Psychology Ch.4-6

In a(n) ___________________ view, consciousness is generated by a set of action potentials in the communication among neurons just sufficient to produce awareness.
cognitive neuroscience
When people’s thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and they feel alert, they are generally said to be in a state of
waking consiousness
When under the influence of a stimulant, you are likely to be in a state of
increased alertness.
After taking medication for his back, Todd’s thoughts became fuzzy and disorganized. Todd was in a state of
alerted consciousness.
Which of the following is TRUE about the circadian rhythm?
It is a cycle that takes about a day to complete.
As _____________ accumulate(s) in the body, a person will begin to feel sleepy.
melatonin
As a person relaxes and becomes drowsy, ______________ waves appear.
alpha
Many researches believe that reports of ghostly visions and alien abductions can be explained by ______________ during the first stage of sleep.
hypnogogic images
_____________________ is a rare disorder in which the mechanism that inhibits the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.
REM behavior disorder
Night terrors are experienced
during deep non-REM sleep
The real inquiry into the process of dreaming began by
Freud
People under hypnosis
can be made to forget what happens during the hypnotic session.
For which of the following would hypnosis probably be most effective?
controlling pain
The ________________ of hypnosis suggests that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are playing the role expected of them in that situation.
social-cognitive theory
Just before every test, Juan closes his eyes, relaxes, and visualizes himself passing all of his exam with high scores. Juan appears to be engaging in the practice of:
meditation.
When someone is properly meditating, brain waves change to include
more theta and alpha waves.
Whenever Caroline goes more than a day without drinking, she begins to experience severe headaches, irritability, nausea, cramping, and shaking. Caroline is experiencing symptoms of ______________.
withdrawal
Evelyn smoked cigarettes when she was younger but had no problem quitting. Though ten years have passed since Evelyn has touched a cigarette, every now and then she gets a strong craving to smoke again. Evelyn’s craving is most likely the result of ________________.
psychological dependence
Minor tranzuilizers
are commonly used to treat anxiety.
Depressant drugs derived from the opium poppy are called
narcotics.
___________________ are sometimes used to treat narcolepsy.
Methamphetamines
Alcohol indirectly stimulates the release of ____________, the brains major depressant.
GABA
Which of the following situations best demonstrates waking consciousness?
Orlando carefully calculates his taxes two weeks before taxes are due.
Antwon can’t seem to focus in class today. Though he’s not asleep, his mind appears to be drifting off, leading to thoughts of his girlfriend, his job, and upcoming events of the day. Antwon appears to be in which of the following states of consciousness?
altered
Eventually, everyone must sleep due to our
biological rhythms.
The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by _________________.
the brain
Some instances of automobile accidents have been caused by the driver falling asleep at the wheel, even though the person was certain that he or she had not slept. Which of the following may explain why this happens?
The person was in the N1 stage of sleep.
Melatonin is secreted by the _______________ gland.
pineal
The body is at its lowest level of functioning during
N3 (R & K Stages 3 & 4)
Which of the following is TRUE about REM sleep?
It is when most dreams occur.
Jonah is often a victim of bad dreams, frequently centered around being left at a store or getting lost at an amusement park. He sometimes wakes up from them, and calls for his parents to help him calm down. These episodes take place during REM sleep. Jonah is experiencing
nightmares
Which statement about sleep apnea is TRUE?
The person experiencing sleep apnea may stop breathing for 10 seconds or more.
David often experiences “sleep seizures” during the day. He probably suffers from
narcolepsy.
Freud believed that dreams were a kind of _________________ for his patients.
wish fullfillment
According to researchers, men tend to
have more physical aggression in their dreams than women.
About __________ percent of people are good hypnotic subjects.
40
Archie believes that people who think they are hypnotized are not actually hypnotized at all. In face, they are simply acting out everything that they are being told to do by the hypnotist. Archie’s way of thinking is similar to which of the following theories?
social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
Every night, Pricilla increases her dose of medication, noting that the initial does no longer works. Pricilla seems to have developed
drug tolerance.
Darren uses cocaine recreationally. Darren’s drug of choice is a _____________________.
stimulant
Ecstasy is classified as a
stimulatory hallucinogenic
Both marijuana and hashish contain
cannabinoids.
Smoking marijuana
may cause cardiovascular disease in chronic users.
Research suggest that once people learn something
it is always present somewhere in memory.
Which of the following examples of change demonstrates learning?
Ama slows down her car after seeing a police officer on the side of the road.
While in the store with her little sister, Amber decided to stop and take a look at some jewelry. As soon as she turned her head, her sister disappeared. Though it only took minutes to find her sister, Amber’s fear of losing her little sister again caused her to keep a very close eye on her from that moment on. Amber’s change in behavior demonstrates which of the following?
learning
Which of the following describes change that is due to biology and not experience?
maturation
An unlearned, involuntary response, such as salivating when presented with food, is
a reflex.
