MIS 300: Chapter 13: Intelligent Information Systems

Waterfall model
The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is also known as:
Planning
During the __________ phase, the systems designer must define the problem the organization faces, taking care not to define symptoms rather than the underlying problem.
External
________ users include customers, contractors, suppliers, and other business partners.
Internal
______ users are employees who will use the system regularly, and they can offer important feedback on the system’s strengths and weaknesses.
JAD
______ centers on a structured workshop in which users and system professionals come together to develop an application.
Economic
________ Feasibility assesses a system’s
costs and benefits.
Opportunity
_____ costs measure what you would miss by not having a system or feature.
New system resulting in increased profits
Which of the following is an example of a tangible benefit?
Operational
_______ Feasibility is the measure of how well the proposed solution will work in the organization and how internal and external customers will react to it.
Scheduling
________ feasibility is concerned with whether the new system can be completed on time.
Legal
_______ feasibility is concerned with issues, such as political repercussions and meeting the requirements of the Information Privacy Act.
Requirements-gathering and analysis
In the _________ phase, analysts define the problem and generate alternatives for solving it.
system specifications
The _______ document is created during the requirements-gathering and analysis.
Data Flow diagram
A ______ Helps break down a complex process but does not show data elements and associations.
Flow chart
A ______ illustrates the logical steps in a process but does not show data elements and associations.
Context diagram
A ______ shows a process at a more general level and is helpful for showing top management and the task force how a process works.
Conceptual data model
A ______ helps analysts understand the date requirements a system must meet by defining data elements and showing associations between them.
Design
During the ______ phase, analysts choose the solution that is the most realistic and offers the highest payoff for the organization.
Conceptual
In the design phase, the _________ design is an overview of the system and does not include hardware or software choices.
Logical
In the design phase, the _______ design is an overview of the system that indicates hardware and software, such as specifying Linux servers and Windows clients.
Physical
During the design phase, the _____ design is created for a specific platform, such as choosing Dell servers running Ubuntu Linux and Java for the programming language.
Design
CASE tools are mainly used during the ____ phase of the SDLC.
proof-of-concept
A _____ prototype shows users how a particular task that was not technically feasible can be done.
Implementation
During the ____ phase, the solution is transferred from paper to action, and the team configures they system and procures components for it.
Parallel
In _______ conversion, the old and new systems run simultaneously for a short time to ensure the new system works correctly.
phased-in-phased-out
In ______ conversion, as each module of the new system is converted, the corresponding part of the old system is retired.
Plunge
In ______ conversion, the old system is stopped and the new system is implemented.
Pilot
In ______ conversion, the analyst introduces the system in only a limited area of the organization, such as a division or department.
onshore
With ________ outsourcing, the organization chooses an outsourcing company in the same company.
nearshore
With _______ outsourcing, the organization chooses an outsourcing company in a neighboring country.
offshore
With _______ outsourcing, the organization chooses an outsourcing company in any part of the world.
maintenance
During the _____ phase, the information system is operating, enhancements and modifications to the system
SOA
_____ is a philosophy and a software and system development methodology that focuses on the development, use, and reuse of small, self-contained blocks of codes to meet the software components have been added or replaced.
RAD
________ uses an iterative process that repeats the design, development, and testing steps as needed, based on feedback from users.
XP
________ is a method for developing software applications and information system projects in which the project is divided into smaller functions and developers can not go on to the next phase until the current phase is finished.
Be able to deal with new situations based on previous learning
One of the requirements of a computer that can support artificial intelligence is to _______.
Knowledge
In the AI field, _______ engineers try to discover “rule of thumb” that enables human to perform tasks usually handled by computers.
what-is
An example of ________ analysis involves entering a customer account number and having the system display the customer’s current balance.
what-if
In the context of the decision making analysis that use information technology, _______ analysis is available in spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel.
Robots
______ perform well at simple, repetitive tasks and can be used to free workers from tedious or hazardous jobs.
Variable Assembly Language (VAL)
_______ is an example of a programming language for controlling robots.
Expert
______ systems have been one of the successful artificial intelligent related technologies.
DENDRAL
______ was the first expert system developed to determine the chemical structure of molecules.
PortBlue
_____ is an example of an expert system that can be applied to various financial applications.
COGITO
______ is an example of an expert system used for monitoring consumer sentiments in blogs, comment sections, and Web-based articles.
heuristics
In the context of expert systems, ______ consists of common sense, rule of thumb, educated guesses, and instinctive judgements.
knowledge acquisition facility
A (n) _____ works with the knowledge base management system to ensure that the knowledge base is as up-to-date as possible.
heuristic knowledge
The knowledge based component must include, ______ which consists of rules related to a problem or discipline.
Meta-knowledge
______ enables an expert system to learn form experience and examine the extract relevant facts to determine the path to a solution.
explanation facility
The _____ component of an expert is important because it helps gives users confidence in the system’s results.
Inference engine
Within the context of the components an expert system, an _______ is similar to the model base component of a decision support system.
if
In forward chaining, the “______” condition is evaluated first.
then
In backward chaining, the expert system starts with the “______” condition.
case-based reasoning
Some banks use a(n) ______ system to qualify customers for loans, using parameters from past customers stored in a database.
