Psych Ethics ch.1-5

_____ is concerned with perspectives of right or proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on the basis of some broader cultural context or religious standard.
a. Ethical conduct
b. community standards
c. Morality
d. Professionalism
C. Morality
Robert runs into the office, unprepared and frustrated because he is late for his appointments and his behavior is:
a. Immoral
b. Illegal
c. Unethical
d. Unprofessional
D. unproffesional
James and Mary were in counseling for marital problems. The counselor decided to meet each partner in an individual session before meeting them as a couple. James confided that he was HIV- positive and was not going to tell his spouse bc she would know that he had been unfaithful. The counselor decided to break confidentiality after he attempts to encourage James to inform his wife of his condition were unsuccessful. The counselor’s action:
a. was illegal and may result in sanctions
b. may be considered unethical, yet the practitioner could be in violation of a legal standard
c. was unethical since confidentiality was broken
d. was ethical and meets the American Counseling Association standard reguarding contagious diseases which states that practioners must report when a client is HIV (+)
B. may be considered unethical, yet the practitioner could be in violation of a legal standard
Elizabeth, a beginning practitioner, in a manner in which she merely acts in compliance with the law and follows min ethical standards. She is at the 1st level of ethical functioning, which is:
a. personal ethics
b. aspiration ethics
c. mandatory ethics
d. basic ethics
C. Mandatory Ethics
The basic purpose of professional codes of ethics to:
a. educate professionals about sound ethical conduct, provided a mechanism for professional accountability and serve as a catalyst for improving practice
b. protect professionals from lawsuits
c. set standards that will be understood and enforced across all cultures
d. enhance the image of the helping professions
a. educate professionals about sound ethical conduct, provided a mechanism for professional accountability and serve as a catalyst for improving practice
A formal complaint was filed against Harry for sexual harassing a female client. A repeat offender, he was previously warned that a major sanction would be imposed if he cont his unethical actions. The ethics committee of the professional association to which he belongs recommended that Harry:
a. be on probation during his entire career
b. resign from his job
c. work w/out supervision on his word that he will not harass another client again
d. be expelled from the organization
d. be expelled from the organization
The counselor who asks the questions “Am I doing what is best for my client?” rather than “Is this situation unethical?” is functioning from which of the following ethical perspectives?
a. principle ethics
b. virtue ethics
c. value ethics
d. practical ethics
B. virtue ethics
Virtuous professionals:
a. are motivated to do what is right bc they feel obligated
b. function w/in their professional code of ethics bc they fear consequences if they do not
c. possess vision and discernment, which involves sensitivity, judgement, and understanding and leads to decisive ethical actions
d. typically focus on moral issues with the goals of solving a particular dilemma
C. Possess vision and discernment, which involves sensitivity, judgement, and understanding and leads to decisive ethical actions
Richard is counseling a male Asian client and is encouraging him to go to college even though he is expected to take care of his aging parents. Richard is violating the following basic moral principle in making ethical decisions:
a. nonmaleficence
b. autonomy
c. beneficence
d. fidelity
a. nonmaleficence
Jan, an incest survivor, is covered for 6 sessions by her insurance. Her counselor is in private practice and knows that Jan needs more sessions. She decides to offer Jan her services pro bono. In making the ethical descision to ensure that her client has = access to services, the counselor is using the ethical decion to ensure that her client has = access to services, the counselor is using the basic moral principle of:
a. fidelity
b. justice
c. beneficence
d. veracity
b. justice
Expulsion or suspension of members from professional associations:
a. is a major sanction
b. cannot be appealed
c. is often reported in the journals of the professional associations
d. all of the above
e. a and c
e. a and c
In an attempt to convince her young client to practice safe sex, Valarie fabricated her own stats and facts about hazards of unprotected sex. In this instance, Valarie violated the principle of:
a. fidelity
b. veracity
c. beneficence
d. justice
b. veracity
Which of the following models of ethical decision making focuses primarily on the social aspects of decision making and redefines the process as being interactive rather than intrapsychic?
a. social construct model
b. transcultural integration model
c. feminist model
d. sociocultural model
a. social construct model
The authors have discovered that many of the issues relevant to beginning professionals
a. resurface and take on diff meanings at various stages in a professional’s life
b. are no longer relevant as they gain clinical experience
c. originated from neurotic complexes
d. are more intense for school counselors as opposed to clinical community counselors and rehabilitation counselors
a. resurface and take on diff meanings at various stages in a professional’s life
The author state their positions throughout the text in order to
a. sway you to adopt their views since they have expertise
b. help you develop your own position on a variety of ethical and professional issues
c. model the correct way of thinking about ethical matters
d. both a and c
b. help you develop your own position on a variety of ethical and professional issues
Why is it imperative for you to become familiar with the guiding principles of the ethics codes and accepted standards of practice of your profession?
a. to receive an A in your ethics course
b. to avoid your malpractice insurance premiums from skyrocketing
c. to protect the welfare of your clients
d. to enhance your persona as a professional
c. to protect the welfare of your clients
Responsible practice requires that you
a. exercise informed, sound, and responsible judgement
b. demonstrate a willingness to consult with colleagues
c. keep yourself up to date through reading and cont education
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
According to the text, which of the following would not be considered a professional mental health worker?
a. practitioner
b. social worker
c. rehab counselor
d. community worker
e. none of the above
e. none of the above
Which of the following statements is not true with regard to specialty guidelines?
a. they are available to cover areas not adequately addressed by the general ethics codes
b. guidelines for psych practice with older adults is one of the APA’s specialty guidelines
c. the APA produced record keeping guidelines
d. the NASW has not yet produced specialty guidelines to supplement their ethics codes
d. the NASW has not yet produced specialty guidelines to supplement their ethics codes
Which of the following statements is true with regard to ethical codes?
