Which of the following behaviors would a researcher be least likely to do to increase response rates when employing telephone or mail surveys?
ask a respondent to call the researcher back
A survey researcher would be most likely to use a(n) _____ question when the dimensions of the variables are well defined.
George wants to know what teenagers believe is the most significant social problem facing today’s youth. Which type of question would be the most useful?
When researchers conduct a survey questioning all members of a population they are employing a _____. However, if the researchers question a subgroup of the population they are employing a _____.
The city council wants to examine citizens’ opinions about allowing dogs on the city’s beaches. They construct a list of all the blocks in the city and randomly select 20% of the blocks to sample. They then survey all residents of the selected city blocks. This sampling strategy is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?
all of these
“Do you think it is important to decrease the extreme amount of money wasted on holiday decorations?” is an example of a _____ question.
In question construction, writing questions that are easily understood illustrates
Which is NOT a potential problem with surveys?
all are potential problems
In order to eliminate the problem of a person always agreeing or disagreeing on all items in a questionnaire, a researcher would
word half the questions in a positive way and half the questions in a negative way
What are the two major sources of bias when using questionnaires or interviews?
response sets and interviewer bias
When interviewing Al, Bill nods his head and smiles whenever Al responds with an answer that he likes. Bill’s behavior is an example of
“Residents of the city should spend more money on parks and road improvements” is an example of a ________ question.
A _____ is a listing of all the elements in the population.
When constructing a survey, it is a good idea to ask the most interesting and important questions ______ in order to capture the respondent’s attention.
Sarah stands outside of a grocery store on the west side of town and surveys exiting shoppers about their preference for frozen desserts. What type of sampling technique does Sarah’s survey represent?
Using a 95% confidence interval, Elmo reports that 48% to 52% of the population favors Proposition D. The difference between the 48% and the 52% reflects the
Which of the following statements is not true of Internet surveys?
only closed-ended questions can be presented to the respondents
If you are asked to choose “yes or no” for the question “Are you a full-time student?”, you have been asked a(n) _____ question.
“Are you in favor of programs designed to help lower the unreasonably high rent in the county?” is an example of a _____ question.
A researcher wants to study math achievement in sixth graders. The researcher obtains a list of all elementary school districts in the state, randomly selects 5 percent of the districts, and administers achievement tests to all sixth graders in these districts. This sampling method is called ________ sampling.
A _____ sample size will _____ the size of the confidence interval.
Which method of choosing a sample of 10 people from a population of 100 is least likely to result in a random sample?
ask for 10 volunteers
Nonprobability sampling is most acceptable when studying
the relationship between two variables.
It is important to use ________ sampling when you wish to learn about particular characteristics of a population.
Which of the following is an advantage of conducting Internet surveys?
all of these
Sampling techniques are particularly important in which type of study?
“Do you think that the Wayne city council members should not be allowed to vote on increases in their pay?” is an example of a _____ question.
Political analysts are interested in perceptions of the current Democratic-Party candidates in New York City. The number of registered Democrats and Republicans in New York is known. To form a sample of 1000, the analysts send out a team to sample Democrats and Republicans in proportion to the numbers registered. The team goes to major shopping malls and stops people as they enter, asking whether they are registered with one of the two parties. If so, the person is asked to fill out a questionnaire. The sampling technique used here would best be described as
Jack has a difficult time answering the question “Are you in favor of increasing tuition in order to increase the number of classes and parking spaces offered?” because it is a _____ question.
On a survey, Gerald answers questions using a consistent pattern of answers, first A, and then B, followed by C. This pattern of answering questions is an example of
a response set
In order to study changes in answers to survey questions over time, a researcher could use a(n)
A person who tries to present himself or herself in a positive way on a questionnaire is showing a ________ response set.
When respondents answer in agreement with all questions, this is referred to as _____. However, if respondents answer in disagreement to all questions this is referred to as _____.
“Proposition Q is an increase in property tax to fund road improvement. Do you agree with this proposition?” This best illustrates which principle of question construction?
When Carl responds to the questions on a survey, he answers in a way that would reflect most favorably on him. Carl’s behavior best illustrates
Which one of the following is a probability sampling technique?
simple random sampling
Questionnaires, in contrast to interviews, are
all of these
You read in the newspaper that Proposition Q is favored by 57% of those polled. The results of the survey are said to be accurate within 2 percentage points using the 95 percent confidence interval. You can assume that
55 to 59 percent of the population favor Proposition Q
As people exit the voting booth, they are asked how they voted on the various propositions on the ballot in order to predict election outcomes. This sampling method is called _____ sampling.
The survey method
all of these
Using volunteers from an introductory psychology class, Emily is studying the effect of physical appearance on the likelihood of voting for a female candidate. Emily’s approach best represents
James has constructed a 95% confidence interval and found the confidence limits to be 75 and 79. From this interval, James
can be 95% confident that the interval 75 to 79 will contain the true population mean.