Humanlike interface
The ________ characteristic of an intelligent agent demonstrates its capability to interact with users
in a more natural language.
adaptability
The ____ characteristic of an intelligent agent document demonstrates the agents’ ability to learn from previous knowledge and go beyond information given previously.
mobility
The ______ characteristic of an intelligent agent demonstrates the agent’s ability to migrate from one platform to another with minimum of human intervention.
autonomy
The ______ characteristic of an intelligent agent demonstrates the agent’s ability to operate with minimum input.
reactivity
Intelligent agents demonstrate _____, the capability to select problems or situations that need attention and act on them.
virtual
A ____ catalog display product descriptions based on customers’ previous experiences and preferences.
personal agent
A(n) ____ can be used to automatically fill out Web forms.
data warehouse
Data mining agents work with a _____, detecting trends and discovering new information and relationships among data items that were not readily apparent.
Monitoring and surveillance
_____ agents usually track and report on computer equipment and network systems to predict when a system crash failure might occur.
fuzzy logic
TVs that adjust screen color and texture for each frame and stabilize the volume based on the viewer’s location in the room are demonstrating ____.
Natural-language processing
____ was developed so that users could communicate with computers in their own language.
push
With ____ technology, a Web server delivers information to users who have signed up for this service instead of waiting for user requests to send the information.
push
Network administrators use ___ technology to get antivirus updates downloaded on employees’ workstations automatically.
SaaS
With the ____ model, users don’t need to be concerned with new software versions and compatibility problems because the application service providers offer the most recent version of the software.
application service provider model
When using a(n) ____, IS personnel time is freed up to focus applications, such as customer relationship management and financial information systems, that are more strategically important to the organization.
SaaS
_____ is also known as “on-demand software.”
Mint.com
____ is a Web-based personal financial management service that is an example of Saas.
Virtual reality technology
____ uses computer-generated, three-dimensional images to create the illusion of interaction in a real-world environment.
telepresence
Within the context of virtual reality technology, _____ refers to giving users the sense that they’re in another location, even one geographically far away and can manipulate objects as though they are actually in that location.
3D graphics
Within the context of virtual reality technology, the main technology used in an exocentric environment is ______.
Visual and aural system
_____ component of a virtual reality system enable users to see and hear the virtual world.
simulation
Within the context of virtual reality technology, _____ refers to giving objects in a virtual reality environment texture and shading for a 3D appearance.
interaction
Within the context of virtual reality technology, _____ refers to enabling users to act on objects in a virtual reality environment, such as using a data glove to pick up and move objects.
networked communication
Within the context of virtual reality technology, ______ refers to allowing users different locations to interact and manipulate the same world at the same time by connecting two or more virtual worlds.
walker
The ____ component of a virtual reality system is an input device that captures and records movements of the user’s feet as the user turns in different directions.
cube-shaped
A cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) is a virtual environment consisting of a _____ room in which the walls are rear projection screens.
fiber optic cables
One major obstacle to using VR technology is that not enough _______ are currently available to carry out the data transmissions needed for a virtual reality environment.
virtual world
Users interact via avatars in a(n) _____.
Radio frequency identification tag
____ is a small electronic device consisting of a small chip and an antenna, and performs the same task as bar codes.
Passive
RFID tags have no internal power supply.
Active
RFID tags can be embedded in a sticker or under the skin (human or animal).
quick-response code
A(n) ________ is a matrix barcode consisting of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background.
Biometrics
_______ could be used to make sure people don’t vote more than once.
WiMAX
_____ is a broadband wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standards.
metropolitan area networks
WiMAX is designed for wireless _______.
personal area network
Bluetooth can be used to create a ____, to communicate among computerized devices.
scalabilty
One advantage of grid computing is _____, meaning more nodes can be added for additional computing power without affecting the networks operation.
node
In grid computing, each participant in a grid is referred to as “______.”
improved reliability
An advantage of grid computing is _____, meaning that if one node on the grid fails, another node can take over.
Cloud
_____ computing is a platform incorporating many recent technologies such as SaaS and Web 2.0 under one platform.
Utility
______ computing is also known as on-demand computing.
nanoscale
Nanotechnology incorporates techniques that involve the structure and composition of materials on a ________.
Nanomaterials
______ have been added to sports gear, such as tennis and golf balls and tennis rackets, to make them more durable and improve their responsiveness.
Systems Development life cycle (SDLC)
______ is a series of well-defined phases performed in sequence that serves as a framework for developing a system or project.
planning
During the _______ phase, the systems designer must define the problem the organization faces, taking care not to define symptoms rather than the underlying problem.
Internal
________ users are employees who will use the system regularly, and they can offer important feedback on the system’s strengths and weaknesses.
Joint Application design (JAD)
_______ centers on a structured workshop where users and system professionals come together to develop an application.
Economic
_______ feasibility assesses a system’s costs and benefits.
Operational
______ feasibility is the measure of how well the proposed solution will work in the organization and how internal and external customers will react to it.