a. issues can be handled solely by relying on ethics codes
b. conflicts sometimes emerge within ethics codes as well as among various organizations’ codes
c. ethic codes tend to be proactive rather than reactive
d. codes do not conflict with institutional policies and practices
c. ethic codes tend to be proactive rather than reactive
When practitioners weigh multiple and often competing demands and goals, they must use
a. their attornys to help them working through ethical issues
b. their former advisors as sounding boards
c. their professional judgement
d. common sense
c. their professional judgement
The major duties of regulating boards include which of the following?
a. determing standards for admission into the profession
b. screening applicants applying for certification or licensure
c. regulating the practice of psychotherapy for the public good
d. conducting disciplinary proceeding involving violations of standards of professional conduct as defined by law
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
When a complaint is lodged against a member if a professional organization, the ethics committee
a. launches an investigation and deliberates on the case, eventually reaching a disposition
b. always dismisses specific charges within the complaint
c. imposes sanctions nine times out of ten
d. transfers the case to law enforcement
a. launches an investigation and deliberates on the case, eventually reaching a disposition
When practitioners devote a portion of their professional time and skills to services for which there is no expectation of significant financial return, they are
a. using a sliding scale
b. being financially irresponsible
c. providing pro bono services
d. suffering from a martyr complex
c. providing pro bono services
Autonomy refers to
a. the promotion of self-determination
b. the freedom of clients to be self[-governing within their social and cultural framework
c. the act of increasing client dependency
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
Rhonda is a counselor at a drug and alcohol treatment center. She grew up in an alcoholic home and is not fully aware of the “unfinished bussiness” she has with her parents. She is still angry and resents her parents for having to grow up in an aldcoholic family system. It is most likely that
a. be able to understand her addicted clients through her own childhood experiences
b. examine her unresolved conflicts as she continues to work in the treatment center
c. obstruct the progress of her clients as they attempt to move towards recovery
d. feel comfortable with her clients bc she is familiar with their behavior
c. obstruct the progress of her clients as they attempt to move towards recovery
Ronald directs his clients toward solutions instead of encouraging them to seek alt for themselves. He is likely to have a strong need:
a. for approval
b. to feel a sense of achievement and accomplishment
c. to empower his client
d. to nurture his client
A. for approval
Counselors who have unresolved personal conflicts:
a. need to recognize that there problems may interfere w/the effectiveness and refrain from activities that would harm a client
b. must resolve all their difficulties before counseling others
c. are quite effective bc they know how diff it is to resolve problems
d. need to repress anxiety-provoking issues in their own lives before becoming effective
a. need to recognize that there problems may interfere w/the effectiveness and refrain from activities that would harm a client
_______ is the process whereby clients place past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives onto their therapists.
a. transference
b. countertransference
c. projection
d. mirroring
a. transference
Termination of the therapy process:
a. can be mandated by ethic codes alone
b. is regulated by state law
c. is decided jointly by both the client and the therapist
d. must always be detected by the thrapist
c. is decided jointly by both the client and the therapist
Which of the following therapists behaves might be indicative of a countertransference reaction?
a. overprotecting the client
b. treating the client in benign ways
c. rejecting the client
d. seeking the approval of the client
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Joanne finds herself wanting to solve her clients problems which is similar to the issues her daughter is going through. Joanne gives advice and feels frustrated when her client won’t follow through on her suggestions. Her emotional reactions to her client, which involve her own projections is based on:
a. transference
b. nurturance
c. countertransference
d. caretaking
c. countertransference
When counselors become overly concerned with meeting their own needs or pushing their own personal agendas, their behavior becomes
a. annoying to the client
b. unethical
c. illegal
d. helpful to the client
b. unethical
Sexual or romantic feelings toward a client:
a. are the result of seductive behavior on the part of the client and need to be ignored
b. are an indicator that the client needs to be referred to another counselor
c. are unethical, counter therapeutic, and also illegal in many states
d. do not necessarily mean that the counselor cannot effectively work with the client
e. never occur if the counselor is opening within his or her professional code of ethics
d. do not necessarily mean that the counselor cannot effectively work with the client
Deutsh and Faber found supurisingly similar results in their surveys of therapists’ perceptions of stressful clients’ behavior was most stressful for them:
a. aggression and hostility
b. suicidal statements
c. severely depressed clients
d. premature termination of therapy
e. agitated and anxiety
b. suicidal statements
Martina has been working at a crisis intervention center for 3 yrs and is starting to have nightmares about her work. Despite having a strong work ethic, she dreads her job bc she feels burdened by the lack of power she has in making decisions pertaining to the treatment of her clients. Martina is experiencing:
a. burnout
b. institutional countertransference
c. institutional transference
d. the precursor of mental illness
a. burnout
The responsibility for addressing assessment, remediation, and prevention of counselor impairment lies with:
a. the impaired counselor
b. the ethics committee and licensing board
c. colleagues of the impaired professional
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
Which of the following is not a sign of therapist decay?
a. an absence of boundaries w/ clients
b. accepting of clients w/in 1’s scope of competence
c. living in isolated ways
d. being unwilling to seek professional help when experiencing personal distress
e. none of the above
b. accepting of clients w/in 1’s scope of competence
According to the authors, what makes is “therapeutic persons”?
a. the willingness to live in accordance w/ what we teach
b. completing the coursework in 1’s training program
c. getting 3000 hours of supervised clinical experience
d. both b and c
a. the willingness to live in accordance w/ what we teach
_____ and ______ are the hallmarks of being able to make a diff in the helping professions.
a. self-interest; ambition
b. compassion for others, dedication to serving others
c. good public relations skills; an outgoing personality
d. high verbal reasoning abilities; a high IQ
b. compassion for others, dedication to serving others
Researchers point out that there is _____ relationship between a practitioner’s personal life and his or her professional behavior.
