We took this great opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to Sir Agnes Law, our Principal, for giving us such valuable opportunity to apply the knowledge that we obtained from our study in Sacred Heart Caucasian College of Commerce into the real-life examples. We sincerely thank you our Graduation Project supervisor, Dry Margaret Fun, for all her support, her guidance, and her encouragement in our research study. Without her guidance and support, we would not be able to finish the entire research in an organized and effective manner.
The great thanks also went to the respondents for providing us the meaningful ND useful feedbacks as the most fundamental source of evidences, enabling us to conduct an accurate and effective analysis on out research topic. Preparation and the progression of this Graduation Project. Their great efforts make the project a meaningful and enriching experience for whole group. Abstract Title: The Competitiveness of Chinese traditional newspapers, free newspapers and digital electronic newspapers.
Researchers: Au Leone Ye, Theresa; Ho Man Wing, Andy; Lee He Ye, Halley; Make Hoi Eke, Jessica Institution: Sacred Heart Caucasian College of Commerce Course: Higher Diploma in Business Studies – Management The aim of newspaper is to provide information about events around the world and local community. As it is a printed format of media it can often go into more depth on a story than evening news can. Apple Daily, Sing Tao and Hong Kong Economic Times are the main newspapers of media industry in Hong Kong.
Apart from being a provision of events’ information, all of the Apple Daily, Sing Tao and Hong Kong Economic Times provide different special columns such as a short story, life truth and revue etc. The objectives of the research study will have to identify which newspapers do people buying and taking quantity of reading newspapers, and lastly the reasons of the choice that they choose newspapers. The study is conducted in three-fold aspects: 1. What kind of newspapers do people buy or take? 2. How many newspapers do people read? 3.
The reasons of the choice that people choose newspapers? A set of questionnaire will be designed to collect respondents’ feedback in the school and on the street in 2013. The results will be used for providing recommendations to the traditional and free newspapers to improve their life in the future. Chapter 1 Introduction Hong Kong Media Industry Hong Kong has over 9 traditional newspapers at present. Most of them are daily newspapers (including Chinese, English). Some of them are horse-racing newspaper which only report news about horse racing.
Of the daily newspapers, only 12 are Chinese language. They are Apple Daily, Hong Kong Daily News, Hong Kong Commercial Daily, Hong Kong Economic Journal, etc. The existing price of Chinese language newspaper is $5 or $6 Oriental Daily. There is a comment that the newspaper industry in Hong Kong is one of the most competitive one in the world. (both 2005) and The Standard (2007, former paid business paper) brought the total umber of papers to four. In total these free daily newspapers have a Joint circulation of 1. 7 million.
An online newspaper, also known as a web newspaper, is a newspaper that exists on the World Wide Web or Internet, either separately or as an online version off printed periodical. Going online created more opportunities for newspapers, such as competing with broadcast Journalism in presenting breaking news in a timelier manner. Chapter 2 Literature Review In recent years more and more publishers to offer free trial subscriptions from some or all of their newspaper. The printed newspaper market these days is really the mom of the brave and the land of the free.
But in the green and pleasant land of Hong Kong, a traditional and free newspapers war has erupted. Furthermore, nowadays, technology is advanced development. Almost everyone have a smartened and a tablet. People can read news on a computer. They can also read news on a smartened or a tablet everywhere and every time. Newspaper industries thought that was a good opportunity to gain the profits. They have been hired IT developers to develop application for digital electronic newspapers.
After setting the objective of the project, the next step is to evaluate the environment f the newspapers, both the internal and external environment. To perform evaluation thoroughly, the SOOT Analysis is used to examine the Strengths (S), Weaknesses (W), Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) of the newspapers. SOOT Analysis is very important to the newspaper as it performs a comprehensive scanning of the newspaper for the media industries’ further improvement. SOOT Analysis of the newspapers Strengths Adhere to editorial point of view and professional writing style.
The daily mainly focus on reported finance, international, social news, commerce and trade, real estate, executives and living Supplement. Newspaper is also supplied magazine, feature Stories stock market trend, Weekly Referral Hong Kong stocks set expert advice; keep more wealth management, foreign exchange and fund page, and Saturday is Property Times, special reports real estate market conditions and home life information, and the other has the introduction of the Mainland real estate. No matter free newspaper or traditional newspaper, also have value in ethics and principles when investigate the news.
The reporters keep report the real news because of every reporter is professional and respects all people. Besides, reporters adhere to editorial point of view and professional writing style, so that the newspaper can keep improve the content and innovate the style, make the readers easily to read and have effective communication between readers and reporters. Weakness Weaknesses are a wide variety of newspapers, members of the public can pick their newspapers are so boring and not attractive.
