MIS412 Chapter 3

Internet
An interconnected network of thousands of networks and millions of computers linking businesses, educational institutions, government agencies, and individuals
World Wide Web
one of the Internet’s most popular services, providing access to over 50 billion Web pages
Packet Switching
a method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destination
Packet
the discrete units into which digital messages are sliced for transmission over the Internet
Router
special-purpose computer that interconnects the computer networks that make up the Internet and routes packets to their ultimate destination as they travel the Internet
Routing Algorithm
computer program that ensures that packets take the best available path toward their destination
Protocol
a set of rules and standards for data transfer
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (Tcp/Ip)
the core communications protocol for the internet
Tcp
protocol that establishes the connections among sending and receiving Web computers and handles the assembly of packets at the point of transmission, and their reassembly at the receiving end
Ip
protocol that provides the Internet’s addressing scheme and is responsible for the actual delivery of the packets
Network Interface Layer
responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium
Internet Layer
responsible for addressing, packaging, and routing messages on the Internet
Transport Layer
responsible for providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and from the application
Application Layer
provides a wide variety of applications with the ability to access the services of the lower layers
Internet Address
Internet address expressed as a 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers marked off by periods, such as 64.49.254.91
Domain Name
IP address expressed in natural language
Domain Name System (Dns)
system for expressing numeric IP addresses in natural language
Uniform Resource Locator (Url)
the address used by a Web browser to identify the location of content on the Web
Client/Server Computing
a model of computing in which powerful personal computers are connected in a network together with one or more servers
Client
a powerful personal computer that is part of a network
Server
networked computer dedicated to common functions that the client computers on the network need
Cloud Computing
model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power and software over the Internet
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (Http)
the internet protocol used for transferring Web pages
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Smtp)
the Internet protocol used to send mail to a server
Post Office Protocol 3 (Pop3)
a protocol used by the client to retrieve mail from an Internet server
Internet Message Access Protocol (Imap)
a more current e-mail protocol that allows users to search, organize, and filter their mail prior to downloading it from the server
File Transfer Protocol (Ftp)
one of the original Internet services. Part of the TCP/IP protocol that permits users to transfer files from the server to their client computer, and vice versa
Telnet
a terminal emulation program that runs in TCP/IP
Secure Sockets Layer (Ssl)
a protocol that secures communications between the client and the server
Ping
a program that allows you to check the connection between your client and the server
Tracert
one of several route-tracing utilities that allow you to follow the path of a message you send from your client to a remote computer on the Internet
Pathping
combines the functionality offered by Ping and Tracert
Network Technology Substrate Layer
layer of Internet technology that is composed of telecommunications networks and protocols
Transport Services And Representation Standards Layer
layer of Internet architecture that houses the TCP/IP protocol
Applications Layer
layer of Internet architecture that contains client applications
Middleware Services Layer
the “glue” that ties the applications to the communications networks, and includes such services as security, authentication, addresses, and storage repositories
Network Service Provider (Nsp)
owns and controls one of the major networks comprising the Internet’s backbone
Backbone
high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable that transports data across the Internet
Bandwidth
measures how much data can be transferred over a communications medium within a fixed period of time; is usually expressed in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps),or gigabits per second (Gbps)
Redundancy
multiple duplicate devices and paths in a network
Internet Exchange Point (Ixp)
hub where the backbone intersects with local and regional networks and where backbone owners connect with one another
Campus Area Networks (Can)
generally, a local area network operating within a single organization that leases access to the Web directly from regional and national carriers
Internet Service Provider (Isp)
firm that provides the lowest level of service in the multi-tiered Internet architecture by leasing Internet access to home owners, small businesses, and some large institutions
Narrowband
the traditional telephone modem connection, now operating at 56.6 Kbps
Broadband
refers to any communication technology that permits clients to play streaming audio and video files at acceptable speeds—generally anything above 100 Kbps
Digital Subscriber Line (Dsl)
delivers high-speed Access through ordinary telephone lines found in homes or businesses
Cable Modem
piggybacks digital Access to the Internet on top of the analog video cable providing television signals to a home
T1
an international telephone standard for digital communication that offers guaranteed delivery at 1.54 Mbps
T3
an international telephone standard for digital communication that offers guaranteed delivery at 45 Mbps
Intranet
a TCP/IP network located within a single organization for purposes of communications and information processing
Extranet
formed when firms permit outsiders to access their internal TCP/IP networks
Latency
delays in messages caused by the uneven flow of information packets through the network
Internet2®
a consortium of more than 200 universities, government agencies, and private businesses that are collaborating to find ways to make the Internet more efficient
Gigapop
a regional Gigabit Point of Presence, or point of access to the Internet2 network, that supports at least one gigabit (1 billion bits) per second information transfer
Fiber-Optic Cable
consists of up to hundreds of strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit data
Photonics
the study of communicating with light waves
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
also referred to as 802.11b, 802.11a (Wi-Fi5), and 802.16 (WiMAX). Wireless standard for Ethernet networks with greater speed and range than Bluetooth
Bluetooth
new technology standard for short-range wireless communication under 10 meters
Zigbee
a less-expensive, lowpower, and simpler form of radio network operating in the 2.4 GHz band and other bands that allows small appliances and sensors to talk with one another
Ip Multicasting
a set of technologies that enables efficient delivery of data to many locations on a network
Diffserv (Differentiated Quality Of Service)
a new technology that assigns levels of priority to packets based on the type of data being transmitted
Mosaic
Web browser with a graphical user interface (GUI) that made it possible to view documents on the Web graphically
Universal Computing
the sharing of files, information, graphics, sound, video, and other objects across all computer platforms in the world, regardless of operating system
Netscape Navigator
the first commercial Web browser
Internet Explorer
Microsoft’s Web browser
Hypertext
a way of formatting pages with embedded links that connect documents to one another, and that also link pages to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files
Hypertext Markup Language (Html)
one of the next generation of GMLs that is relatively easy to use in Web page design. HTML provides Web page designers with a fixed set of markup “tags” that are used to format a Web page
Extensible Markup Language (Xml)
a markup language specification developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that is designed to describe data and information
Web Server Software
software that enables a computer to deliver Web pages written in HTML to client computers on a network that request this service by sending an HTTP request
Database Server
server designed to access specific information with a database
Ad Server
server designed to deliver targeted banner ads
Mail Server
server that provides e-mail messages
Video Server
server that serves video clips
Web Client
any computing device attached to the Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages, most commonly a Windows PC or Macintosh
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
the most-used application of the Internet. Uses a series of protocols to enable messages containing text, images, sound, and video clips to be transferred from one Internet user to another
Attachment
a file inserted within an e-mail message