PSY 100: Ch.6 Memory

Memory
An active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.
Encoding
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems.
Storage
Holding onto information for some period of time.
Retrieval
Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used.
Information- Processing Model
1. Many researchers feel that this type of model of memory is the most comprehensive and has been the most influential.
2. Focuses on the way information is handled or processed, through three different systems (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory).
3. Assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
4. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of this model.
5. Provides a “big picture” view of how the various memory systems relate to each other – how the “memory machine” works.
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model
1. Memory processes are proposed to take place at the SAME TIME over a large network of neural connections.
-Derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence (AI).
-In the AI world, this type of model is related to connectionism.
2. Is less about the mechanics of memory and more about the connections and timing of the memory process.
Connectionism
The use of artificial neural networks to explain the mental abilities of humans.
Levels-Of-Processing Model
1. Assumes information that is more “deeply processed”, or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time.
2. The depth to which information is processed addresses the strength of those parallel connections within each of the three memory systems, with strength and duration of the memory increasing as this model deepens.
Sensory Memory
1. The first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory system.
2. There are 2 kinds of these that have been studied extensively…
-Iconic ( visual)
-Echoic (auditory)
Iconic Sensory Memory
Visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second.
George Sperling (1960)
1. A guy that came up with the….PARTIAL REPORT METHOD:
– Presented subjects with a grid of letters and sounded either a high, medium, or low tone immediately after the grid of letters was taken away, which signaled which row of letters subjects were to report.
– The tone was sounded after the grid was taken away so that subjects couldn’t just memorize one row of letters.
– Found that subjects could accurately report any of the three rows, meaning that the entire grid was in iconic memory and available to the subjects.
– Thus, the capacity of iconic memory is everything that can be seen at one time.
2. He also found that if he delayed the tone for 1 second, subjects could no longer accurately report letters from the grid.
– The iconic information had completely faded out of memory in that brief time.
Masking
A process in real life where information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information.
Eidetic Imagery
The ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more.
– Very rare condition, often called PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORY, cause is unknown.
– People with this ability might be able to look quickly at a page in a book, then by focusing on a blank wall or piece of paper, “read” the words from the image that still lingers in their sensory memory.
– More common in children and tends to diminish by adolescence or young adulthood.
Echoic Memory
The brief memory of something a person has just heard.
Short-Term Memory (STM)
The memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
Selective Attention
The ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
Working Memory
Is an active system that processes the information in STM and is thought to consist of 3 interrelated systems.
Chunking
Is a way to sort of “fool” STM memory into holding more information than usual.
– The process of recoding or reorgarnizing information.
Maintenance Rehearsal
Practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to mainatin it in STM.
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
The system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permantently.
Elaborative Rehearsal
A method of transferring information from STM to LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
Maison
-French word
– Means “house”
-This is an example of the easiest way to do a Elaborative Rehearsal by connectiong new information with something that is already well known.
1. A person could try to memorize that (using maintenance rehearsal) by saying over and over “Maison means house”.
2. But, it would be much easier and more efficient if that person simply thought, Maison sounds like mason, and masons build houses.” That makes the meaning of the word tie in with something the person already knows (masons who lay bricks to build houses).
Procedural (nondeclarative) Memory
-Is memory for skills.
– Type of long-term memory including emotional associations, procedures habits, and conditioned responses.
-These memories are NOT consicous, but ARE IMPLIED to exist because they affect consious behavior.
Declarative Memory
-Is memory for facts.
– Type of LTM containing information that IS conscious and known.
– This type of memory is all about all the things that people KNOW.
1. Including general facts
2. Also includes what people know about the things that have happened to them personally.
– There are 2 types of this (Semantic and Episodic)
Anterograde Amnesia
The loss of memory from the point of the injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term DECLARATIVE memories.
Implicit Memory
Memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness.
Semantic Memory
– Type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education.
– This is the general knowledge that anyone has the ability to know.
– Most of this information is what is learned in school or by reading.
– Includes the awareness of the meanings of words, concepts, and terms, as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on… Type of knowledge used on game shows like Jeopardy.
– Relatively permanent like procdeural memories. But is is possinle to “lose the way” to this kind of memory.
Episodic Memory
– Type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activites and events.
– Includes memory of daily life and personal history, kind of like a autobiographical memory.
– Tend to be updated and revised more or less constantly.
– These types of memories that are especially meaningful, are more likely to be kept in the LTM.
Explicit Memory
– Memory that is consciously known. These memories are easily made conscious and brought from long-term storage into short-term memory.
– Episodic and Semantic memories are examples of declartaive and this type of memory.
– These types of memories can be forgotten but always have the potenial to be made conscious.
Semantic Network Model
Assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored phsyically closer to eachother than concpets that are not highly related.
Retrieval Cue
*Look at slide 45 for how they work*
– A stimulus for remembering
Encoding Specificity
The tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) that is available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved.
State- Dependent Learning
Memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to rememebr while in a similar state.
Recall
Memories are retrieved with few or no external cues…. Like fill in the blank or essay tests.
Recognition
The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact… Like multiple choice tests… This is why multiple choice tests are easier.
1. Recall
2. Recogntion
What are the 2 kinds of retrieval of memories?
Serial Positioning Effect
Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information.
Primacy Effect
Tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows.
Recency Effect
Tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it.
False Positive
Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
Automatic Encoding
Tendency of certain kinds of information to enter LTM with little or no effortful encoding.
Flashbulb Memories
Type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it.
Constructive Processing
Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information.
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one would have accurately predicted an outcome of an event without having been told about it in advance.
Misinformation Effect
The tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself.
False-Memory Syndrome
Refers to the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
Curve of Forgetting
A graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.
Distributed Practice
Spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods.
Memory Trace
A physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed.
Decay
The loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used.
Disuse
Assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.
Proactive Interference
Tendency for older information to prevent or interfere with the learning or retrieval of newer information.
Retroactive Interference
When newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information.
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past.
Anterograde Amnesia
The loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward.
Senile Dementia
Mental disorder in which severe forgetfulness, mental confusion, and modd swings are the primary symptoms.
Infantile Amnesia
The inability to retrieve memories from before age 3.
Autobiographical Memory
The memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story.