media and society chapter 9

what was the first program to be considered a live studio audience?
I Love Lucy
all US television broadcasting became digital in which year?
2009
the major company doing television rating in the US is what?
Nielsen Media Research Company
in the 1960’s, television programs were not allowed to show what?
-offensive content
-ex: people couldn’t be shown sharing a bed
cable television was initially developed as a way of doing which of the following?
Increase reception in places that didn’t have signals
The conversion from analog to digital television broadcasting was delayed in 2009 for what reason
-POOR PEOPLE wouldnt have access
-The federal government decided that people weren’t ready for the transition, despite several years of warnings that the change would be taking place
-Critics of the move to digital broadcasting thought that people would not be able to afford the set-top box that converts digital broadcast signals to analog signals that old fashioned TVs can display
-Government issued coupons to help poor families buy converters but there was a shortage of the coupons which also delayed the conversion
why are cable networks more profitable than the big 4 broadcast networks?
-Cable network receive revenue from advertisers and subscriptions but the big 4 only get advertising revenue
-Today, homes with digital cable programming can have access to more than one hundred channels
-Over time the big 4 broadcast networks have lost many of their viewers
-The original big 4 networks were sold to new owners in 1985 and revenues for the broadcast networks plummeted in the 1990s, whereas cable network revenues grew
Critics worry that television has a strong influence on young people because…
-Americans spend a lot of time watching it (average person watches about four and a half hours a day)
-TV serves as a socialization tool: conditions us how to act/behave
-Doesn’t take a skill to be able to watch television (not like you know how to read)
Why are broadcast networks making their hit programs available on the internet?
-Internet systems allow consumers to pick the program they want to watch and to pause, rewind, and fast-forward through the content
-Cable and satellite companies are also seeing competition from online services such as Amazon Prime, Hulu, Hulu Plus, and Netflix
-Concern that people would steal and copy content and put it on youtube
-Convenience of online spaces
Explain how television has become more diverse over the past 10 years
-In 1999, the big four networks introduced twenty-six new shows in which they all featured a white male actor, which caused protests
-Eventually shows were given different races of characters; included more races and shift the way that characters show up on television
-World on TV is not reflective of the world in real life ex: friends