“Do you favor elected officials not be allowed to run for more than two consecutive terms in office?” is an example of which type of question?
Bob recently purchased a new car. He receives a questionnaire asking him to rate the quality of his new car compared with other cars that he has owned. This measure would represent what type of scale?
Students are asked to evaluate the food sold in the university cafeteria on 7-point scales with bipolar adjectives such as poor-good, and inexpensive-expensive. These measures represent what type of scale?
If you want to assess presidential candidate preferences of Maricopa-County registered voters classified by social class and age, you might randomly select voters from each subgroup according to their proportion in the entire county. This sampling technique is called ________ sampling.
The chair of the psychology department is interested in psychology majors’ attitudes toward implementing an internship requirement for completion of the degree. She obtains a list of all students who are psychology majors, randomly selects 100, and surveys all of the selected students. What type of sampling technique has she employed?
simple random sample
On a survey, Judd is asked to indicate his age, gender, and marital status. These items best represent which type of survey question?
facts and demographics
The adequacy of your _____ will influence your ability to generalize your results.
In general, the lower the response rate for a survey, the
more likely biases exist to distort the findings
Your research methods instructor asks you to distribute a survey on cheating to a random sample of college students. To save time, you go to the cafeteria and distribute the surveys among the students who are there. This sampling method is called ________ sampling.
In survey research, when individuals tend to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than to the content of the question, they are displaying
a response set
Probability sampling techniques are most important for
generalization of results to a population.
_____ indicates the amount of deviation in results obtained from a sample compared to the true population value.
According to Jourard, the social desirability response set can be reduced by
all of these
Which one of the following is a nonprobability sampling technique?
Open-ended questions are more _____ than are closed-ended questions.
all of these
With probability sampling techniques, each member of the population has a(n) ________ probability of being sampled.
With simple random sampling, each member of the population has a(n) ________ probability of being sampled.
A nonprobability sampling technique for choosing a sample that reflects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population is called
“Do you agree that male teenage drivers are more dangerous than female teenage drivers?” is an example of a _____ question.
The sampling ________ is the actual set of people who might be included in the sample after the population is defined.
To test the hypothesis that younger people are more opposed to the use of nuclear energy than older people, the best method would be a(n)
A researcher wants to find out whether gross motor coordination is better in the morning or in the afternoon. To measure coordination, participants balance a book on their heads first in the morning and then in the afternoon. What is confounded with the independent variable?
Practice is confounded with time of day.
A researcher wants to know if a new sports drink improves physical performance. Participants are first measured on the number of sit-ups they can complete in one minute. The participants are then given eight ounces of the new sports drink and the number of sit-ups completed in one minute is again measured. The researcher finds that the participants complete fewer sit-ups after consuming the new sports drink than they completed before consuming the new sports drink. This finding is likely the result of a(n) _____ effect.
A researcher wants to find out how much fins increase swimming speed. This hypothesis could be tested with a counterbalanced repeated-measures design by
having half the swimmers first swim without fins and then with fins, and having the other half swim first with fins and then without fins.
Which of the following statements is least likely to be true of using Latin Squares?
It results in complete counterbalancing.
In order to examine environmental factors that influence alcohol consumption, Henry asks participants to come to the laboratory and fill out a questionnaire before drinking any alcohol. Henry finds that over time, fewer and fewer participants show up to fill out the questionnaire. This lack of participant involvement is an example of a _____ problem.
Mortality refers to the fact that participants sometimes
drop out of an experiment.
One problem with the pretest-posttest design is that
the pretest may sensitize participants to the true purpose of the experiment.
An experiment can be assumed to have internal validity if
the experimenter employed random assignment and experimental control
A design that has two conditions with different participants in each condition is a(n) ______ design.
Which of the following is likely to be the most important consideration for a repeated-measures design using alcohol or drugs?
time interval between treatments
When a confounding variable is present in an experiment, one cannot tell whether the results were due to the
independent variable or the confounding variable.
A Latin Square design is used when
complete counterbalancing requires too many conditions.
If a greater percentage of heart surgeons than skin doctors are sued for malpractice, can it be concluded that heart surgeons are less competent than skin doctors?
No, because being sued is confounded with the potential risk of the doctor’s work.
A psychologist is interested in which of two sorting techniques leads to better memory performance in 6-year-olds. Each participant first sorts a set of pictures any way he or she would like. Recall is then tested. After this, each participant is required to sort an equivalent set of pictures into five predetermined categories. Recall for the items in this test is then tested. What procedure does this study represent?
When individuals participate in only one condition it is a _____ design. When individuals participate in all conditions it is a _____ design.
Which of the following is true of using repeated-measure designs versus independent-group designs?
