OBA 340 chapters 15 & 16

Knowledge is defined as:
the insight derived from experience and expertise.
In database terminology, a record represents:
a single instance of whatever the table keeps track of.
Firms that collect and resell data are known as:
data aggregators.
_____ refer to older information systems that are often incompatible with other systems, technologies, and ways of conducting business.
Legacy systems
Most transactional databases are not set up to be simultaneously accessed for reporting and analysis. As a consequence:
data is not efficiently transformed into information.
_____ refer to databases focused on addressing the concerns of a specific problem or business unit.
Data marts
_____ provide regular summaries of information in a predetermined format.
Canned reports
A data cube refers to a:
special database used to store data in OLAP reporting.
Which of the following conditions is essential for data mining to work?
The events in the data should reflect current and future trends.
_____ is a class of computer software that seeks to reproduce or mimic human thought, decision making, or brain functions.
Artificial intelligence
Which of the following is true of the term Internet backbone?
It refers to high-speed data lines provided by many firms all across the world that interconnect and collectively form the core of the Internet.
The hypertext transfer protocol (http) defines the communication between:
Web browsers and Web servers.
Which of the following applications is most likely to use UDP instead of TCP?
Web-based phone calls
The domain name service (DNS) is a distributed database that allows users to communicate with other computers by:
mapping host and domain names to IP addresses of computers.
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of actions taken by the TCP at the destination computer to ensure a perfect copy of the sent message is received?
Check if all sent packets are received; check if packets are damaged; request for new copies of damaged packets; put packets in correct order
The Internet Protocol Suite consists of the Internet Protocol and _____.
Transmission Control Protocol
Network Address Translation (NAT) technique involves:
mapping devices on private networks to single Internet-connected devices acting on their behalf.
One of the disadvantages of cable technology is that:
customers have to share bandwidth with neighbors.
One of the functions of the IP is to:
route message packets to the final destination.
A _____ enables communication by defining the format of data and rules for exchange.
protocol
database management systems (DBMS)
(also known as database software)
databases are created, maintained, and manipulated through programs such as these
Structured Query Language (SQL)
most common language for creating and manipulating databases.
-all SQL databases are relational databases
relational databases
where multiple tables are related based on common keys
Transaction processing systems (TPS)
used to record transactions-sale, product return etc..
-hard to match this data to customers if they pay in cash
data warehouse
a set of databases designed to support decision making in an organization. Structured for fast online queries and exploration. May aggregate enormous amounts of data from many different operational systems
data mart
a database focused on addressing the concerns of a specific problem (increasing customer retention, improving product quality..) or business unit (marketing, engineering..)
Advantages of Hadoop
Advantages of Hadoop 1) flexibility
-can absorb any type of data, any type of source code
2) Scalability
-can start on a single PC, but can eventually combine thousands to work together
3) Cost effectiveness
-due to the open source and ability to start with low-end hardware, the technology is relatively cheap. (also offered in cloud service, to avoid hardware costs altogether)
4) Fault tolerance
-designed that there will be no single point of failure. System will continue to work, relying on the remaining hardware
Canned reports
provide regular summaries of information in a predetermined format.
-developed by information systems staff and the formats are often difficult to alter
Ad hoc reporting tools
allow users to dive in and create their own reports, selecting fields, ranges, and other parameters to build their own reports on the fly
data cube
data stored in a special database
-makes OLAP fast
-usually apart of a firm’s data mart and data warehouse efforts
data mining
process of using computers to identify hidden patterns and to build models from large data sets
http://www.nytimes.com/tech/index.html

what is the:
-application transfer protocol?
-host name?
-domain name, top-level domain?
-path?
-file?

http://www.nytimes.com/tech/index.html

what is the:
-application transfer protocol?
-host name?
-domain name, top-level domain?
-path?
-file?
application transfer protocol: http://
host name: www.
domain name: nytimes
top level domain: .com
path: tech (case sensitive)
file: index.html (case sensitive)

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
big telecommunications companies like Verizon, Comcast and AT&T. They connect to one another, exchanging traffic and ensuring your messages can get to any other computer that’s online and willing to communicate with you
File transfer protocol (FTP)
is used to transfer files
-how most web developers upload the Web pages, graphics and other files for their web sites
-if browsing on a bank website it’ll change to https with the “s” standing for secure
Internet Protocol address (IP)
a device gets its IP address from whichever organization is currently connecting it to the internet
-IPv4 is the original and most widely used format for IP addresses
-expressed as a string of 4 numbers between 0 and 255, separated by 3 periods
Domain Name Service (DNS)
a distributed database that looks up the host and domain names that you enter and returns the actual IP address for the computer that you want to communicate with
-“nameservers” big “phone books” capable of finding web servers, email servers and more
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
-The web server application hands the web page it wants to send to its own version of TCP. TCP then slices up the web page into smaller chunks of data called packets (or datagrams)
-these packets are like little envelopes each containing part of the entire transmission
-TCP then hands these off to IP
-IP routes the packets to their final destination done via routers

-TCP receives the packets again from the IP, makes sure all the packets are present and requests new packets if some are damaged
– TCP then puts the packets back together in order and sends an exact copy of the web page to your browser

Router
every computer on the internet is connected to a router and all routers are connected to at least one other router, linking up the networks that make up the internet
Peering
when different ISP’s connect their networking equipment together to share traffic
-usually takes place at neutral sites called Internet Exchange Points (IXPs)
Amdahl’s Law
a system’s speed is determined by its slowest component
-the bottleneck isn’t the backbone but the “last mile” or the connections that customers use to get online
Broadband
high-speed last-mile technologies that customers use