A stimulus that has no effect on the desired response is a(n)
neutral stimulus.
Four-year-old Joshua reacts with anxiety to the sound of thunder. A chair slides across the wooden floor, making a sound similar to thunder. Joshua reacts with some slight anxiety. This is an example of
stimulus generalization.
When Pavlov stopped giving the dogs food after the real CS, they stopped salivating to the sound of the ticking. This is caleld
extinction.
In John Watson’s experiment with “Little Albert,” he demonstrated that
human emotional responses could be conditioned.
When children witness other children cry when getting a vaccination, and the witnesses, then cry before the needle even touches them, this is an example of
vicarious conditioning.
Shortly after eating apiece of his great aunt’s famous coconut cake, which he’d had many times, Amad became nauseated. Now, whenever his great aunt offers him a piece of cake, Amad quickly declines. Which of the following concepts best explains Amad’s change in behavior?
conditioned taste aversion
The heart of operant conditioning is the effect of _____________ on behavior.
consequences
Layla’s new puppy keeps chewing the bottoms of her favorite curtains. Now, whenever Layla sees the puppy begin chewing, she turns on a device that makes a continuous loud, annoying sound. She will not turn it off until the puppy stops chewing. Layla is using which technique to change the puppy’s behavior?
negative rienforcment
Marco’s mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco’s mom uses
continuous reinforcement.
Anna’s mother scolds her for lying. Anna’s mother is using
punishment by application.
A police car is a __________ for slowing down.
discriminative stimulus.
Animals’ tendency to revert to genetically controlled patterns is called
instinctive drift.
A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is
applied behavior analysis.
The mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving are known as
cognition.
In Tolman’s study of latent learning, one group of rats was rewarded for getting out of the maze, a second was not rewarded during training trials but was rewarded eventually, and a third group of rats was
not rewarded.
Kohler’s idea of animal insight was controversial because
other researchers, like Thorndike, did not believe that animals demonstrated that trait.
Seligman connects learned helplessness to
depression.
Bandura conducted some of his research to study
possible links between children’s exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior towards others.
Bandura found that consequences
do matter in motivating a person to imitate a model.
A five-year old watches his father dunk a basketball. Since the child is unable to reach the basket in the way his father can, the child cannot learn this behavior by observing because he cannot accomplish the element of
imitation.
Noah is a junior in college and has always been an average student. This semester, he has political science class for which he feels very passionate, and he sees himself pursuing a career in politics. For the first time, he wants to do well so that he can get an “A.” This is an example of which element of observational learning?
desire
Whenever you take a shower in your bathroom at home, the water in the shower turns icy cold just as the toilet in another bathroom is flushed, causing you to cringe. After several experiences of this occurrence, you find that you tend to cringe whenever you hear a toilet flush, even when your’e not in the shower. In this example of classical conditioning, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
the cold water
At the end of his first day of kindergarten and the entire week thereafter, Jeremiah’s teacher exclaimed, “You may all leave” just after the sounding of a loud bell. On the first day of the second week of school, Jeremiah immediately left the room just as the school bell rang, without any notice from his teacher. In this example, what is the conditioned response?
Jeremiah left the room after the bell rang.
For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus must be
distinctive.
_________________ occurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways.
Stimulus discrimination
An example of a conditioned taste aversion is
when coyotes eat sheep meat laced with lithium chloride, get sick, and then stop eating sheep meat.
The heart of operant conditioning is the effect of _________________ on behavior.
consequences
Dorethea eats all of her dinner knowing that afterward she will get a bowl of ice cream. Doretha’s behavior is best explained by what type of learning?
operant conditioning
The behavior of infants and animals can be easily reinforced using
primary reinforcers.
Every time Paul’s neighbor upstairs plays loud music, Paul bangs on his ceiling with a broom and the music stops. Paul’s behavior of banging on the ceiling to get the music to stop is an example of ________________________.
negative reinforcement.
For every 25 boxes of cookies Tammy sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. On what schedule of reinforcement is Tammy being conditioned?
fixed ratio
In most employment situations, people are paid
on a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.
A student in a fourth-grade class keeps talking out of turn, no matter how many times the teacher tells her to stop. Finally, in desperation, the teachers sends the student to the principal’s office. This action of sending the student to the principal’s office is a form of
punishment.
For each day of the week that Tanya is good, she earns a fake dollar from her teacher. By the end of every week, Tanya has the option of using her dollars to buy something from the school store or saving them to buy something at a later time. The issue of fake dollars in response to good behavior is an example of _____________________.
behavior modification
The second group of rats in Tolman’s maze experiment was not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day. Once they started getting reinforcement, the rats
learned to find the exit almost immediately.