The researcher has greater control over participant differences.
A researcher wants to find out whether campers prefer cotton or nylon sleeping bags. A troop of boy campers tried cotton and a troop of girl campers tried nylon sleeping bags. The sleeping bags were rated for softness and warmth. The confounding variable is
gender of camper.
Which one of the following is NOT a type of order effect?
Which of the following statements is least likely to be correct? A researcher might employ a pretest-posttest design when
there is an extraneous variable.
To study the effect of type of stimulus on memory recall, Hayden presents participants with either an auditory or a visual presentation of a poem. After the presentation, participants are asked to answer several questions about the poem. Hayden has employed which type of experimental design?
Which one of the following accurately describes the advantage of using a pretest?
all of these
In a Latin square design, each condition
all of these
In testing the effect of noise on performance of a task, Ernie tests half of the participants in a cool, comfortable, quiet room, and the other half in a hot, noisy room. Ernie’s failure to control for temperature of the room may result in a(n)
Gabriel measures participants on a variable of interest and rank orders them according to their scores. He then places them in pairs in which each member has approximately the same score as the other member in the pair. The members of each pair are then randomly assigned to the conditions in the experiment. Gabriel’s method of participant assignment is an example of a(n) _____ design.
A researcher wants to know whether wearing certain brands of designer jeans enhances a woman’s perceived physical attractiveness. He asks male participants to attend a campus “fashion show” sponsored by one of the sorority houses. Members of the sorority have volunteered to model various new fashion lines. The first model is wearing a pair of Brand A jeans. The second model is dressed in jeans by Brand B, whereas the third model wears Brand C jeans. After each model leaves the stage, the participants rate her attractiveness on a 10-point scale. What type of design is this?
An investigator wanted to determine whether packaging information affects the way teenagers rate the effectiveness of soap. The same soap was put in three packages: (a) a pink wrapper that says “For Keeping Your Skin Baby Soft,” (b) a red wrapper that says “For Eliminating Acne,” and (c) a white wrapper that says nothing. Each teenager was asked to rub his or her face with dirt and wash with soap A; the same procedure was followed for soaps B and then C. The time it took to get the face clean was recorded each time. What is most likely the intended independent variable?
A researcher wants to know whether wearing sunglasses improves driving performance. If an independent-groups design is used, the researcher would manipulate the variable by
randomly assigning half the drivers to a sunglasses condition and half to a no-sunglasses condition.
To make sure that participants in all conditions of an experiment are equivalent, the researcher may
all of these
A matched-pairs design is used when
a researcher wants to ensure that independent groups are equivalent on some participant characteristic.
McKenna designs a study in which she has two control and two experimental groups. In her design, one control group receives a pretest whereas the other does not, and one experimental group receives a pretest whereas the other does not. McKenna’s design is an example of a _____ design.
Solomon four-group design
At the end of a three-year study, Susan finds that 12 percent of her participants did not take part in the final survey because they moved away. In research terms, Susan is experiencing a _____ problem.
Internal validity means that
the results are valid within the confines of the experimental situation.
Which one of the following accurately describes a disadvantage of using a pretest-posttest design?
A pretest can sensitize the participants to the manipulation.
A confounding variable is devastating to an experimental design because it
allows for possible alternative explanations for the results
A design that has two conditions with the same participants in each condition is a(n) ________ design.
A researcher wants to know whether wearing sunglasses improves driving performance. In a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, presence or absence of sunglasses would be varied by
having half the drivers first drive without sunglasses and then with sunglasses and having the other half first drive with sunglasses and then without sunglasses.
Which one of the following accurately describes an advantage of using a pretest-posttest design over using a posttest-only design? With a pretest-posttest design, one can
demonstrate the equivalence of the groups.
Improvement of performance as a result of repeated exposure to a task is referred to as a _____ effect. However, deterioration of performance as a result of repeated exposure to a task is referred to as a _____ effect.
To help reduce order effects, a researcher should
all of these
A developmental psychologist measures aggressive behavior in a group of second-grade children before and after they view an aggressive cartoon. This design would best represent a(n) _______ design.
In a Solomon four-group design, if there is no effect of the pretest,
The two control groups will not differ from each other on the posttest scores and the two experimental groups will not differ from each other on the posttest scores.
Participants in a concept learning study solve several anagram puzzles over the course of 30 minutes. Even though the puzzles are known to be of equal difficulty, participants solve the puzzles in less and less time as the 30-minute period progressed. This is likely the result of a(n) _____ effect.
When a confound is discovered in an experiment
internal validity is challenged.
A technique that controls statistically for the correlation between a participant variable and the dependent variable in the experiment is
analysis of covariance
Random assignment of half of the participants to group one and the other half to group two is an example of
simple random assignment.
