, which prevent people from experiencing their sexuality as they would like, are caused by a variety of
A.social factors
B.psychological factors
C.biological factors
D.all of the above
D. all of the above