Political Science 102 Exam 3 Kennedy

Ideology
The set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which we come to understand and interpret politics.
Liberalism
An ideal that is associated with the ideas of liberty and political equality; it advocates change in the social, political and economic realm to better protect the well-being of individuals and to produce equality in society
Conservatism
An ideal that recognizes the importance of preserving tradition and emphasizes on individual initiative, rule of law, limited government authority and free market
Socialism
An ideology that stresses economic equality theoretically achieved when government or workers own means of producition
Libertarianism
An ideology that believes that government should take a “hands-off” approach in most matters
A Three-Dimensional Political Model
A multidimensional scale that measures people’s opinions on role of government in economy on one axis and their beliefs about personal freedom on second axis.
Public Opinion
The values and attitudes that people have about issues, events and personalities
Values
A person’s basic orientations to politics
Political ideology
A cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about government
Attitude (Opinion)
A specific view about a particular issue, personality or event
Political Socialization
The process through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed by your peers.
Liberty
Freedom from governmental control
Equality of Opportunity
The belief that people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential
Democracy
A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials
Random Sampling
A method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
Random Digit Dialing
This generates a random sample by selecting respondents at random from a list of 10 digit phone numbers
Sample Size
This term is used to describe a sample that is large enough to provide an accurate representation of the population
Social Desirability Effect
The effect that results when respondents in a survey report what they expect the interviewer wishes to hear rather than what they believe
Selection Bias
Polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates error in over representing or under representing some opinions
Push Polling
A polling technique in which questions are designed to shape the respondent’s opinion
Bandwagon Effect
A shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the frontrunner
Print
Newspapers, magazines and books
Broadcast
Radio and television
Digital
Websites, media and other online sources
Penny press
Cheap, tabloid style newspaper that became inexpensive due to the steam powered printing press
Digital Divide
Gap in access to the Internet among demographic groups
Social Media
Web and mobile-based technologies such as Twitter and Facebook
Citizen Journalism
News reported and distributed by ordinary citizens
Agenda Setting and Selection Bias
Direct attention to specific topics
Framing
This influences how events are interpreted
Priming
This shapes how the audience evaluates leaders, events or issues
Online Participation
Interactive political engagement facilitated by vast opportunities to connect to causes, people, events and information online
Interest Group
Organization that tried to influence the government’s programs and policies
California Interest Group
Associations of individuals who seek to influence policy decisions in the legislature, the executive branch, and administrative agencies, as well as through direct legislation. Referred to often as the “third house”.
Pluralist Theory
A theory that emphasizes how important it is for democracy to have large numbers of diverse interest groups representing a wide variety of views.
Elite Theory
A theory that believes the ruling class composed of wealthy, educated individuals wields most of the power in government and also within the top universities, corporations, the military, and media outlets.
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Groups formed by interest groups to raise/donate money in the interest group’s place.
Netroots
Grassroots online activist organizations that have redefined memberships and fundraising practices. Has a streamlined staff structure.
Collective Goods
Benefits sought by groups that are widely available to everyone.
Free Riders
People who enjoy benefits of collective goods but don’t participate or help provide them.
Iron Triangle
The stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency and one or more support groups.
Direct Lobbying
An attempt by a group to influence the policy through persuasion of public officials.
New Politics Movement
A generation that was active in protest politics in late 1960s and early 1960s related to anti-Vietnam War and civil rights movements.
Referendum
An election in which voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by the state legislature
Initiative
A citizen-sponsored proposal that can result in new or amended legislation or a state constitutional amendment.
Recall Election
This allows voters to cut short an officeholder’s term of office.
Plurality Vote
The candidate with the greatest number of votes wins.
Majority Vote
To win, the candidate must receive more than 50% of the vote.
Redistricting
In which legislative districts are redrawn
5021c(4)
Nonprofit organizations operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare including lobbying or engaging in political campaigning.
Political Parties
Organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to local, state and national offices
527s
Nonprofit organizations that can campaign for, but not coordinate with the candidates.
Interest Groups
The term “third house” refers to what?
Increased
Over the past two decades, interest group expenditures in California have…
Contract Lobbyist
An individual who offers his or her lobbying services to multiple clients at the same time.
Attain favorable decisions from government on issues that it supports.
The principal function of an interest group is to…
Disclose campaign contributions
Political Action Committees (PACs) must…
Jesse Unruh
What former Speaker of California Assembly said, “Money is the mother’s milk in politics”?
Fallen, declined
Over the past two decades, the number of newspapers across the US has _____ and newspaper circulations have _____ in every year as well.
Enhancing
Many experts see digital media as a catalyst for _____ the democratic process.
Revolving Door
An employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regular interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
Market Population
The concept that the free market is more democratic than any democracy.
Crony Capitalism
An economic system characterized by close, mutually advantageous relationships between business leaders and government officials.
Cues from political elites.
Political scientists Richard Lau and David Redlawsk argue that MOST public opinion is formed through…
Polls
Scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
The framers of the constitution
The inherent gulf between the rich and the poor was considered by ____ to be the MOST perpetual source of conflict in political life.
Not important
The size of the overall population is ____ in determining the reliability of a poll.
Party endorsements
What is an impact of increasing polarization between the parties in the United States?
Equality
What is the MOST important core value for liberals?
Equality of income
Which of the following values or outcomes would likely be opposed by MOST Americans?
The Market Place of Ideas
The interplay of opinions and views that takes place as competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular issue.
Virtual Social Networks
The place where groups of like-minded individuals, or individuals with shared interests, can easily share information online.
Online News
Convenience of getting news, up-to-the-minute currency of information, depth of information, diversity of viewpoints, and low costs are all benefits of _____.
They are still influential among the political elite.