Failure of the experimenter to control some extraneous variable may result in a(n)
Under which of the following circumstances is a matched-pairs design likely to be used?
all of these
A researcher is interested in factors that influence perceptions of others. She presents participants with photographs of female super models and asks them to rate the attractiveness of each woman. She then presents participants with photographs of women of average attractiveness and again asks participants to rate the attractiveness of each woman. Surprisingly, she finds that participants rate the women of average attractiveness much lower than she expected. What effect may be responsible for the lower ratings?
In a _____ design, half of the participants receive only a posttest, and the other half receive both a pretest and a posttest.
Jesse states that in his experiment, he has completely counterbalanced his conditions. What does this mean?
All possible orders of presentation of conditions are presented.
A matched-pairs design involves
matching pairs of participants on a variable and then randomly assigning one member of each pair to each group.
A researcher wants to find out how much fins increase swimming speed. If an independent-groups design is used, the researcher would manipulate the variable by
randomly assigning half the swimmers to the no-fin condition and half to the fin condition.
Madison wants to examine the effect of a defendant’s appearance on judgment of guilt for a crime. She has participants read accounts of a crime that are identical except for the defendant’s appearance. A group of high school students receives a description of an attractive defendant while a group of senior citizens receives a description of an unattractive defendant. Both groups are then asked to rate the defendant’s guilt on a 7-point scale. A major confound in Madison’s experiment is
the age of the participants.
An experiment has internal validity when
only the independent variable could have caused the results.
A graduate student randomly assigns students in a class to taste either Coke or Pepsi. Students rate their liking for the soda on a scale from 1 to 10. This is an example of a ________ design.
In an experimental design, if awareness of a pretest poses a problem, which of the following would a researcher be least likely to do?
tell the participant not to pay attention to the pretest
Which of the following is least important for the internal validity of a study?
use of a pretest
Lauren usually receives excellent ratings of her performance on the basketball court. However, her coach rates her performance in today’s game much lower than normal because her teammates had an exceptionally good game. What effect may be responsible for today’s lower rating?
An investigator wanted to see whether packaging information affects the way teenagers rate the effectiveness of soap. The same soap was put in three packages: (a) a pink wrapper that says “For Keeping Your Skin Baby Soft,” (b) a red wrapper that says “For Eliminating Acne,” and (c) a white wrapper that says nothing. Each teenager was asked to rub his or her face with dirt and wash with soap A; the same procedure was followed for soaps B and then C. The time it took to get the face clean was recorded each time. What factors in addition to the intended independent variable might influence the results?
color of wrapper
Which of the following is not a step in the posttest only design?
implementation of selection differences
Jeff woke up with a headache. He took two orange-flavored aspirins. When he still had the headache an hour later, he then took two cherry-flavored aspirins and his headache was gone in 45 minutes. What factor might have been responsible for alleviating John’s headache?
all of these
The two kinds of order effects are
practice and fatigue effects.
A researcher wants to know whether wearing certain brands of designer jeans enhances a woman’s perceived physical attractiveness. He asks male participants to attend a campus “fashion show” sponsored by one of the sorority houses. Members of the sorority have volunteered to model various new fashion lines. The first model is wearing a pair of Brand A jeans, he second one is wearing a pair of Brand B jeans, and the third is wearing a pair of Brand C jeans. After each model leaves the stage, the participants rate her attractiveness on a 10-point scale. What factor(s) might influence the results?
all of these
Which of the following statements is most accurate? In an experimental design, mortality refers to the
length of time the individual participates.
To control for order effects in a repeated measures design, a researcher should use
A research psychologist has participants serve as their own control group by having them take part in every condition of his study. This experimental approach is an example of a (n)
A researcher wants to examine the effect of room temperature on task performance. She places one group of participants in a room that is 54 degrees, a second group in a room that is 72 degrees, and a third in a room that is 90 degrees. She then measures the amount of time it takes each group to complete an identical task. This design would best represent a(n) _______ design.
An investigator wants to determine whether packaging information affects the way people rate breakfast cereal. The same cereal is put in three packages: (a) a brown box that says, “To start your day off with a smile”; (b) a yellow box that says, “For extra energy all day”; and (c) a white box that says, “Fortified with B complex and iron.” In this study the
package information is confounded with color of the box.
If you cannot use all possible orders in a repeated-measures design, the best alternative is to use
a Latin square
The next three questions are based on this experiment: An investigator wanted to see whether packaging information affects the way teenagers rate the effectiveness of soap. The same soap was put in three packages: (a) a pink wrapper that says “For Keeping Your Skin Baby Soft,” (b) a red wrapper that says “For Eliminating Acne,” and (c) a white wrapper that says nothing. Each teenager was asked to rub his or her face with dirt and wash with soap A; the same procedure was followed for soaps B and then C. The time it took to get the face clean was recorded each time. What type of design is this?