is an active system that receives information from the senses.
three processes of memory
Although there are several different models of how memory works, all of them involve the same three processes: getting the information into the memory system, storing it there, and getting it back out.
encoding is the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems.
to hold on to the information for some period of time in a process called _____________.
the biggest problem many people have. Getting the information they know they have out of storage.
the model that many researchers feel is the most comprehensive and has perhaps been the most influential over the last several is the __________________.
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model
This model of memory, derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence (AI), is called the __________________________________ .
In the AI world, PDP is related to _________________, the use of artificial neural networks to explain the mental abilities of humans.
is the first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems — eyes, ears, and so on.
visual sensory memory is often called ______________. And only lasts for a fraction of a second.
Although its rare, some people do have what is properly called ______________, or the ability to access a visual memory over a long period of time.
the brief memory of something a person has heard.
short term memory (STM)
If an incoming sensory message is important enough to enter consciousness, that message will move from sensory memory to the next stage of memory, called _______________.
is more correctly thought of as an active system that processes the information present in short-term memory.
digit span teset
in which a series of numbers is read to subjects in the study who are then asked to recall the numbers in order.
the magic number 7
a number that shows up more often than other numbers.
If someone were to re code the list sequence of numbers as “654-789-3217”, for example, instead of 10 separate bits of information, there would only be three “chunks” that read like a phone number.
Most people realize that saying something they want to remember over and over again in their heads can help them remember a phone number.
long term memory
The third stage of memory. The system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently.
rotating the information in ones head saying it over and over again.
is a way of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
non declarative (implicit) memory
Memories for things that people know how to do, like tying shoes and riding a bicycle, are a kind of LTM called __________________.
non declarative memories are not only demonstrated in the performance of a task, such as _______________.
the improvement in identifying or processing concepts, words, or objects after having prior experience with them, but also in memory associations learned through classical or operant conditioning that may not be in conscious awareness.
in which new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed.
declarative (explicit) memory
is about all the things that people can know the facts and the information that make up knowledge.
Most of this information is what is learned in school or by reading.
memories of what has happened to people each day, certain birthdays, anniversaries that were particularly special, childhood events, and so on are called ___________________.
semantic network model
leading the researchers to develop the __________, which assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
which enables us to remember that we need to perform a task at a later time.
saying something over and over gives only one kind of _________________, the sound of the word or phrase.
This connection between surroundings and remembered information is called _____________.
may refer to the physical surroundings a person is in when they are learning specific information.
memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state.
memories are retrieved with few or no external cues, such as filling in the blanks on an application form.
on the other hand, involves looking at or hearing information and matching it to what is already in memory.
tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomen
Sometimes the answer seems so very close tot he surface of conscious thought that it feels like it’s on the tip of the tongue.
serial position effect
Another interesting feature of recall is that it is often subject to a kind of “prejudice” of memory retrieval, in which information at the beginning and the end of a list, such as a poem or song, tends to be remembered more easily and accurately.
Words at the very beginning of the list tend to be remembered better than those in the middle of the list.
at the end of the graph there is another increase in recall.
are a special kind of transformational strategy because they apply specific language to learning, and connect information to be learned with key words or letters.
many other kinds of long term memories seem to enter permanent storage with little or no effort at all, in a kind of ____________________.
as if the person’s mind took a flash picture of the moment in time.
memories are literally built, or reconstructed, from the information stored away during encoding.
This tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without been told about it in advance is called ___________.
That misleading information can become part of the actual memory, affecting its accuracy.
refers to the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
curve of forgetting
The graph clearly shows that forgetting happens quickly within the first hour after learning the list and then tapers off gradually.
spacing out ones study sessions.
the failure to process information into memory
A _____________bis some physical change in the brain.`
fading into nothing
decay theory is usually called ________, and the phrase use it or lose it takes on a great meaning.
the tendancy for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning
When newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.
This alteration and the other changes that tke place as a memory is forming are called ___________.
which is loss of memory from the point of injury backward.
in which new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed.
The primary memory problem, at least in the beginning, is anterograde amnesia. Memory loss may be rather mild at first but becomes more severe over time, causing the person to become more and more forgetful about everyday tasks.
involves the type of memory that exists in the first few years of life, when a child is still considered an infant.
or the memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story.