Newspaper content may not be interesting than any other newspaper, for example, Entertainment and Supplements, reported the content and method should funny and vivid. It is because sense of humor is one of the tactics to attract readers. Unusual of online resources, it is cause traditional newspaper and free newspaper are printing out to provide to readers, expect electronic newspapers. When the newspapers have some mistakes and report some not real news that will damage the reputation, then they need time to increase the reputation.
Opportunities A company can try to acquire other companies or corporate with others. The company can try to print a news magazine, such as east weekly, economic digest and imaging weekly. Also it can work with potential partnerships to create the new arts and lifestyle magazine that to increase goodwill of newspapers and new partners as a premier media company. Publications could cooperate with other companies to offer coupons to attract readers to buy and provide exclusive entertainment news with interesting words and change the layout that to attract readers’ interest.
Threats There are different competitions between newspapers, it is because the news is similar and every readers like different styles. Therefore, the companies should know reader’s interest. If the newspapers content never make some changes that will decrease lots of readers. Besides, sometimes the newspapers make some mistake and reported the untrue news that will damage the reputation, also will decrease the trust of readers. Moreover, a new working relationship with other organizations that make the organization is not better than before.
The similar competitive too many, industries have to consider whether it will result in the reader’s confusion, the different newspapers benefits are confused, more harm than good to the last, are at greater risk. 2. 1 Local Literature Review Traditional Newspapers Sing Tao Daily Sing Tao Daily, first published in 1938, is internationally respected as one of the world’s most widely-read Chinese dailies. With a purpose of providing objective and analytical reporting, the newspaper is positioned as a general, family-focused paper Argentina middle-class readers.
Apple Daily Apple Daily was founded in 1995 by Jimmy Ala Cheek Yang, Inexpedient and it is the one of bestselling Chinese newspapers in HACK. Apple Daily is different with other traditional newspapers, it reports the news focused on entertainment nature and it is the unique style of Apple Daily. Hong Kong Economic Times Hong Kong Economic Times which is the leading financial daily was founded by Mr.. Fun Sis Poor, Lawrence (Chairman), Mr.. Perry Make (Managing Director), Mr.. Arthur Seek (Executive Director) and other founders with HACK$20 million of foundation in
Free Newspapers (including digital electronic newspapers) Headline Daily Headline Daily which was founded on July 11 by Sing Tao News Corporation that is He’s most widely circulated free newspaper distributed during morning on Mondays to Fridays. It is a quality all-round newspaper primarily targeting the working population. Sharp Daily Sharp Daily was founded in 2011 by Inexpedient and distributes on Mondays to Fridays. Sky Post Sky Post which is a traditional Chinese free newspaper owned by a Hong Kong Economic Times and distributed on Mondays to Fridays.
It was founded on July 27, 2011. 2. Foreign Literature Review There are also at least 16 overseas editions of the Sing Tao Daily, which are published by 9 overseas bureaus and circulated in 100 cities around the world which are including Europe edition, USA edition, Canada edition and Australia edition. The Sing Tao Daily is one of a few Chinese language newspapers in Canada. Based in Toronto, Ontario, it is owned by the Sing Tao Group of Hong Kong and the Toronto Star. Apple Daily Apple Daily of Taiwan was founded on May 2, 2003 and is one of the most influential newspapers.
Furthermore, Japan and United State also have newspaper as well as Taiwan. Apple Daily is named as Tombstones in Japan and Big Apple Daily in United State. Free Newspapers Sharp Daily Sharp Daily is also released in Taiwan by Next Media shareholders Jimmy La’. 2. 3 Style and Layout of Traditional and Free Newspapers Apple Daily Content Style Practices reported more life and everyday topics of the target audience, or shocking subject matter and also might be interested in some of the important but boring subject matter to make a decision.
The main sections of Apple Daily is including “Local News”, “Foreign News”, “Finance”, “Entertainment”, “Sports” and “Others” which is including technology, travel, eating, cooking, fashion and more provocative material generating much of its popularity and controversy. It concentrates on celebrity coverage, brash news style, sensationalist news reportage and its anti- government political positions. Layout front page of a large number of pictures, large colloquial slogans, to take advantage of fashion publishing, art design pictures, brightly colored text to attract the reader’s attention and purchasing.