Even though newspapers are not the primary news source for MOST Americans, why could they still be considered important?
Stayed the same
How has the dramatic rise in political information and the diversity of the media in recent decades affected the population’s political knowledge?
80%
It is estimated that more than ______ of Americans have access to the Internet.
A more democratic press.
Online media, by representing a wider range of political views than traditional news sources, have created ______.
Right of Rebuttle
The 1969 case, Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC, confirmed the FCC’s regulation called _______.
Profit seeking
When newspapers first emerged, they were motivated primarily by _____.
Radio news
Which of the following media forms could be considered essentially a headline service?
Media monopolies
_______, such as ESPN and Disney, have prompted questions about whether enough competition exists among traditional media to produce a truly diverse set of views on political matters.
Google news and real clear politics
______ are two popular news aggregators that serve a large number of readers by synthesizing coverage from a variety of sources.
Niche Journalism
This caters to specialized interests of news consumers.
Increased
Following the 2016 election of Donald Trump to the presidency, subscriptions and donations to investigative media such as ProPublica, the Washington Post and the New York Times have….
Solidary
Pluralism
Extremely important to many newer citizen groups and netroots is “consciousness-raising,” which can be included as a _____ benefit of group membership.
Hired professionals
In staff organizations, MOST of the work is done by
executive branch programs, legislative committees, and interest groups
Iron triangles form among
Initiative
Legislative items placed on the ballot so people can vote on them directly, bypassing the state’s legislature.
Wealthy
Members of interest groups are MOST likely to be
sponsoring ballot measures; lobbying state legislatures
Political Scientists Elisabeth Gerber finds that citizen groups are MOST effective at ___ whereas business, trade associations, and professional associations are more effective at ___.
encouraging federal agencies to consult affected interests, or stakeholders.
The Administrative Procedure Act and Negotiated Rulemaking Act play important roles in opening up the bureaucratic process to interest group influence by
Both relied heavily on public demonstrations and protests.
What did the 2010 GOP takeover of the House of Representatives and NOW’s attempted passage of the Equal Rights Amendment have in common?
providing information
What is the first and foremost part of a lobbyist’s job?
Organizations and individuals must register to lobby.
What was accomplished by the 1995 Lobbying Disclosure Act?
Amicus Curiae
A brief filed in court
Alexis de Tocqueville
Which political philosopher once wrote that America was “a nation of joiners”?
Informational benefits
The MOST widespread and important category of selective benefits offered to group members.
Pluralism
The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
Party Caucus
A closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters.
External mobilization
A type of party formation which takes place when a group of politicians outside of government organizes popular support to win government power.
the Great Depression
After 36 years of dominating U.S. political life, the Republican Party lost power after ____ began.
Different groups of middle and upper-class Americans.
Contemporary American political parties mainly compete for the support of
Dark money
Funding from politically active nonprofits whose donors and amounts contributed do not have to be made public.
factions that represented a threat to the social order of the country.
In the early years of the Republic, political parties were seen as
selects a single candidate to run for an elective office.
In the nomination process, a party
Democratic
Jews are among the ____ Party’s most loyal constituent groups.
Conservative; Republican
Most individuals who describe themselves as ____ identify with the ____ Party.
Republicans
Nixon’s southern strategy was aimed at attracting which southern group?
the majority party.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is selected by
Unequal Democracy
The idea that the current party system does not properly represent the poor but pays more attention to the interests of the affluent.
Party System
The number of parties competing for power, the organization of the parties, the dominant form of campaigning, the main division between the parties, the balance of power between and within party coalitions, social and institutional bases, and the issues and policies around which completion is organized.
National
Third parties are least likely to achieve electoral success in which types of elections?
unregulated “soft money” raised by political parties and that could be used to support candidates
What did the McCain-Feingold bill attempt to outlaw?
Upper-income
____ Americans are considerably more likely to affiliate with the Republican Party
10 percent
A series of experiments by Donald Green and Alan Gerber showed that face-to-face interaction may increase voter turnout by
Protests
An example of ____ was the Black Lives Matters campaign starting in Ferguson but spreading to New York City, Baltimore and dozens of other locations in 2015.
Digital Political Participation
Apart from voting, this form of political participation is the most common way citizens participate in American politics.
Expressive
Political scientist Russell Dalton argues that social media such as Twitter and Facebook is making participation in politics much more
community networks that motivate political participation.
Reversing decades of negative trends, digital media may foster community building. Digital media may also increase Americans’ social capital, which is defined as
sleeping giant.
The Latino vote is often referred to by analysts as the
descriptive representation
The concept defined as “when individuals are represented in government by officials of their same race, ethnicity, or gender” is known as
education level
What is the single MOST important factor in predicting not only whether an individual will vote but also most kinds of political participation?
Suffrage
A group’s right to vote
10
Except on rare occasions, boundaries for congressional and state legislative districts in the United States are redrawn by the states every ____ years.
he lost in a rare recall effort.
In 2003, Californians voted out Governor Gray Davis. This election was unusual because
incumbents, challengers
In MOST congressional elections, ____ outspend ____.
McCutcheon et al. v. Federal Election Commission
In the 2014 Supreme Court case ________, the Court ruled that there was no evidence that making campaign contributions to large numbers of candidates led to the donor controlling the candidates. The Court therefore ruled that restrictions on this activity were not justified.
Buckley v. Valeo
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that no limits can be placed on candidates’ expenditure of their own funds, since such spending is considered free speech in this case.
closed primary
an election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to Election Day
Midterm Election
A congressional election that does not coincide with a presidential election
Incumbent
The current officeholder, running for re-election
Retrospective voting
This occurs when voting is based on the past performance of a candidate.
Baby Boomers
In the article entitled, “Why was the 2014 electorate so old,” reference was made to America still digesting the pig. What was the “pig”?