psyc 316

This disorder involves an individual feigning or inducing physical symptoms, typically for the purpose of assuming the role of a sick person.
factitious disorder
All of the following are common to people with factitious disorder EXCEPT
an exuberant social life
In the somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder, the individual experiences:
a large varied number of bodily symptoms
Somatization pattern often runs in families, with as many as ___________ percent of the close female relatives of women with the disorder developing it.
20
This is a disorder in which people mistakenly fear that minor changes in their physical functioning indicate a serious disease
illness anxiety
Illness anxiety disorder most often starts in:
early adulthood
Between ___________ percent of all people experience illness anxiety disorder.
1 and 5
__________ percent of all cases of asthma appear to be caused by an interaction of stress factors, such as environmental pressures or anxiety, and physiological factors.
70
These are white blood cells that circulate through the lymph system and bloodstream, helping the body identify and destroy antigens and cancer cells.
lymphocytes
The field of treatment that combines psychological and physical approaches to treat or prevent medical problems is known as:
behavioral meds
John was intentionally faking symptoms of mental illness in order to collect disability. This is known as
malingering
Conversion disorder is diagnosed at least ___________ as often in women as in men.
twice
These theorists believe that the physical symptoms of conversion and somatic symptom disorders bring rewards to sufferers.
behavioral
Psychophysiological or psychosomatic disorders are referred to as ___________ by DSM-5
psychological factors affecting medical condition
For adults, the most stressful life event on the Social Adjustment Rating Scale is
the death of a spouse
Anorexia nervosa has been shown to be increasing in frequency in all but which of the following areas?
south america
Which of the following musicians died because of the effects of anorexia nervosa on his or her body?
karen carpenter
Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa often grapple with other psychological difficulties as well. Which of the following is NOT a psychological disorder that has been found with some frequency in those with anorexia nervosa?
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Marlon, a 22-year-old college student, has recently “discovered” that if he makes himself vomit after every other meal he will lose weight and become more slender. After doing this for three weeks, he shares this revelation with his friend Duane, and Duane tells him, “man, I never thought of you as bulimic!” Which of the following is an accurate assessment of Duane’s statement?
The binge-purge cycles of bulimia nervosa must be present for at least 3 months in order to be diagnosed.
Surveys in several Western countries suggest that as many as ___________ percent of women develop a full case of bulimia nervosa.
5
Though separate diagnoses, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa share many common features. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
Both disorders require the presence of amenorrhea in women who have had their first menstrual cycle.
A person with which of the following conditions displays many of the behaviors of bulimia nervosa, but does not engage in compensatory behaviors?
binge eating disorder
As a result of their frequent binges, around ___________ of people with binge eating disorder become overweight or even obese.
two thirds
Unlike the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder does not necessarily begin with:
efforts at extreme dieting
Hilde Bruch, a pioneer in the study and treatment of eating disorders, has developed a theory of these issues that draws largely on the ___________ perspective in psychology.
psychodynamic
Biological research into the cause of eating disorders has found some evidence for a genetic or hereditary component based on the finding that if one identical twin suffers from anorexia nervosa, the other twin will also develop this disorder in as many as ___________ percent of cases. The concordance rate for fraternal twins, on the other hand, is only around 20 percent.
70
The ____________ is the part of the brain that regulates many body functions, and it has been identified as a possible contributor to the development of eating disorders.
hypothalamus
Research has found that ___________ therapy can be invaluable in the treatment of eating disorders, though the exact nature of why this effect is seen is not yet clear.
family
Louise is in the hospital, where she has been admitted against her own will. She is being fed through intravenous tubes in an attempt to get nutrients into her body. She has been informed that if this does not work and she refuses to eat, she may be force-fed through a tube. Louise is probably suffering from:
anorexia nervosa
Which of the following statements BEST describes current thinking about treatment for binge eating disorder?
Relatively little is known about the aftermath of this disorder.
At least half of those suffering from anorexia nervosa reduce their weight by:
restricting their intake of food
The peak age of onset of anorexia nervosa is between ___________ years.
14 and 18 years
Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic criterion of anorexia nervosa?
rigid compensatory behaviors, including exercising, misuse of laxatives, and self-induced vomiting
Though separate diagnoses, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa share many common features. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
Both disorders require the presence of amenorrhea in women who have had their first menstrual cycle.
Why do those suffering from bulimia nervosa often experience dental complications?
The stomach acid that coats the teeth during self-induced vomiting is very damaging to the gums and tooth enamel.
