Psychology Chapter 6: Memory

Psychologists consider memory to be:
an active system
The ______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
hippocampus
The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using
elaborative rehearsal
______ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
selective attention
According to Craik and Lockhard, information that is _____ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
deeply processed.
In the information-processing model, the first-stage of memory is______ memory
sensory
Which of the following best describes Sir Frederick Bartlett’s view of memory?
memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book
A research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:
are often unable to later distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:
what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect’s impact on:
long-term memory storage
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon involves a failure to recall information that seems very close to the surface of conscious. This memory problem:
gets more common as we get older
Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
Emotional reactions stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long term memories
In a study discussed in the textbook that researched the effects of different types of information on memory, subjects viewed a slide presentation of a traffic accident. The actual slide presentation contained a stop sign, but in a written summary of the presentation, the sign was referred to as a yield sign. What were the results of this study?
Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.
Ebbinghaus’s_______ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually.
curve of forgetting.
A(n) ______ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
mnemonist
On the internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how:
the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory
The ______ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
serial position
To help students learn new psychology terms, a professor encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term and to use each one in a sentence. Professor is using which model of memory?
levels-of-processing
Brenda called Mike while he was in the middle of the meeting to ask him to pick up some milk on the way home from work. When mike got home, he didn’t have the milk, and Brenda was angry. Mike may have experienced:
encoding failure
Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from forgetfulness and mental confusion. she was probably experiencing:
senile dementia
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
proactive interference
The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
decay
With Alzheimer’s disease the primary memory problem, at least in the beginning, is_____
anterograde amnesia
An eyewitness was asked to testify in court about her memory of a crime that took place on her street. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who had also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor’s statement, which was different from her own, the accuracy of her memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony. This is an example of:
the misinformation effect
_____ syndrome refers to the creation of inaccurate memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis
false memory
In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. research suggests that after _____, old information is replaced by new information.
a quarter of a second
The____ can be used to explain how rapidly the points on the semantic network can be accessed.
Parallel distributed processing model.
In a room filled with people, where several conversations are going on, you are able to hear your name being spoken. This is:
the cocktail party effect
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems is called:
encoding
To answer the questions in this test, which type of memory recall will you most frequently use?
recognition
Retrograde amnesia is like:
losing a document in a computer due to a power outage
Marcos and his friends enjoy watching football together on Sundays. AFter some of the games are over, Marcos tells his friends that he knew all along who will win the game. Marcos’ belief that he could predict the outcome of some of the games without having been told the winners in advance is an example of
hindsight bias
Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle’s experience illustrates:
the importance of retrieval cues in memory
When asked where he was when the Twin Towers were hit in 2001, Lamont could vividly remember ten years later details related to the time, place, and atmosphere of the occurrence. LAmont’s memory is an example of:
a flashbulb memory
The _____ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
serial position
Marcia dated Davio for several years. They recently broke up and MArcia went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called him Davio. This is an example of:
procative interference
As opposed to ______ memories, ____ memories are easily made conscious
implicit, explicit
Treatments for Alzheimer’s:
can slow but not halt or reverse the course of the disease
The case of H.M. shows that the _____ is integral in the formation of new long-term declarative memories
hippocampus
____ is the most common type of dementia found in adults and the elderly
Alzheimer’s
Visual sensory memory is known as
iconic memory
In the ____ model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain
semantic network
When Charity was introduced to Pebbles, she noted that Pebbles would be easy to remember because it was the same name of her very first puppy. Charity was able to use____ to remember Pebbles’ name
elaborative rehearsal
On the way to the grocery store, James repeats his list to himself–“Bread, milk butter. bread, milk, butter…”James is using:
maintenance rehearsal
Dr. Raime asked his students, “Who was the ‘Father of Psychology’ and why?” Kanye responded, “Wilhelm Wundt, who in 1879 was credited as developing the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig Germany.” The information that Kanye was able to recall reflects which type of long term memory?
Semantic
Short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in:
auditory form
In spite of the loud music and many conversations at the party, Rachel was able to hear her friend say her name. Rachel’s ability to hear her name regardless of the background noise is an example of:
selective attention
In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal”. The results of this study suggest that:
information exists in a kind of framework with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of heirachry
You know the name of the first president of the US without giving it a moment’s thought. this is:
semantic memory
Which of the following memories would be an inadequate illustration of procedural memory?
a. responding to a question on Jeopardy
b. riding a bike
c. brushing teeth
d. driving a car
responding to a question on Jeopardy
Which of the following is a way of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making the information meaningful in some way?
elaborative rehearsal
Long-term memories may be stored in the brain but inaccessible because:
of interference
Decay is the fading of
a memory trace
the _____ is derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence
parallel distributed processing model
Which is an example of a recognition task?
a word-search puzzle
_____ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved
encoding specificity
When given a list of grocery items to remember, Marissa can only recall the last several items on the list. Marissa’s memory lapse is a good illustration of_____.
the regency effect
People’s memories of September 11, 2001 are best described as:
flashbulb memories
You walk into a room and know that there’s something you need, but in order to remember it, you have to go back to the room you started in and use your surroundings. This illustrates
the importance of retrieval cues in memory