Also, a comparison of the methods and their ethical, legal and socio- ultra considerations will be covered. Two Designs Correlation Research Correlation research is considered an effective form of educational and psychological research (Thompson, Diamond, McMillan, Snyder, & Snyder, 2005). The purpose of correlation research is to determine the relations among two or more variables. Information is collected from several variables, and correlation statistical methods are employed to gain further information (Thompson et al. , 2005).
The existence of a correlation does not suggest causation, and there is no manipulation of the variables in correlation research. (Llama & IL, 2013) Experimental Research Experimental research asks the question, what causes something to occur? Sherries, Young, & Daniels (2010) explain experimental research as attempting to define causality; allowing for the control or alteration of one variable’s effect on others. The control is achieved by researcher’s manipulation of independent variables and measurement of dependent variables (Norris, Hogan, & Chocker, 2008).
Experimental design is often referred to as true experimentation or true experiment sign, is considered the “gold standard” in empirical research (Norris et al. , 2008). Sampling When drawing a sample population of a larger population for testing, one is sampling (Sherries et al. , 2010). For a sample to be representative, it is necessary for the sample used to be drawn randomly and representative of the entire population under consideration. A population is a group considered by the researcher from which to draw its conclusions.
Consideration of previous similar studies with common themes and variables may help in choosing an appropriate sampling (Sherries et al. 2010). Being able generalize the data from the sample and apply it to the entire population is dependent on the extent that a sample is fully representative of the population (Norris et al. , 2008). In experimental research, random sampling may be employed. Random sampling is a sampling procedure that allows for each member of the population the opportunity to be chosen that is equal with others in the population (Norris et al. 2008). According to Sherries et al. (2010), it is necessary to have a minimum of 30 participants to establish a successful relationship in the study. In correlation research, a researcher may employ survey research sampling. Surveying is a part of descriptive research that seeks participant’s sentiments, thoughts or inclinations that are relational to the participant’s understanding (Sherries et al. , 2010). This methodology of sampling allows for the collection and correlation of data from one to several points from one survey.
Several different methods of data collection are available to the researcher, including trend studies, longitudinal studies, panel or cohort studies (Sherries et al. , 2010). Comparison of Designs Similarities and Differences Correlative and experimental research are similar in that they are both empirical types of research (Thompson et al. , 2005), describing observed and measured phenomena. The differences between the two types of research are many.
Those using correlative research look for the relations and connections between naturally happening variables. Experimental researchers introduce modifications into the study, then seek to monitor the effects of the modifications (Norris et al. , 2008). Experimental research is the only style that allows for the establishment of a causal allegations within variables (Sherries et al. , 2010). In correlative research, variables are not influenced, but recorded and correlated (Llama & IL, 2013).
Strengths and Weaknesses With the implementation of such a sampling method as a survey, correlation research provides several strengths: the ability to address a wide range of variables, looking at more than one variable at a time and the ability to obtain large sample easily (Thompson et al. , 2005). Issues associated with using correlation research are due to the relationships are not causal (Sherries et al. , 2010). Correlation studies are not at all in depth in any way, looking only at the correlation between variables and the data provided, allowing for a statistical look at the topic (Fields, 2006).
The strength of experimental design lies in the fact that it allows for the strict control of the variables involved in the study and its cause and effect (Sherries et al. , 2010). The limitations of experimental design are the facts that it: is limited in its scope, does not as answer all questions with one study, and human behavior may effect causal effects in a study (Sherries et al. , 2010). Comparison Insights When designing research question at hand, it is essential to consider the type of information you are seeking.
If you do not intend to manipulate the variables involved and only seek to correlate the data from the research, it would be unnecessary to perform experimental research. Understanding what each style of research entails and the kind of data from the outcome of the study is key to choosing the type of research one will do. Doing unnecessary research is time consuming and a waste of resources to not come out with the appropriate style of data a researcher is seeking. Ethical, Legal and Socio-cultural Considerations Researchers must make the purpose of the research, expected duration and procedures of the research known.
Respect and safety for those participating in any style of research is essential and must be ensured. Ethically the practitioner must discuss informed consent and the limits of confidentiality. Ethical consideration by the practitioner in the mental health field must follow the guidelines set according to the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics (2014). The Code of Ethics offers universal principles and precise guidance for most research activities. Legal accountability, when researching with any method, must be considered. Researchers are under obligation to adhere to all applicable state and federal laws.
Make sure to supply all participants with the necessary information about how the research team will be using, storing and securing all data and material gained during the research process and secure the participants legal consent to use said data (Sherries et al. , 2010). Socio-cultural considerations must be applied when considering research sampling and styles. To seek a truly random sample, true data, correlative information and information that is not corrupt, when doing a non-culture related study, it is important to frame the context of the study so not to cause cultural disclosure in any responses.
If you are seeking information specific to a certain culture, then it would be necessary to make appropriate cultural adaptations to the research (Norris et al. , 2008). Conclusion In choosing the appropriate research design, it is necessary to take into consideration more than a hypothesis. The appropriate method is also dependent upon research problems, time and funding, variables, and sampling. Individual research designs each have their strengths and weaknesses.