Researcher ___________ suggested that enmeshed family patterns, in which there exists a lack of appropriate boundaries between family members, often contribute to the development of eating disorders.
Salvador Minuchin
Which eating disorder is most likely to be helped with the prescribing of antidepressant medications?
bulimia nervosa
Research has consistently found that ___________ is the best approach for achieving both immediate and sustained recovery from anorexia nervosa.
a combo of therapeutic approaches
Which of the following statements BEST describes current thinking about treatment for binge eating disorder
Relatively little is known about the aftermath of this disorder.
Which of the following is NOT one of the most widely-used groups of depressants?
marijuana
Which of the following is not an example of a stimulant?
marijuana
The greatest danger of cocaine use is:
overdose
What is the most common method of ingestion of amphetamines?
taken in pill or capsule form
The use of LSD may produce an effect called ___________, which causes a “crossing” of sensory experiences; for example, a person may hear colors or see sounds.
synesthesia
In 1938 Swiss chemist, Albert Hoffman, derived an hallucinogenic drug from a group of naturally occurring drugs called ergot alkaloids. That drug is
lsd
Which personality trait has been conclusively linked to a majority of substance-related disorders?
No one personality trait or group of traits has been conclusively linked to substance use disorders.
expectancy
Some cognitive-behavioral theorists believe that the pull of addiction is as much about the ___________ of the pleasurable effects a drug will bring as it is with actually experiencing those effects.
Researchers have identified a neurotransmitter called ___________ that works like THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Excessive use of marijuana has been shown to reduce the production of this neurotransmitter.
anandamide
Of those who receive treatment for substance use disorders, the highest numbers receive treatment in/at:
a self help group
Which of the following approaches to treating substance-related disorders has not been found to be particularly effective, especially if it is the only treatment style being used?
psychodynamic theories
Drugs that block or change the effects of addictive substances are called ___________ drugs.
antagonist
The DSM-5 listing of gambling disorder suggests that people may become addicted to ___________ beyond substance use.
behaviors and activities
Researchers focusing on Internet use as a disorder are especially interested in Internet:
gaming
Alcohol ___________ is an enzyme that exists in our stomach to help break down alcohol before it reaches the blood stream. Typically, women have less of this enzyme than do men.
dehydrogenase
According to studies exploring the relationship between alcohol abuse and race/ethnicity, ___________ consistently display the highest rates of alcohol abuse and dependence.
native Americans
After one is injected with cocaine, how many minutes does it typically take for the maximum effect to be felt?
5 minutes
One manner in which cocaine is ingested is through ___________, which is a technique in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized with a flame, and inhaled through a pipe.
free basing
Almost 6 percent of all persons over the age of 11 in the United States have used this stimulant, nicknamed “crank,” at least once.
methamphetamine
One research study found that a recovered heroin abuser experienced nausea and withdrawal symptoms when he returned to the neighborhood where he had previously used heroin and experienced withdrawal effects. This research supports the idea that ___________ may be a significant factor in the development and maintenance of substance addiction.
classical conditioning
Dr. Constantine is a substance-abuse counselor who believes that people who abuse substances have very powerful dependency needs that can be traced to their early childhood years. Dr. Constantine is probably a proponent of the ___________ view.
psychodynamic
Ron is receiving treatment for a cocaine addiction. Each time he submits a drug-free urine specimen, he is given some sort of prize that is valuable to him. This type of behavioral treatment is called:
contingency management
Which stage of the human sexual response cycle has no associated sexual disorders?
the resolution stage
Which of the following has NOT been suggested as a physical cause of dyspareunia in women?
unusual size or shape of a partner’s erect penis
Of the principles and techniques that are applied in almost all forms of sexual therapy, the first step is:
assessing and conceptualizing the problem
education about sexuality
Many patients who suffer from sexual dysfunctions know very little about the physiology and techniques of sexual activity. This is why one of the primary components of sexual therapy is:
Prior to the development of medications designed to help with this problem, other techniques (called “second-line” treatments) were used. These included the use of a vacuum pump device, gel suppositories, and injections of drugs.
erectile disorder
Robert has an unusual sexual interest. He gets tremendous sexual satisfaction out of putting himself in crowded situations (elevators, subways, public busses) and rubbing his genitals against unsuspecting strangers. Robert might best be diagnosed as suffering from:
exhibitionism
If a person is to be diagnosed with fetishism, around which of the following must their sexual interest be focused?
