Practice Quiz 1

One-year-old Sandrine was playing with her toy rabbit in her bedroom, but then she couldn’t see it. She systematically looks for the rabbit because she knows it didn’t simply disappear from her room. Sandrine is demonstrating
object permanence
8
The term “pure AI” refers to
an approach that attempts to accomplish a task as efficiently as possible.
17-18
Suppose that you hear about a research project in linguistics that is exploring the topic called discourse. Which of the following would be the most likely topic for this research?
the conclusions that students draw about how a story should end
22
The kind of processing that emphasizes how your sensory receptors register information is called
Bottom-up processing
24
Regarding the history of cognition
behaviorism is an approach that relies on objective, observable reactions.
6
Which of the following is the best example of a schema?
your understanding that the concept “dentist’s office” includes a waiting room and a receptionist, but not video games
22
Cognitive psychologists believe that behaviorists cannot explain human language because
language has a complex structure that cannot be explained in terms of stimuli and responses.
8
Which of the following titles of research projects would have the most ecological validity?
“Planning strategies used in grocery-store shopping”
12
A researcher wants to study how people’s attention shifts when they see a visual stimulus in an unexpected portion of a screen that they are viewing; this attention shift occurs in just a fraction of a second. Which of the following techniques is this researcher most likely to use?
the event-related potential technique (ERP)
15-16
An operational definition is most likely to
describe precisely how the researchers will measure a particular concept.
6
Which of the following students provides the best summary about the current status of the information-processing approach?
Magda: “The information-processing approach has declined in popularity during recent years, because psychologists point out that those models are not complex enough to explain many cognitive accomplishments.”
11
Suppose that a group of cognitive scientists is trying to program a computer so that it solves a particular problem in the same way a human does, taking into account that a human may make a few false starts before successfully solving the problem. This approach is called
Computer simulation.
18
A cognitive psychologist is conducting research on how people reconstruct a memory of an event from their childhood. This psychologist’s approach is most similar to the tradition of
Frederick Bartlett
7
Suppose that you are accustomed to a certain bus stopping on a specific corner near your college campus. A bus stops, and you “recognize” it to be the customary bus. You fail to notice that the side of the bus has a totally different company name. The process that led to your misidentifying the bus is called
Top-down processing
24
Metacognition refers to
your thoughts about your cognitive processes.
22
Which of the following statements is correct?
“Cognitive psychology” is sometimes used as a synonym for “cognition.”
2
Research on people with brain lesions
involves testing people who cannot perform specific cognitive tasks after they have had a stroke, tumor, or accident.
13-14
Researchers in artificial intelligence argue that
both the human brain and the computer have central-processing mechanisms with limited capacities.
17
Hubel and Wiesel discovered that some kinds of cells in the visual cortex respond especially vigorously to a line presented in a particular orientation. This research has the most important implications for which of the following topics?
Predicting which letters of the alphabet are most likely to be confused with each other
16
Suppose that a psychologist writes an article on children’s acquisition of gender stereotypes. Which of the following article titles would be most consistent with the cognitive approach?
“Children’s memory for gender-consistent information”
2-3