Tolman and Kohler were
Gestalt psychologists.
Kohler’s chimpanzee experiment involved
a chimp fitting one stick into another to reach out of his cage for a banana.
In his later studies, Bandura added the condition of _______________ into is studies of children and the Bobo doll.
reward
According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the learner first must
pay attention.
Bandura concluded that there were ____________________________ elements of observational learning.
four
Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?
holding information just long enough to work with it
On the first day of school, all of the students in Mrs. Randall’s class shared their names with one another by standing up and clearly speaking their name to the other students in the classroom. Mrs. Randall encouraged each student to pay careful attention and commit the names to memory, so that students would get to know each other and become friends. Mrs. Randall was steering her students to engage in the process of ____________.
encoding
The ________________________ assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
information-processing model
The parallel distributed processing model
proposes that memory is a simultaneous process that allows people to retrieve many different aspects of a memory all at once.
Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden he thinks, “Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?” As a result of this though, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo’s behavior?
iconic sensory
Jamie has the ability to look quickly at a page in a book, then focus on a blank piece of paper and “read” the words from the image of the page in the book that still linger in his sensory memory. Jamie’s ability is an example of
eidetic imagery
Echoic memory lasts ____________ iconic memory.
about two to four seconds longer than
In spite of the loud music and many conversations at the party, Rachel was able to hear her friend say her name. Rachel’s ability to hear her name regardless of the background noise is an example of
selective attention.
Eve is able to remember her Social Security number by breaking it into three parts: three numbers/two numbers/four numbers. Eve is using the process of
chunking.
Which of the following is a way of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making the information meaningful in some way?
elaborative rehearsal
You walk into a room and know that there’s something you need, but in order to remember it, you have to go back to the room you started in and use your surroundings. This illustrates
the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
____________ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved.
Encoding specificity
Which is an example of a recognition task?
a word-search puzzle
Information that enters long-term memory by automatic encoding
requires little or no effort to retrieve.
People’s memories of September 11, 2001 are best described as
flashbulb memories.
Kevin was in a study room where he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. Later, he was asked if he noticed the man’s curly hair. Kevin was then convinced the the man in the photo had curly hair. This is an example of
the minsinformation effect.
Ebbinghaus found that forgetting
is greater just after learning.
Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said. Manny’s friend expereienced
encoding failure.
Decay is the fading of
a memory trace.
When Diana remodeled her kitchen, she moved the clock from one wall to another. Now every time she enters the kitchen, she first looks at the blank wall do see the time. Diana is expereiencing
proactive interference.
Research suggests that short-term memories are stored in the
prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe.
Quincy had a terrifying experience in which he was attacked by a dog. This memory is most likely stored in the
amygdala.
Ruth was in a car accident that resulted in a head injury. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident.
retrograde amnesia.
Anterograde amnesia can be caused by
a concussion.
The ______________ is derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence.
parallel distributed processing model
Kevin, the school board’s secretary, was asked to save all of the information he recorded from the town meeting so that the school board could refer back to it whenever necessary. Kevin’s saved recording relates best to which step of the process of memory?
storage
Dr. McCrae encourages her students to go beyond just memorizing definitions. She teaches them that if they fully understand the meanings of the concepts covered in class, they will be able to remember them much longer. Dr. McCrae’s lesson to her students appears to be based on which model of memory?
levels-of-processing
You always ask for a window seat whenever you fly because you love looking at the clouds and their shapes as the plane flies above them. They type of sensory memory used when viewing the clouds is __________ memory.
iconic sensory
Jade was asked to participate in an experiment. The experimenter read aloud to her a series of numbers that she was then asked to repeat back to him in the same order. As Jade continued to answer correctly, the lists became longer and longer until she finally couldn’t get the numbers right. The experiment in which Jade was asked to participate involved the use of what memory test?
the digit-span test
In order to remember the short list of groceries her mother gave to her, Denver repeated the list to herself over and over again until she got all of the items from the store that she needed. Denver’s method of memorizing the grocery
maintenance rehearsal
Short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in
auditory form.
George Miller concluded that the capacity of the short-term memory is
from five to nine bits of information.
_______________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the “files” are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion.
Long-term
After Eve had used “elaborative rehearsal” to remember her Social Security number, the information
found its way to her long-term memory.
Once you learn how to tie your shoes, the action becomes part of your
nondeclarative memory.
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called
state-dependent learning.
Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have difficulty. This is
the primacy effect.
The constructive processing view that says that every time a memory is retrieved
it may be altered or revised in some way.
While hypnosis may make it easier to recall some memories, it also
makes it easier to create false memories.
Long-term memories may be stored in the brain but inaccessible because
of interference.
It has been five years since you’ve taken a psychology course and you find yourself back in school taking Introduction to Psychology all over again. Unfortunately, you’re having a difficult time remembering anything that you learned previously. Your forgetting in this situation is most likely due to _______________.
decay.