For the middle-lower class’s readers. The report contained personal opinions to inflame the reader emotions. In terms of the entertainment page, it obviously same as Sing Tao content, especially the international entertainment news. They all used the traditional newspaper sections as reference and established subjects such as HACK news, China news, international news, sports and entertainment, financial and so on. The various pages have more in terms of color, lines and graphics, and the arrangement of the front page is close to that of Apple Daily.
Also it with common sayings and slang in the articles and the choice of language is close to the masses. Sing Tao It has chosen to refresh its image and editorial content by positioning itself as the swapper of choice for the middle class, who demand a more high-brow content. It has embarked upon many programs to lift its brand positioning and stimulate its circulation and readership. The target is mainly middle-class’s readers. Minor target is students by offering cheaper subscription editions.
Hong Kong Economic Times (HAKE) HAKE has not only diversified content into health, human resources, pop culture etc. In recent years, but also enhanced the use of color and image layout. The economic content style bias economic and political focus on first-hand news and analysis of market conditions. Expertise to analyze the stock market as a selling point. HAKE structural bias monotonous, simple, and text-based, a small amount of newspaper picture shows the supplementary. Editorial point of view and reported practices professional.
Content classifications are arranged in order of importance Finance, international content to Front, entertainment, health. Sky Post Stressed brief article, and a large number of pictures; entertainment news, sports newspapers and political and economic events. More fun methods of expression, and the foreign tabloid and local entertainment magazines practice class, seem intended to attract younger readers. In line with the area of lightweight and advertising interspersed arrangement format, moderate length script. To local news and entertainment-based play. Chapter 3 Research Questions 3. The Research Design An Exploratory Research Study This study located on an exploratory research within a wider context of inquiry, while at the same time addressing the specific dimensions of this particular educational application. An exploratory research is used to enable the researcher to gain ideas and insights regarding two major areas: the successful of these three hypes of competitors of Chinese Traditional Newspapers and Chinese Free Newspapers, including Digital Electronic Newspapers; identify competitiveness and popularity of Chinese Traditional Newspapers and Chinese Free Newspapers, including Digital Electronic Newspapers.
According to Asker, Kumar et al (1995, p. 73), “exploratory research is used when one is seeking insights into the general nature off problem there is little prior knowledge on which to build. The research methods are highly flexible, unstructured, and qualitative … ” The Population of the Study A total number of 200 sets of paper-pencil-questionnaires were administered and inducted from 1 March 2013 and concluded on 31 March 2013, in order to collect primary data for the study.
The questionnaires were categorized and were designed for three types of different gender, age and living areas of residence. 3. 2 Sampling Design Non-probability Sampling Sigmund defines non-probability sampling as “a sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal Judgment or convenience; the probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown”. Non-representative Sample Bias Bias in Survey Sampling which is due to the particular sample obtained being non-representative.
Simple random sample procedures have no safeguards to ensure representative coverage of important subgroups, and thus can on occasion (not in general) generate non-representative sample bias. 3. 3 Methods of Gathering Data Data Collection Methods Bases on the article named “Data Collection Methods” in the website (http:// there will be a variety of data collection methods which is commonly separated two main categories, that are, the Quantitative Data Collection Methods and Qualitative Data Collection Methods.
Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Methods For quantitative data collection methods that solely rely on random sampling and trustees data collection instruments fitting diverse experiences into predetermined response categories and finally producing results that are easy to summarize, compare and generalize, for examples, experiments; obtaining relevant data from management information systems, administering surveys via face-to-face and telephone interviews, questionnaires etc. Http://www. Acorn. Org/quantitative _methods. Tm). For qualitative data collection methods plays an important role in impact evaluation by providing information useful to understand the processes behind observed results and assess changes in people’s perceptions of their well- eying, for examples, in-depth interviews; observation methods; document review etc.
Application of Quantitative Data Collection Methods As previously mentioned that an exploratory research is used to enable the researcher to gain ideas and insights of the successful of these three types of competitors of Chinese Traditional Newspapers and Chinese Free Newspapers, including Digital Electronic Newspapers; identify competitiveness and popularity of Chinese Traditional Newspapers and Chinese Free Newspapers, including Digital Electronic Newspapers, the application of quantitative data collection methods such s survey of questionnaires would be treated as the crucial means for collecting data of the exploratory research.