a. no
b. a neg
c. an inverse
d. often a reciprocal and casual
d. often a reciprocal and casual
Which of the following influences the way a clinician carries out his or her professional role?
a. a clinician’s beliefs
b. a clinician’s personal attributes
c. a clinician’s way of living
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
d. all of the above
The authors state that in many ways, therapeutic encounters serve as mirrors in which therapists can see their own lives reflected. As consequence,
a. therapy can become a catalyst for change in the therapist as well as in the client
b. many therapists become narcissistic
c. therapists tend to commit ethical violations stemming from blurred boundaries
d. all therapists are required to participate in their own therapy
a. therapy can become a catalyst for change in the therapist as well as in the client
Tanya seems to meet some of her personal needs through counseling her clients. This is
a. a win/win situation for Tanya ad her clients since it is always a sign of being highly invested in the process when counselors meet their own personal needs through their work
b. acceptable as long as these needs do not assume priority or get in the way of the clients growth
c. never acceptable under any circumstances
d. illegal in 42 states
b. acceptable as long as these needs do not assume priority or get in the way of the clients growth
When we are unaware of our needs and personal dynamics,
a. we can’t harm our clients
b. we are like most clinicans practicing today
c. we are likely to satisfy our own unmet needs or perhaps steer clients away from exploring conflicts that we ourselves fear
d. it is quite possible that we are suffering from a personality disorder
C. we are likely to satisfy our own unmet needs or perhaps steer clients away from exploring conflicts that we ourselves fear
The NAADA Code of Ethics (2008) states “I shall not do for others what they can readily do for themselves but rather facilitates support the doing. Likewise, I shall not insist on doing what i percieve as good w/out reference to what the client percieves as good adn necessary.” This statement speaks directly to the need for
a. client autonomy
b. therapists control
c. malpractice insurance
d. social justice
A. client autonomy
Which of the following statements is true w/ regard to therapists experiencing personal problems and conflicts?
a. if you were expriencing problems, you have no buisness practicing as a therapist
b. psychoanalysts is increasingly being reccommended for trainnes who are exerpriencing countertransference
c. therapists should be aware of their areas of denial and unresolved problems and conflicts
d. therapsits are stronly encouraged to work through their personal issues in supervission
C. therapists should be aware of their areas of denial and unresolved problems and conflicts
Cathy is an eating disorder specialist who has a past history of bulimia. Given her personal experiences w/ dysfunctional eating patients, Cathy
a.therapists should be aware of their areas of denial and unresolved problems and conflicts
b. should abandon her specilization and choose a bew area to specialize in so as to practice ethically
c. should assume that her clients developed their dysfunctional eating patterns for the same reasons that she developed bulima
d. should be very open w/ her clients about her struggles w/ bulimia and tell them her own stories to make them feel more comfortable
A. therapists should be aware of their areas of denial and unresolved problems and conflicts
Informing students prior to entering a training program that self-exploration will be part of their training
a. more than satisfies the requirement for informed consent
b. only min satisfies the requirement for informed consent
c. has little to do w/ informed consent
d. is a scare tactic that many programs use to screen out perspective students who are not serious candidates
B. only min satisfies the requirement for informed consent
Some professionals believe that self-care is a _______ for mental health practitioners.
a. luxury
b. moral imperative
c. legal requirement
d. wast of vulnerable time
B. moral imperative
With respect to values in the counseling process, the authors contend that:
a. it is important that the counselor clarify their values and the ways on which they enter the theraputic relationship
b. counselors can avoid communicating values to their clients by not explicity sharing them
c. it is best to keep values hidden so they won’t contaminate their client’s choices
d. their job is to help clients conform to socially acceptable standards
A. it is important that the counselor clarify their values and the ways on which they enter the theraputic relationship
Mary is seeking abortion counseling from a practitioner who has been actively involved in the pro-life movement. The therapist has extreme discomfort w/ Mary’s values ad doesn’t think that he could maintain objectively. It would be best if he:
a. doesn’t share his values with Mary and work w/in the value system of his clients
b. help Mary to understand his values so she can make a diff decision concerning her pregnancy
c. refers Mary to a therapists who shares her values
d. set firm boundaries w/ Mary on what she can discuss in regards to her pregnancy
C. refers Mary to a therapists who shares her values
____ refers to a personal inclination or desire for a relationship with the transcendent or God.
a. religion
b. spirituality
c. fanaticism
d. dogmatism
B. spirituality
Which of the following statements reflects what spirituality and religion have in common w.in the counseling context
a. they are both ethically appropriate topics to discuss
b. they can play a major part in the client’s life and be a significant source of strength for him or her
c. they are both organized entities that prove the clients with needed structure
d. all of the above
e. both a and b
E. both a and b
Ruth is considering counseling a women who describes an extremely unhappy marriage. Ruth suggests that she consider leaving her husband; the client has a deep spiritual conviction that marriage is for life and is not willing to consider divorce as an option. Ruth attempts to change her client’s viewpoint. In this case, Ruth is:
a. teaching her client to look at neg consequences of her decision
b. exploring the client’s spiritual reason for staying in the marriage
c. imposing her values on the client instead of exploring the client’s reasons for staying in the marriage
d. helping her client to explore healthy options
C. imposing her values on the client instead of exploring the client’s reasons for staying in the marriage
Thomas has full-blown AIDS and has decided to end his life rather than continue to suffer. The counselor he working w/ does not condone rational suicide. In this case, the counselor needs to:
a. refer Thomas to a competent professional who is qualified to assist him
b. learn as much as poss. about the course of Thomas’s illness
c. explore the impact of Thomas’s religious beliefs on making his decision to end his life
d. help Thomas seek medical treatment that will help him cope with his pain
A. refer Thomas to a competent professional who is qualified to assist him
According to the National Association of Social Workers policy on working with end-of life decisions, it would not be appropriate for the professional to:
a. facilitate exploration of alternatives
b. help patients express their thoughts and feelings
c. deliver, supply, or personally participate in the commission of an act of assisted suicide
d. provide info to make an informed choice
e. deal with issues of grief and loss
C. deliver, supply, or personally participate in the commission of an act of assisted suicide
The Death with Dignity Act is law in which state?