almost anything can be the target of a fetish
A ___________ is a disorder in which an individual repeatedly has intense sexual urges or fantasies or displays sexual behaviors that involve nonhuman objects, children, non-consenting adults, or the experience of suffering or humiliation
fetish
A person suffering from gender ___________ often feels that a mistake has been made by nature and that they were born with the body of the wrong sex. They may be very uncomfortable wearing clothing and engaging in activities traditionally associated with their own gender and refuse to conform to expectations of such behaviors.
dysphoria
Today, the term gender dysphoria has replaced the old term gender identity disorder. The label “transsexual,” however, is still used to refer to a person who
desires and seeks full gender change
Typically a person who is going to receive an operation to “reassign” their gender takes hormones for ___________ prior to surgery.
1 to 2 years
Measuring nocturnal penile tumescence is an important part of determining whether or not ___________ has a biological cause or is rooted in psychological factors.
erectile disorder
Medical science has developed several medications to help men who suffer from erectile difficulties. They include all but which of the following?
fluxenafil
Prior to the development of medications designed to help with this problem, other techniques (called “second-line” treatments) were used. These included the use of a vacuum pump device, gel suppositories, and injections of drugs
female sexual interest/arousal disorder
There are several techniques that have been shown to be effective for the treatment of fetishism. These techniques do NOT include:
the stop-start technique
One widely applied treatment for pedophilic disorder is ___________ prevention training, which is modeled on the therapy of the same name in substance-abuse treatment. In such treatment, offenders are taught to identify situations where their inappropriate fantasies and impulses might be stimulated and then to avoid such situations.
relapse
What is the difference between a person who cross-dresses as a symptom of transvestic disorder and one who does so as a symptom of gender dysphoria?
Transvestic disorder specifically involves those who cross-dress for the purpose of sexual arousal, while those with gender dysphoria cross-dress to satisfy a deeper need to occupy the role of the opposite gender.
When symptoms of gender dysphoria appear in childhood, what is likely to be the future status of this child’s gender self-concept?
The literature suggests that childhood patterns of gender dysphoria usually disappear by adulthood.
The fact that the prevalence of gender dysphoria drops significantly between childhood and adulthood has led many experts to advise against any forms of physical treatment prior to the age of ___________ years.
16
Loose associations, neologisms, perseveration, and clang are examples of:
formal thought disorders
When Charlie’s therapist asked him how his day was going, Charlie responded, “Here’s the deal, I ate a meal, wanted veal, don’t break the seal.” This is an example of:
clang
Alogia is also known as
poverty of speech
This theory states that schizophrenia results from an excess of this neurotransmitter.
dopamine hypothese
These are the key features shared by schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder
various psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, flat or inappropriate affect, and catatonia
Studies suggest that some patients with schizophrenia also have smaller ___________ than other people.
temporal and frontal lobes
Between 1845 and 1955 nearly 300 state hospitals opened in the United States and the number of hospitalized patients on any given day rose from 2,000 in 1845 to nearly ___________ in 1955.
600,00
These are unwanted movements, such as severe shaking, bizarre-looking grimaces, twisting of the body, and extreme restlessness, sometimes produced by conventional antipsychotic drugs
extra pyramidal effects
This is a treatment facility that provides medication, psychotherapy, and emergency care for psychological problems and coordinates treatment in the community.
community mental health center
These are symptoms of schizophrenia that seem to be excesses of or bizarre additions to normal thoughts, emotions, or behaviors.
positive symptoms
This is a form of catatonia in which a person moves excitedly, sometimes with wild waving of the arms and legs.
catatonic excitement
Type I schizophrenia is dominated by symptoms such as:
delusions and hallucinations
If we were to administer ___________ to you, we would raise your dopamine activity so much that you would experience psychosis.
L-dopa
The World Health Organization reports that schizophrenic patients who live in developing countries have ___________ recovery rates than schizophrenic patients in Western and other developed countries.
better
In 1935, this neuropsychiatrist performed the first lobotomy and subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1949.
moniz
These extrapyramidal effects appear in some patients after they have taken conventional antipsychotic drugs for an extended time.
tardive dyskinesia
Today, approximately ___________ billion in public funding is devoted each year to people with mental disorders
$171
The symptoms of personality disorders typically become recognizable in:
adolescence or early adulthood
DSM-V identifies ___________ personality disorders.
