Educational progressivism is the belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Progressivism, like proponents of most educational theories, claim to rely on the best available scientific theories of learning. Most progressive educators believe that children learn as if they were scientists, following a process similar to John Dew’s model of learning: 1) Become aware of the problem. ) Define the problem. 3) Propose hypotheses to solve it. 4) Evaluate the consequences of the hypotheses from one’s past experience. 5) Test the likeliest solution.  Social Reconstructions Perennials Perennials believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts.
Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should each liberal topics first, not vocational topics. The focus is primarily on teaching reasoning and wisdom rather than facts, the liberal arts rather than vocational training. Essentialist Educational essentialist is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects and that these should be learned thoroughly and rigorously.
An essentialist program normally teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex. Critical pedagogy Critical pedagogy is an “educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to alp students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive action. ” Based in Marxist theory, critical pedagogy draws on radical democracy, anarchism, feminism, and other movements for social Justice.
Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge, then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified erection. This type of learning is a conditioned response or rote memorization of facts, assertions, rules, laws, and terminology.
The correct response is achieved through stimulation of senses. The focus of intelligence development is visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, and bodily/ kinesthesia intelligence. The purpose in education is to help a learner build initial schema by adopting knowledge from an instructor through use of the learner’s senses.