a. new york
b. texas
c. oregon
d. none of the above
C. oregon
Research has provided evidence that therapists’ values influence
a. every phrase of psychotherapy
b. every phrase of psychotherapy except for termination
c. only the initial phase of psychotherapy
d. no phase of psychotherapy if it is conducted properly
A. every phrase of psychotherapy
Which of the following statement is most accurate?
a. spiritality and religion tend to fluccuate in importance to Americans
b. Freud believed that religious faith was important in the lives of his patients, which stemmed from his own strong religious beliefs
c. counselors must understand their own spiritual/religious beliefs if they hope to gain an in depth appreaciation of the beliefs of their clients
d. when the clients are searching for meaning in life, it is appropriate for therapists to strongly suggest they seek religion as an answer
C. counselors must understand their own spiritual/religious beliefs if they hope to gain an in depth appreaciation of the beliefs of their clients
According to researchers, which of the following aspects of the therapeutic process are influenced by the therapist’s values?
a. theories of personality and theraputic change
b. assesment stratiges
c. goals of treatment
d. evaluation of therapy outcomes
e. all of the above
E. all of the above
Which of the following well-known psychoanalysts made a decision to end his or her life at the age of 86 in 1990?
a. Bruno Bettelheim
b. Sigmand Freud
c. Anna Freud
d. Caral Jung
A. Bruno Bettelheim
All of the following professional associations except _____ oppose physician-assisted suicide:
a. American Psychiatric Association
b. American Medical Association
c. National Association of Social Workers
d. a and c
C. National Association of Social Workers
The idea that psychotherapy is value neutral is
a. no longer tenable
b. still considered a leg. view by most counseling associations
c. an ideal to which counselors must aspire
d. 1 that is easily attainable
A. no longer tenable
Counseling is ______ preaching, presuasion, and instruction.
a. exactly the same as
b. not synonymous w/
c. very similar to
d. better than
B. not synonymous w/
If the clients are encouraged to change the direction of their values w/out being aware of what they are doing, they are
a. being counseled properly
b. being deprived of self-determination
c. fools
d. intentionally putting themselves in a precarious position
B. being deprived of self-determinatio
Shania is seeking counseling to resolve her feelings about the ending of an extramarital affair. She informs her boyfriend who is married broke up with her and she is very angry about this. She informs her therapists that she plans to contact the wife in order to “ruin” their marriage. The therapist should
a. allow Shania to carry out her plans and deal w/ the consequences of her actions
b. impose her values on Shania in this particular instance since her consequences might be devastating if she carries out her plan
c. discuss alt. options w/ Shania, so that she is aware of some other ways of dealing w/ her anger
d. contact the boyfriend out of her duty to warn
C. discuss alt. options w/ Shania, so that she is aware of some other ways of dealing w/ her anger
Marty believes that premarital sex is morally wrong.He has an agenda to convince his single clients to avoid having sexual intercourse before they are married. This is referred to as
a. value imposition
b. good sense
c. value exploration
d. duty to protect
A. value imposition
Greta has always been a people pleaser and she is now in counseling to make a decision about whether or not to pursue her dream career as an artist or please her family and attend medical school. As her therapists, it is important for you to be aware that
a. nonverbal cues and body language may convey to Greta your beliefs about what decision she should make
b. the methods you use may provide Greta w/ clues about what you value
c. Greta may have a need for your approval and make a decision that she imagines will please you
d. all of the above
D. all of the above
The authors view referrals
a. as the best option when they face a clash of values with their clients
b. as a moral imperative
c. as the last resort
d. both a and b
C. as the last resort
_______ is the appropriate and ethical course of action to take when a client’s needs are outside the scope of your competence.
a. referral
b. privilaged community
c. consultation w/ an attorney
d. termination of services
A. referral
In a study that assessed therapists sexual values for both themselves and their clients, results indicated that they valued which of the following?
a. sex as an expression of love and commitment
b. fidelity and monogamy in marital rel.
c. committed life partnerships
d. all of the above
D. all of the above
From a legal perspective, mental health professionals are expected to exercise “reasonable care” in working w/ clients who are considering abortion, and if they fail to do so, clients can take legal action against them for
a. negligence
b. breach of confidentiality
c. being unreasonable
d. insufficient knowledge
A. negligence
School counselors can discuss the topic of abortion with a student
a. under any circumstances
b. if the circumstances are determined to be unusual
c. if the school board has not adopted a policy forbidding such a discussion
d. only if parents are present
C. if the school board has not adopted a policy forbidding such a discussion
Jim meets w/ a new client who immediately exposes his racist attitudes. Jim would not be advised to
a. explore the origins of the client’s racist attitudes w/ the client
b. confront the client immediately regarding his racist attitudes
c. allow his own feelings to be in the foreground
d. both a and c
D. both a and c
Our _____ is/are the basis of our worldview and possible biases.
a. culture experiences
b. values
c. assumptions
d. all of the above
D. all of the above
_____ counseling is any counseling relationship in which the counselor and the client belong to diff cultural groups, may hold diff assumptions about social reality, and may subscribe to a diff world views.