10
Which of the following is NOT clusters into which personality disorders are separated?
linguistic, referential, disorganized
Herman is 42-years-old and tends to have very few friends. Whenever he develops a new friendship he invariably loses it quickly because he begins to accuse the “friend” of trying to take advantage of him. He constantly sees conspiracies where they do not exist and is forever on guard against people trying to hurt or abuse him. Because he has had these tendencies for the better part of his life going all the way back into childhood, Herman should probably be diagnosed as suffering from:
paranoid personality disorder
schizoid personality disorder
Elizabeth works as a long-distance truck driver. She goes days and even weeks with little to no contact with other people except at gas stations, restaurants, and motels. She spends 99 percent of her time by herself, does not often experience positive emotions, and rarely has any interest in romance or sex. She has no friends to speak of and genuinely prefers to be alone. Elizabeth might be described as suffering from:
Kumar is an individual who is often described as a “strange duck” by his peers. He dresses strangely, has very unusual habits, and believes that he has ESP and can interpret future events before they happen. His predictions, however, are often very general so that he never has to admit that he was wrong and that he does not, in fact, have such abilities. Which personality disorder best describes Kumar’s case?
schizotypal personality disorder
Which of the following adjectives is the best one-word summary of borderline personality disorder?
unstable
In the past twenty years, one integrative approach to treating borderline personality disorder has emerged as the treatment of choice. It is called:
dialectical behavior therapy
Cognitive theorists propose that people with antisocial personality disorder have genuine difficulty recognizing different:
points of view
On their recent first date, Jason was getting very irritated when Rachel would not make any decisions for herself. She insisted that he choose which restaurant they went to for dinner, what cocktails they ordered, what movie they saw, and whether or not to go for coffee afterward. When the date was over he was quite sure there would be no second date because he did not want to have to deal with her indecisiveness. If Rachel was to see a psychologist, she might be diagnosed as having:
dependent personality disorder
Psychodynamic theory has attempted to explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as arising from fixation at one of the psychosexual stages of development during childhood. What type of fixation has been specifically suggested as the culprit behind this personality disorder?
anal regressive fixation
Group therapy formats are of particular use to those who suffer from avoidant personality disorder because they
provide a social circumstance where interactions with other can be practiced and where support can be both given and received.
Dr. Quinones is seeing a client who clearly suffers from a personality disorder, but instead of adhering to the “category” method of diagnosing this problem she chooses to assess the client as being high, medium, or low on several different personality traits. She feels that this will give more information into the client’s unique pathology, and thus will inform his treatment. Dr. Quinones is clearly a proponent of the ___________ model.
big-five
Dr. Smith is evaluating his client, Julia, using the supertraits of the Big Five model of personality. He determines that Julia is high in neuroticism, medium in agreeableness and conscientiousness, and very low in extroversion and openness to new experiences. According to your textbook, individuals with this combination of personality traits are most likely to have ___________ personality disorder.
avoidant
Which is NOT one of the groups of problematic traits that would be eligible for a diagnosis of personality disorder trait specified?
inhibition
Many theorists challenge the use of a categorical approach to personality disorders in favor of a(n) ___________ approach
dimensional approach
Which of the following treatment approaches seems to be of minimal effectiveness for those suffering from schizoid personality disorder?
drug therapy
About ___________ percent of those who are diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are women.
75
Victor is quite the character. He owns a very lavish house and constantly “requires” that all of his friends come over to have dinner and watch the football game. While they are there, he is shameless about bragging about his latest acquisitions—his new television, his new car, and his new girlfriend (who he brags about as if she is another one of his toys). When his friends fail to show the proper admiration for his things, he gets angry, accusing them of being jealous, and throws them out of his home. Victor probably suffers from:
narcissistic personality disorder
Lakita wants to get a degree in accounting so that she can become a CPA. She has decided to take classes online, however, because she is very timid about going to a class with 30 other students where she might be expected to speak out. She is afraid that if she says something silly, gives a wrong answer, or just acts in an inappropriate way she will be shamed in front of others. Lakita has always struggled with this problem, and has thus lived as relatively isolated life for quite a few years. Lakita might be diagnosed as having:
avoidant personality disorder
Which of the following is NOT a reason why the current DSM-5 method of categorizing personality disorders has been criticized?
There are no accurate ways of assessing personality disorders, so it is always a “best guess” and never has any true validity.
Arguing against the classification system that defines personality disorder by using categories,, some theorists have suggested that personality disorders differ more in ___________ than in ___________ of dysfunction.
degree;type