Scheduling
_____ feasibility is concerned with whether the new system can be completed on time.
structured systems analysis and design (SSAD)
The ______ approach treats process and data independently and is a sequential approach that requires completing the analysis before beginning the design.
flowchart
A _____ is a modeling tool that illustrates the logical steps in a process but does not show data elements and associations.
Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE)
______ tools are particularly helpful for investigation and analysis in large-scale projects because they automate parts of the design phase.
prototyping
In ________, a small-scale version of the system is developed, but one that is large enough to illustrate the system’s benefits and allow users to offer feedback.
Selling
______ prototypes are used to sell a proposed system to users and management by showing some of its features and demonstrating how beneficial it could be to the organization.
Insourcing
_____ happens when an organization’s team develops the system internally.
pair programming
In _________, two programmers participate in one development effort at one workstation, and each programmer performs the action the other is not currently doing.
Agile methodology
________ is similar to XP in focusing on an incremental development process and timely delivery of working software.
AI (artificial intelligence)
________ consists of related technologies that try to simulate and reproduce human thought behavior, including thinking, feeling, and reasoning.
what-is
In the context of the types of decision-making analyses, the ________ analysis is commonly used in transaction-processing systems and management information systems.
what-if
In the context of the types of decision-making analyses, the __________ analysis is used in decision support systems.
Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO)
One of the most advanced and most popular robots is Honda’s _______.
knowledge acquisition facility
A(n) ________ is a software package with manual or automated methods and incorporating new rules and facts so that the expert system is capable growth.
knowledge base
In the context of the various components of a typical expert system, a _______ is similar to a database , but in addition to storing facts and figures, it keeps track of rules and explanations associated with facts.
explanation facility
In the context of the various components of a typical expert system, a(n)_________ performs tasks similar to what a human expert does by explaining to end users how recommendations are derived.
forward chaining
Within the context of the different techniques used by an inference engine to manipulate a series of rules, in ______, a series of “if-then-else” condition pairs are performed.
Case-based reasoning (CBR)
________ is a problem-solving technique that matches a new case (problem) with a previously solved case and its solution stored in a database.
Fuzzy logic
_________ allows a smooth, gradual transition between human and computer vocabularies and deals with variations in linguistic terms by using a degree of membership.
Artificial neural networks or ANNs
_________ are networks that learn and are capable of of performing tasks that are difficult with conventional computers.
Genetic
_________ algorithms are used for optimization problems that deal with many input variables, such as jet engine design, portfolio development, and network design.
Natural language processing (NLP)
A(n) ________ system provides a question-and-answer setting that’s more natural and easier for people to use than a GUI.
interfacing
In an NLP system, ________ involves accepting human language as input, carrying out the corresponding command, and generating the necessary output.
knowledge acquisition
In an NLP system, _________ involves using the computer to read large amounts of text and understand the information well enough to summarize important points and store information so that the system can respond to inquiries about the content.
pull
With _____ technology, a user states a need before getting information.
Webcasting
Another name for push technology is _______.
Application
________ service providers provide access to software or services for a fee.
Software as a service (SaaS)
__________ is a model application service providers to deliver software to users for a fee.
Full-body immersion
Within the context of virtual reality, _________ refers to allowing users to move around freely by combing interactive environments with cameras, monitors, and other devices.
egocentric
In a(n) __________ environment, the user is totally immersed in the VR world.
exocentric
In the ________ environment, VR environment, the user is given a “window-view”.
data glove
When manually controlling VR navigation, the most commonly used device is the ____________.
avatar
A(n) ___________ is a 2D or 3D graphical representation of a person in the virtual world.
radio frequency identification (RFID)
Unlike bar codes and other systems, __________ devices don’t have to be in contact with the scanner to be read.
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
Within the context of the recent trends in network technologies, ________ can transmit information over short distances in the form of radio waves.
Bluetooth
Within the context of the recent trends in networking __________ has become popular as a safer method of talking on cell phones while driving.
Grid
__________ computing involves combining the processing powers of various computers.
Utility
__________ computing is the provision of IT services on demand.
public
In the context of cloud computing, users with a _____ cloud connect with an off-site infrastructure over the Internet.
In the context of the decision-making analyses that use information technology, _____ analysis is available in spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel.
what-if
_____ perform well at simple, repetitive tasks and can be used to free workers from tedious or hazardous jobs.
Robots
In the context of expert systems, _____ consists of common sense, rules of thumb, educated guesses, and instinctive judgments.
heuristics
In the context of an expert system, a(n) _____ works with the knowledge base management system to ensure that the knowledge base is as up to date as possible.
knowledge acquisition facility
The _____ component of an expert system is important because it helps give users confidence in the system’s results.
explanation facility
Data mining is used to ____ ____ to ____ .
drill down, trends
Data mining uses a ____ to determine trends.
data warehouse
Data marts are larger / smaller than data warehouses?
smaller
____ allows a smooth, gradual transition between human and computer vocabularies.
Fuzzy logic
Playing chess is a prime example of ____.
artificial neural networks