a. culturally encapsulated
b. diversity-sensitive
c. multicultural
d. transcultural
C. multicultural
The culturally encapsulated counselor is characterized by:
a. defining reality according to the clients reality
b. showing sensitivity to cultural varations amoung individuals
c. evaluating other viewpoints and making attempts to accommodate the behavior of others
d. defining reality according to 1 set of cultural assumptions
D. defining reality according to 1 set of cultural assumptions
A cross-cultural counselor who percieves reality exculsively through the fillters of his or her own life exprences is sad to be culturally:
a. immersed
b. ignorant
c. encapsulated
d. biased
C. encapsulated
Statements such as “Minority groups need to take responsibility for their own predicament” and “in order ti succeed, people need to stop complaining and start working” do not take into account environmental factors. These are examples of:
a. stereotypical beliefs
b. guiding principles for action
c. cultural tolerance
d. challenging culture-bound values
A. stereotypical beliefs
Frank is a Native American college student who is seeking info about his new career choice from a male counselor. The counselor notices that he uses very little eye contact and needs to recognize that Frank:
a. lacks trust about the info he is receiving
b. us unlikely to follow through with his suggestions
c. is likely to view direct eye contact as a lack of respect
d. would be more likely to have direct eye contact if the counselor were a female
C. is likely to view direct eye contact as a lack of respect
Marie is working with a lesbian client who is in dysfunctional relationship w/ another women. She is seeking counseling to sort out her options regarding leaving her emotionally abusive partner. Marie can assist her client by:
a. automatically attributing her client’s problems to her sexual orientation
b. attempting to change the sexual orientation of her client
c. supporting her client’s attempting to leave the abusive relationship, work on her abuse issues, and eventually enter into a positive lesbian relationship
d. encouraging her client to realize how difficult it is in a lesbian relationship
C. supporting her client’s attempting to leave the abusive relationship, work on her abuse issues, and eventually enter into a positive lesbian relationship
It is the authors position that counselors would not work well with diverse populations if they:
a. are open to being challenged and tested
b. are flexible in applying theories to specific situations
c. believe that they are free from any racist attitudes, beliefs, and or feelings
d. are comfortable w/ diff that exist between themselves and their clients
C. believe that they are free from any racist attitudes, beliefs, and or feelings
Denise is a Euro-American social worker who is a former welfare client. A divorcee and mother of 4, she succeeded in complaining her degree and getting off the system in 4 yrs. She is now working in a welfare-to-work program and sets similar goals for her multicultural clients. Denise’s attitude and actions indicate that she:
a. believes in her client’s ability to achieve and live up to her expectations
b. is well intentioned and willing to challenge her clients
c. can serve as a model of what her clients can accomplish w/ their lives- if she could do it, so can her clients
d. is operating out of the majority value system and presuming that her clients have the same goals
D. is operating out of the majority value system and presuming that her clients have the same goals
According to the authors, the 1st step in the process of acquiring multicultural counseling skills in a training program should be that students:
a. take a self-exploratory class to help identity their cultural and ethnic blind spots
b. start a social advocacy campaign and become politically involved on campus
c. free themselves from all racist thoughts, actions and feelings
d. have their value system conform w/ an “acceptable norm”
A. take a self-exploratory class to help identity their cultural and ethnic blind spots
________ is a 3-stage developmental sequence, from multicultural awareness to knowledge and comprehension to skills and applications.
a. cultural-centered counseling
b. multicultural counseling
c. cultural immersion
d. diversity-sensitive counseling
A. cultural-centered counseling
What is/are the reason(s) for the underutilization of mental health services by minority groups?
a. biased nature of the service
b. child care issues
c. transportation challenges
d. all of the above
e. b and c
D. all of the above
Which of the following court cases involved an employee assistance program provider who refused to counsel homosexual clients on the basis of religious beliefs and was eventually terminated by her employer?
a. Jablonski vs. United States
b. Jaffee vs. Redmond
c. Bruff vs. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.
d. Tarasoff vs. Board of Regents of the University of California
C. Bruff vs. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.
Working effectively with cultural diversity in the therapeutic process is
a. a requirement of good ethical practice
b. a skill that some clinicians may choose to develop
c. not related ti ethics, but is related to professionalism
d. is neither related to ethics nor professionalism
A. a requirement of good ethical practice
Cultural issues affect which of the following aspects of the counseling process?
a. only the initial interactions with clients when counselors need to assess how clients are similar to and diff from them
b. all aspects of the counseling process
c. no aspects of the counseling process unless 1 is specifically practicing from a multicultural framework
d. only the termination phrase, since clients may approach endings in ways that are consistent w/ their culture
B. all aspects of the counseling process
Mental health practitioners must _______ their own group as the standard by which to assess appropriate behavior in others.
a. always use
b. often use
c. avoid using
d. be held legally liable for using
C. avoid using
To the extent that counselors are focused on the values of _____ and ______ to variations among groups and individuals, they are at risk for practicing unethically.
a. the dominant culture; insensitive
b. oppressed minority groups; sensitive
c. clients living alternative lifestyles; attuned
d. people of color; sensitive
A. the dominant culture; insensitive
When the term ” culture ” is interpreted broadly, it is associated with
a. a racial or ethnic group
b. gender
c. religion
d. physical capacity or disability
e. all of the above
E. all of the above
In multicultural counseling, 1 must balance the importance of ______ in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.
a. liberal and conservative views
b. western approaches and southern approaches
c. individualism versus collectivism
d. cultural encapsulation and assimilation
C. individualism versus collectivism
_________ refers to individual differences on a # of variables that place clients at risk for discrimination based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity. culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status.
a. diversity
b. multiplurasim
c. discriminatory variables
d. oppression
A. diversity
______ refers to a practitioner’s level of awareness, knowledge, and interpersonal skill when working with individuals from diverse backgrounds.
a. cultural encapsulation
b. multicultural skill-level
c. cultural diversity competence
d. interpersonal cognizance
C. cultural diversity competence
Which of the following ethics codes mention the practitioner’s responsibility to recognize the special needs of diverse client populations?