With reference to the topic “Introduction to Design” on October 2006 wrote by Trochaic, William M. K. Via http://www. Schoolmistresses. Net/KGB/, he mentioned that the research design is a kind of structure of research. It is always regarded as the “glue” that holds all of the elements in a research project together including the elements of observations / measures, treatments/programs, group, assignment to group any time. Based on the information discussed with the previous articles, it has clearly identified the following issues- 1 . What is the aim of the research? . Which research method would be preferred to apply? 3. How many people will be interview? 4. What types of generalized question will be asked to the interviewees? 5. Who will be the target interviewees? 6. Who will carry out the interview? Questionnaire Designs One of the ways in collecting good data on sensitive issue is to use the questionnaire. This is the most suitable research method of the study is paper- pencil-questionnaires that providing black and white records to show the results and it is also the most common way to have feedbacks from the interviewees. Efferent gender, age and living areas of residence of respondents who interests and customary of newspapers. As mentioned in the introduction of this chapter, the questionnaire is deliberately designed for investigating the customary of reading newspapers of people in different gender, age and living areas residence. The objective of this attitude survey is to stake out the following requirements: 1. The identification of people preferred buying or taking both of traditional and free newspapers. 2. The preference of newspapers styles when people buying or taking both traditional and free newspapers. . To analyze the quantity of reading newspapers of people every day. The one set of questionnaire were administered, starting form 1 March 2013 and concluded on 31 March 2013, in order to collect primary data for the study. The strengths of taking the survey method for this study is it allows the researcher to reveal a vast amount of information that is required. A total number of 200 set of questionnaire submitted via distribution that was only one set from the people in different gender, age and living areas residence.
After the receipt of the survey questionnaires, the data collected were counted and analyzed manually by the author herself using the Business and Mathematics Research Tools, such as, Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet, Pie Charts Presentation, that could show the results of the data. The study would project with a summarization of findings obtained, a conclusion and thorough recommendations for the consideration of the SHACK senior management. However, the researcher has recognized that the survey approach is without any shortcomings. The random sample error is caused by chance variation and results in a sample that is not absolutely representative of the target population… Non- espouse error is caused by people who are sampled, but do not respond and by those whose answers may differ from those of respondents in some significant way’ Cadmium. The survey method may also be criticized as respondents may not be able to answer to a question or unwilling to give a complete and accurate response.
Judging the nature of research as well as the selected samples, this research approach was considered as the most appropriate means to collect relevant data within an affordable budget and time pressure. Kara, Kumar and et al suggest that “the principal advantage of a survey is that it can collect a great deal of data about an individual respondent at one time” Cadmium also echo the view that “surveys provides a quick, inexpensive, efficient, and accurate means of assessing information about a population”.
The Survey The survey intends to collect data about the people’s habits of reading Chinese newspapers. One set of questionnaire was designed for respondents in ages, gender, and living areas residence respectively. 3. 4 Instrumentation and Statistical Treatment as an analytical tool for the input of data surveyed sought form the set of questionnaire. It is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac SO X. The Choice of Excel Spreadsheet Excel provides a quick and easy way to create circle graphs.
The main reason for the choice of this type of software, that are, its features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables and a macro programming language called ABA (Visual Basic for Applications). It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office. The current versions are Microsoft Office Excel 2010 for Windows and 2008 for Mac. With the aid of the presentation of Pie Charts, they showed clearly the accurate data presented ND close relationship between each of them.
Pie charts can be an effective way of displaying information in some cases, in particular if the intent is to compare the size of a slice with the whole pie, rather than comparing the slices among them. The results and finding s of data obtained for the people habits of reading newspapers, preference of newspapers styles and identification of people preferred buying or taking both of traditional and free newspapers were summarized in Chapter 4. Chapter 4 Methodology and Procedures The survey was administered and conducted in March 2013 by means of one set of paper-pencil-questionnaires to collect primary data for the study.
It covered three categories of respondents, namely, gender, age and living areas of residence. For survey administration since all respondents, supposedly, have competent English language standard, the questionnaire is prepared in English. To guarantee confidentiality of data collected, input of respondents’ age and areas of residence in both documents are not mandatory. To ensure a high return rate, the purpose of the exercise is clearly introduced to all respondents; the administration of the survey is action by the researcher.
The survey plays the role of verifying the validity of the result conducted by questionnaires. The focus drawn from the paper-pencil-questionnaires consists of the following areas:- To identify habits of people reading newspapers, popularity of newspapers below listed:- 1 . Age, Gender and are residence. Apart Traditional Chinese Newspapers 2. Which one of the newspapers are you always reading? 3. How many traditional newspapers do you buy every day? 4. The reasons of the choice that you choose on question 2. 5. The usage of buying newspapers. Part 2 Free Chinese Newspapers 6. Which the free newspapers do you buy?