The case of H.H. shows that the ______________________ is integral in the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
hippocampus
_____________ is the most common type of dementia found in adults and the elderly.
Alzheimer’s
Dana cannot remember anything about the car accident in which she was recently involved, nor can she remember anything that happened during the week prior to the accident. Dana appears to be suffering from _____________________.
retrograde amnesia.
In order for people to be able to tell you how many television they have in their house, the would prpbably use
a mental image.
______________ form as the result of people’s experiences with concepts in the real world.
Natural concepts
Mechanical problem-solving solutions may involved solving by
rote.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding algorithms?
They will always result in a correct solution, if there is a correct solution to be found.
Erik dropped a note under his car seat and couldn’t find it. He looked all through the glove compartment for a flashlight so that he could get a better look under his seat. He later realized he could have just held his cell phone under the seat to help illuminate the area. This is an example of
functional fixedness.
People who believe that aliens have come to earth might disregard evidence that crop circles are human-made. This is an example of
confirmation bias.
Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires
divergent thinking.
Terry exhibits extraordinary musical ability. According to Spearman, this is an example of _______________________ intelligence.
s factor
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are analytical, creative, and
practical.
Binet decided that a key element in testing intelligence was a child’s
standard deviation.
___________________ is a method for comparing mental age and chronological age that was adopted for use with the revised Binet intelligence test.
Stern’s formula
Dovorah has deficits in her cognitive functioning. These limitations were not really recognized until she got to school and her learning difficulties became apparent. As an adult, she is a fairly concrete thinker, although she is capable of living independently with a small amount of regular assistance. Dovorah is probably best described as suffering from _________________ intellectual disability.
mild
According to Goleman, _________________ is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence.
emotional intelligence
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray made the unfounded claim that
intelligence is largely inherited.
According to Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through
their language acquisition device.
“Michael painted the picture” and “the picture was painted by Michael” have the same semantic meaning but different
syntax.
Piaget noted that preschool children spent a great deal of time talking to themselves, even when playing together, and that the “conversations” had nothing to do with the speech of the children around them. He called this process
collective monologue.
Researchers have found that while some animals have demonstrated an ability to use language, none of them have been able to master ____________.
syntax
PET scans show areas of the ________________ being activated during the process of forming an image.
visual cortex
Through the use of fMRI, researchers have found an overlap between brain areas activated during visual mental imagery tasks as compared to
actual tasks involving visual perception.
Whether a whale is a fish or a mammal is an example of a
natural concept.
A(n) _______________ refers to a type of scheme that involves a familiar sequence of activities.
script
Writing a term paper may best be approached by using
subgoals.
The _______________ heuristic is based on one’s estimation of the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples.
availiability
Sabrina’s statistics instructor assigns math homework every week that requires Sabrina to solve mathematical problems using formulas. Sabrina is making use of what method of problem solving to complete her statistics homework?
algorithms
After almost giving up on fixing the loose leg on the table because he couldn’t fine a screwdriver, Aaron was able to fix the table by using a knife that was nearby. Aaron was able to fix the loose leg on the table by overcoming __________________.
functional fixedness.
Which of the following examples best illustrates divergent thinking?
Jennifer makes a bowling game using empty plastic bottles and an orange.
Gardner theorized that there are ____________ types of intelligence.
nine
Keneisha is only 11 years old, but she can answer questions that most 15 year olds can answer. According to Binet, fifteen is Keneisha’s ___________________.
mental age
You are taking the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and come to a question that requires you to recall a mixed list of numbers in correct ascending order. You are being tested for
working memory.
Marjorie took a personality test in April. She took the same test in June and December, receiving a very similar score. This test can be considered
reliable.
Jeremy was diagnosed with lead poisoning at about 4 years of age. As a result of his condition, he has an IQ score of 55, he has trouble doing most things for himself, and he shows a number of deficits in his mental abilities. Jeremy most likely has ___________.
intellectual disability.
In some languages, changing the stress or pitch of certain words or syllables can change its entire meaning. This is referred to as ______________.
intonation
Amelia is 3 years old and is beginning to develop more complex language skills. However, when she’s out in public, she still has trouble knowing when to say what, and what to say to whom. Amelia appears to be having trouble with the _________________ of language.
pragmatics
The idea that the thought processes and concepts within any culture are determined by the words of the culture has come to be known as the ______________.
linguistic relativity hypothesis
In a well-known animal language research study, Kanzi the chimp ____________________________________________.
demonstrated four consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice, and the word yes.
The rattle of a rattlesnake, the growling of an angry dog, and the dancing of honey bees are all examples of ___________________ communication.
instinctual
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with _____________________, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial.
schizophrenia