a. Feminist Therapy Institute’s code of ethics
b. Canadian Counseling Association’s code of ethics
c. Code of Professional Ethics for Rehab Counselors
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
D. All of the above
Oppression has resulted in deep psychological and spiritual pain for persons in diverse groups. This is referred to as
a. an identity crisis
b. soul wounding
c. an injury to the psyche
d. a narcissistic injury
B. soul wounding
The APA has developed a set of speciality guidelines for psychotherapy w/ lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients that prohibit unfair discrimination based on sexual orientation. Which of the areas below are not mentioned in the guidelines?
a. Attitudes toward LGB ppl and sexual orientation issues
b. relationships and family concerns
c. the complex diversity w/in the LGB community
d. the training and edu needed to work effectively w/ this client pop
e. none of the above
E. none of the above
Informed consent generally implies that the person:
a. does not have a capacity to consent
b. verbally gives consent
c. has been persuaded or coerced to sign the consent form
d. has the capacity to consent and has freely, w/out undue influence expressed consent
D. has the capacity to consent and has freely, w/out undue influence expressed consent
______ to give informed consent means that the client has the ability to make rational decisions
a. comprehension of info
b. voluntaries
c. capacity
d. willingness
C. capacity
Written consent forms should not include:
a. a discussion of how managed care system will affect the treatment, if applicable
b. a detailed description of what will occur in therapy and a guarantee that the client will resolve their issues
c. a statement describing the counselor’s theoretical orientation and how this will affect treatment
d. clarification pertaining to fees and charges and procedures for filing for insurance reimbursement
B. a detailed description of what will occur in therapy and a guarantee that the client will resolve their issues
Which of the statements below is true with regard to clients’ belief about the therapeutic process?
a. a discussion of how a managed care system will affect treatment, if applicable
b. a detailed description of what will occur in therapy and a guarantee that the client will resolve their issues
c. a statement describing the counselor’s theoretical orientation and how this will affect treatment
d. clarification pertaining to fees and charges and procedures for filing for insurance reimbursement
D. clarification pertaining to fees and charges and procedures for filing for insurance reimbursement
Most ethical codes specify that therapist should:
a. be avialble to their clients even when they are on vacation
b. inform clients that their records are inaccessible to them
c. inform clients that diagnosis can become a permanent part of their file and have ramifications in terms of cost of insurance, long-term insurability, and employment
d. alter case notes that are damaging to the client if they are subpoenaed into court
C. inform clients that diagnosis can become a permanent part of their file and have ramifications in terms of cost of insurance, long-term insurability, and employment
____ should include a record of client and therapist behavior that is clinically relevant, including interventions used, client responses to treatment strategies, the evolving treatment plan, and any follow-up measures taken.
a. assessments
b. progress notes
c. intakes
d. screenings
B. progress notes
Concerning counseling via the internet, which statement is most accurate?
a. the codes of the major professional organizations offer detailed guidance regarding ethical practices in the use of technology
b. there are both advantages and disadvantages in using internet technology to deliver counseling services
c. most experts agree that what is being currently offered via internet counseling is a form of traditional psychotherapy
d. this form of counseling is not suited to a problem-solving approach
B. there are both advantages and disadvantages in using internet technology to deliver counseling services
Regarding counseling with children and adolescents, informed consent of parents or guardians may not be legally required when a minor is seeking counseling for:
a. dangerous drugs or narcotics
b. sexually transmitted diseases
c. pregnancy and birth control
d. all of the above
D. all of the above
The authors have found that when they attend continuing education workshops on ethics in clinical practice, the emphasis is often on
a. legal matters and risk management
b. ethical aspects of practice
c. addictions counseling
d. both b and c
A. legal matters and risk management
The social policy of de-institutionalization, as it applies to mental health practices, involves the “least restrictive alter” which requires that:
a. voluntary commitment be sought only after less restrictive alter have failed
b. professionals commit clients who are delusional
c. practitioners protect themselves for liability by getting a lawyer
d. treatment be no more hash, hazardous, or intrusive than necessary to achieve therapeutic aims and protect clients and others from physical harm
D. treatment be no more hash, hazardous, or intrusive than necessary to achieve therapeutic aims and protect clients and others from physical harm
The intent of a(n) _________ is to define boundaries and clarify the nature of the basic counseling relationship between the counselor and the client
a. supervision contract
b. informed consent document
c. HIPAA document
d. release of info form
B. informed consent document
Of the following, which is an example of behavior that might leave a mental health practitioner vulnerable to a malpractice suit?
a. used a procedure w/in the realm of accepted professional practice
b. employed a technique that he/she was not trained to use
c. used a procedure to which the client did not respond favorably
d. explained the possible consequences of treatment and the client still wanted to participate in the process
B. employed a technique that he/she was not trained to use
To succeed in a malpractice claim, the plaintiff needs to show that a breech of duty did exist in which:
a. the practitioner failed to foresee the client’s info to commit suicide despite the warning signs that the client was compensating
b. the client failed to get better in spite of reasonable care
c. there was no professional relationship between therapist and client
d. the practitioner failed to provide the appropriate standard of care
e. a and d
E. a and d
Disclosures should be given in
a. plain language in a culturally sensative manner and must be understandable to clients, including minors and ppl w/impaired cognitive functioning
b. elevated language that will impress consumers and give them confidence in the services they are about to recieve
c. writing, which makes it unnecessary to discuss informed consent during sessions
d. several languages since we live in a multicultural society
A. plain language in a culturally sensative manner and must be understandable to clients, including minors and ppl w/impaired cognitive functioning
Joyce was hospitalized as a result of suicide. She tried to call her therapist before taking an overdose of pills, but he could not be reached bc he was on vacation and did not make provisions for a replacement therapist while he was gone. This action constitutes the following type of professional negligence:
a. misdiagnosis
b. client abandonment
c. vicarious liability
d. practicing beyond the scope of competency
B. client abandonment
Inappropriate socialization w/clients, burdening clients w/ a counselor’s problems, and putting clients in awkward business sit are examples of:
a. inappropriate crisis intervention
b. estab. therapeutic practices
c. inappropriate boundaries
d. seeking balance in the counseling relationship
C. inappropriate boundaries
Which of the following would be least likely to lead to a malpractice suit?
