Political Science 101 S.T.C.

________is the single most important political act for most Americans.
Voting
What was the primary venue for citizen participation in national politics until the early 1900s?
U.S. House elections
The digital divide refers to the
line separating citizens with Internet access from those without.
Nearly ________percent of Americans lack high-speed Internet access in their homes.
33
About ________ percent of eligible voters turn out for midterm congressional elections.
33
When did African Americans truly gain voting rights in the United States without fear of reprisal?
1965
The main goal of the group Rock the Vote is to
draw young voters into participating politically.
About ________ percent of African Americans voted for Barack Obama in 2008.
95
What bloc of voters has recently been called “the sleeping giant”?
Latino Americans
On average, more women vote for ________ candidates and more men vote for ________ candidates
Democratic; Republican
About ________ percent of U.S. senators and U.S. representatives serving in Congress are women.
17
Which of the following characteristics constitutes one’s socioeconomic status?
level of education, level of political participation, and age
An example of the phenomenon called the gender gap would be that
more women than men vote for Democrats.
Which of the following statements is true about political participation?
Young people are far less likely to participate in politics than older people.
Studies show that people are most likely to participate in politics when
someone asks them to get involved.
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the criteria for determining one’s eligibility to vote were established by ________.
state governments
Under the Constitution, ________ has/have the power to regulate elections.
state legislatures
According to political scientists, voter registration requirements reduce voter turnout by as much as ________ percent.
50
Compared with western Europe, the United States has a(n) ________ turnout in elections.
lower
Which of the following statements about voting rights is correct?
Many states have laws restricting the voting rights of persons convicted of felonies.
A political party is an organization
that tries to influence the government by getting its members elected to office.
Throughout its history, American politics has been dominated by ________ major political party/parties.
Two
One important cause of the United States’ two-party system is
single-member electoral districts.
Third-party candidates are better off under ________.
proportional representation
What is the ultimate goal of a political party?
winning elections
Incumbents in Congress
typically raise three times the money for their political campaigns than challengers.
In 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney raised about ________ each in their respective campaigns.
$1 billion
A ________ is a closed meeting of a political group’s members who gather to determine strategy and select candidates.
caucus
A party’s ________ contains its philosophy, principles, and policy positions.
Platform
Which of the following is the best definition of soft money?
money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations at the state and local levels for political activities that are not regulated by federal campaign spending laws
527 committees are an important part of the American political system because they
are able to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money as long as they do not coordinate their activities with a political party.
Which of the following statements about partisan identification in the United States is most accurate?
Party identification varies significantly by income, race, and gender.
An individual’s psychological attachment to one party or another is called a party ________.
Identification
Since the 1930s, African Americans have identified as ________.
Democrats
In 2012, about ________ percent of Latino Americans voted for Barack Obama.
70
Women in the United States are ________ the ________ Party.
somewhat more likely to support; Democratic
Men in the United States are ________ the ________ Party.
somewhat more likely to support; Republican
Which of the following groups is most likely to support the Republican Party?
the wealthy
________ occurs when one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of Congress.
Divided party government
Issues such as the environment, health care, retirement benefits, and taxation are on the political agenda in the United States because
contemporary political parties mainly compete for the support of middle-class Americans and these issues are important to the middle class.
Third parties in the United States typically represent
social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties for certain reasons.
A(n) ________ does NOT coincide with a presidential election.
midterm election
The primary responsibility for conducting public elections rests with ________.
state and local governments
During midterm elections, voters are selecting ________.
members of Congress
Primary elections were introduced by
reformers who hoped to weaken the power of party leaders.
In order for a political party to select a candidate to run in the general election, it holds a(n) ________.
primary election
________ occurs when a voter must be registered with a party prior to voting in that party’s election.
A closed primary
Party activists who are elected to vote at a party’s national convention are called ________.
delegates
If the winner of an election is whoever receives the most votes, regardless of the percentage of votes received, the candidates are running under a ________ system.
Plurality
When American voters support only one party’s candidates, they are said to be voting a ________ ticket.
Straight
If a citizen votes for a Republican for president and a Democrat for senator, he or she has engaged in ________.
split-ticket voting
What did the Supreme Court justices mean by the principle “one person, one vote”?
Within a state, electoral districts must have roughly equal populations.
The practice of ________ means that district boundaries have been purposefully drawn to unfairly advantage one group or party.
gerrymandering
The ________ is the last example of indirect voting in national elections.
electoral college
What is a referendum?
It is the practice of voting directly for proposed laws.
Smaller and weaker parties are most likely to have electoral success under which system of elections?
the proportional representation system
Which of the following is the best example of direct democracy in practice in the United States?
initiative petition
Who is the incumbent?
the current officeholder, running for re-election
The themes, issues, and messages that candidates present during a campaign are generally based on
polls and focus groups.
A(n) ________ is a media format in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens, without the input of journalists or commentators.
town hall meeting
The Supreme Court justices ruled that the government could not restrict independent expenditures by corporations or unions to political campaigns in ________.
Buckley v. Valeo
A citizen can currently give no more than ________ per candidate for federal office per election in a given two-year election cycle.
$2,600
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
When voters are dissatisfied with their economic prospects, they tend to vote for Republican candidates.