a. failure to obtain or document informed consent
b. practicing beyond the scope of competency
c. unhealthy transference relationships
d. engaging in a bartering arrangement w/client
D. engaging in a bartering arrangement w/client
In the following is a safeguard against malpractice accusations:
a. giving free sessions until the client is able to pay
b. never engaging in bartering under any circumstances
c. avoiding a client’s perception of abandonment by not taking time off
d. practicing in specific areas where you are competent
D. practicing in specific areas where you are competent
In the event that a practitioner is sued he/she should:
a. try to resolve the matter directly w/ the client
b. destroy or alter files or reports that may be incriminating
c. enter into personal therapy
d. promptly retain an attorney
D. promptly retain an attorney
_________ can best be viewed as an ongoing process aimed at increasing the range of choices and the responsibility of the client as an active therapeutic partner.
a. diagnosis
b. informed consent
c. documentation
d. case consultations
B. informed consent
__________ are essentially the same as psychotherapy notes. They address the client’ s transference reactions and the therapist’s subjective impressions of the client.
a. process notes
b. progress notes
c. diagnostic notes
d. treatment summary
A. process notes
Managed care contracts often have
a.”gag clauses” that prohibit practitioners from sharing any neg info about managed care polices
b. policies that are inappropriate when applied to health care
c. polices that can be viewed as a restriction of client advocacy and as a measure of intimidation
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
D. All of the above
Fran has decided to start an online counseling practice. Which of the following have the potential to result in unethical behavior?
a. accepting psychotic/seriously disturbed individuals as clients
b. charging fees that may not be covered by insurance companies
c. providing inaccurate diagnoses due to lack of behavioral clues
d. promising confidentiality and privacy
e. all of the above
E. all of the above
Elena, your client of 2 years, has just received the news that she is losing her insurance coverage; however, she recently had a breakthrough in therapy and needs to cont working in her issues. As an ethical therapist, you should
a. refer her to a community mental health center where she can get services at a low cost
b. determine new payment terms so hat Elena can cont working w/ you
c. terminate therapy and give Elna some good book references so she can work through her issues on her own
d. terminate therapy and encourage Elena to look in the yellow pages for a new therapist who will accept a sliding scale arrangement
B. determine new payment terms so hat Elena can cont working w/ you
Samuel has been planning a 2 week vacation to Europe for months. He is a private practitioner and has a caseload of clients who have dependency issues. As an ethical practitioner, Samuel should
a. not inform his clients until a few days before he leaves
b. not go on vacation so as to increase his client’s anxiety levels
c. provide his clients w/ another therapist in case of need
d. bring back a souvenir for each client to show them how important they are to him
C. provides his clients w/ another therapist in case of need
_______ is a sense of identity that stems from common ancestry, history, nationality, religion, and race.
a. ethnicity
b. multiculturalism
c. pluralism
d. commonality
e. none of the above
A. ethnicity
One might argue that taking a __________ perspective not only raises practitioners insanity but encourages them to focus on avoiding risks to themselves rather than focusing earlier I think all applications and the potential risks to clients.
A. Risk management
B. Ethical
C. Pro bono
D. Professional
A.risk management
James is in court facing drug-related charges and his therapist was subpoenaed to testify in court regarding any discriminating against concerning the case. his therapist came to court but refused to answer questions regarding the case or produce James records. the therapist use the following legal contract to protect himself from force disclosure:
A. Confidentiality
B. Privileged communication
C. Client privacy
D. Taking the fifth amendment
C. Client privacy
__________ as a matter of law, refers to the constitutional right of the individual to decide the time, place, manner, and extent of sharing when something others.
A. Self-disclosure
B. Privileged communication
C. Privacy
D. Confidentiality
C. Privacy
It is illegal and unethical for therapist to disclose confidential information when:
A. The client consents to disclosure
B. There is a duty to warn or to protect third parties
C. An emergency exits
D. An employer requests disclosure to determine the mental status of an employee without their consent
E. There is a need to obtain appropriate consultations
D. An employer requests disclosure to determine the mental status of an employee without their consent
Ethical guidelines regarding confidentiality require that counselors do not:
A. Allow clerical assistance to handle confidential information
B. Use client records to consult with experts or peers
C. Use client case studies to teach or write books even when their client’s identities disguised
D. Disclose client information unless there is a clear and imminent danger to the client or others or when the legal requirements demand that confidential information be revealed
D. Disclose client information unless there is a clear and imminent danger to the client or others or when the legal requirements demand that confidential information be revealed
Susan is quite distressed after finding out her husband has been unfaithful and tells her counselor that she is so angry that she feels like killing him. Upon hearing this, the counselor needs to:
a. question Susan to determine whether she is serious about doing physical harm to her husband
b. warn the husband that he is in potential danger
c. commit Susan to a hospital until she can over her anger
d. threaten to terminate services with Susan if she continues to talk about killing her husband
a. question Susan to determine whether she is serious
The California court’s ruling that requires that therapists breach confidentiality in cases where the general welfare and safety of others is involved is a result of the:
a. Bradley Center v. Wessner decision
b. Jablonski v United States decision
c. Tarasoff decision
d. Hedlund v Superior Court decision
c. Tarasoff decision
The law is:
a. not fact specific
b. fact specific
c. synonymous with ethics
d. both a and c
a. not fact specific
____________ in a Supreme court decision ruled that communication between licensed psychotherapists and their clients are privileged and therefore protected from forced disclosure in cases arising under federal law.
a. Bradley Center v. Wessner
b. Jablonski v United States decision
c. Jaffee v Redmond
d. Hedlund v Superior Court decision
C. Jaffee v Redmond
Jolene tells her counselor that she is depressed about the break-up relaionship and “just wishes she could go to sleep and never wake up.” In this case, the counselor needs to:
a. immediately commit Jolene to a psychiatric facility
b. assess if jolene is suicidial and intervene if necessary
c.recognize that her statement is only “cry for help” and should not be taken seriously
d. see if there is any chance for reconcilliation
B. assess if jolene is suicidial and intervene if necessary
The following would be an ineffective way of managing a client’s suicidal ideation:
a. attempt to secure a promise from the client that he or she will not try to commit suicide
b. immediately hospitilize the client
c. be willing to communicate your caring w/out setting limits
d. recognize the limits of your competence and know when and how to refer
c. be willing to communicate your caring w/out setting limits
Two processes that offer safeguards against malpractice liability in suicidal cases are:
a. consultation and documentation
b. assessment and orientation
c. individual therapy and group therapy
d. diagnosis and informed consent
A. consultation and documentation
Schools that recieve federal funding are generally bound by the provisions of the
a. Health Insurane Portability and Accountability
b. Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
c. H1N1 Prevention Act
d. None of the above
b. Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
According to the Tarasoff decision, the therapists does not:
a. need accurately diagnose the client’s tendency to behave in dangerous ways towards others before notifying authorities
b. have a duty to warn the next of kin of suicidal patients
c. have the right to break confidentiality even if the client is a threat to self or others
d. need to be concerned about the liability after notifying authorities of their client’s threat to harm self or others
b. Have a duty to warn the next of kin of suicidal patients
Privillaged communication does not apply in cases of:
a. Clients disclosure of personal and sensitive information
b. Child abuse and neglect
c. Unfaithfulness in one or both partners in couples therapy
d. Legal proceedings where the therapist is asked to produce a client records in court
b. Child abuse and neglect
An African American women was interacting w/her child in a domestic abuse shelter where she is over-heard to say to her child “keep touching that and i’m going to whoop you.” The social worker that heard this statement should:
a. Report from mother to child protective services
b. Tell the mother that she will be taken from a shelter if you can can you to talk to her child that way
c.recognize that what constitutes abuse in one culture may not be viewed as abuse in another culture and not reportable until it is determined that the child is in danger
d. Remove the child from the mothers care and tell the mother can learn how to talk to her child with respect
c. Recognize that what constitutes of abuse in one culture may not be viewed as abuse in another culture and not reportable until it is determined that the child is in danger
A single father reports that he had too much to drink and harshly spanked his 3yr old son when he wouldn’t stop scremining. The father feels terrible about the incident and asks his counselor to get some help for him so that it will never happen again. Acting on the highest level of ethical functioning, the counselor would:
a. Place the child in foster care until the father can learn to deal more constructively with his anger
b. consult with a colleague about referring her client to a treatment center
c. Examine all the factors in special circumstances of this case before acting
d. Immediately report the incident to child protective services in order to protect the child
c. examine all the factors in special circumstances of this case before acting
A counselor working in an AIDS-related case:
a. has a legal duty to warn according to the Tarasoff decision
b. Is obligated to protect all 3rd parties of the threat of HIV transmission in Corning to ethical codes
c. Must report the case to the department of public health
d. Has few legal guidelines to help determine when or how to inform a potential victim of the threat of HIV transmission
d.has few legal guidelines to help determine when or how to inform a potential victim of the threat of HIV transmission
________, which is rooted in a client’s ____________, is at the core of effective therapy.
a. The verbal exchange my thing; right to express himself or herself
b. Confidentiality; right to privacy
c. Latent material; unconscious
d. I’m covering trauma; repressed memories
b. Confidentiality; right to privacy
In the case of disclosing confidentiality info when working w/ an HIV-positive client, several writers state that the therapist has a duty to protect when the following condition exists:
a. The client is engaging in safe sex with a committed partner
b. Clear and immediate danger must exist
c. All potential victims must be warned, even if there have been multiple sexual partners over the years
d. All persons who have exchange needles with the client must be found and warned of potential danger
b.clear and immediate danger must exist
Laws regarding confidentiality in school counseling:
a. Are exactly the same as laws regarding confidentiality in private practice settings
b. Require counselors to make their personal records available and disclose the substance of confidential counseling sessions to parents
c. A and B
d. None of the above
d.none of the above
Which of the following is not identified in the text as a guideline for counselors using the telephone?
a. Do not acknowledge the clients are receiving service
b. Verify that you are actually talking to the intended person when you make or receive calls in which confidentiality confidential information will be discussed
c. After addressing guideline B and ensuring absolute privacy, counselors me speak to their clients as freely as they desire without fear that their conversations will be used in legal proceedings
d.None of the above
c. After addressing guideline B and ensuring absolute privacy, counselors me speak to their clients as freely as they desire without fear that their conversations will be used in legal proceedings
In chapter 6, a 6-step ethical practice model for protecting confidentiality rights that place legal mandates in an ethical context is presented. The 6 steps include all execept:
a. Preparation
b. Tell clients the truth “up front”
c. Obtain truly informed consent before making a disclosure
d. Have your attorney respond to legal request for disclosure
e. Avoid the “avoidable” breaches of confidentiality
d.have your attorney respond to legal request for disclosure
The major type(s) of elder abuse is/are:
a. Financial or material exploitation
b. Sexual abuse
c. Physical abuse
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
In _________ the court expanded the practitiner’s duty to warn thoes in danger to include the circumstance in which a family member communicates to a mental health practitioner a belief that the client posses a risk of grave bodily injury to another person
a. Tarasoff v Board of Regents of the University of California
b. Jaffee v Redmond
c. Ewing v Goldstein
d. Petersen v McDonald
c. Ewing v Goldstein