Quiz #3 Ch. 4

Max Weber originated the concept of life chances, which refers to
the practical opportunity to achieve material success
The aggressive approach to parenting that stresses assertiveness and interactions with adults, and involves filling children’s schedules is called
concerted cultivation
Most sociologists conceptualize social class as
a ladder
Income inequality has increased continuously since the 1960s, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
decrease in personal responsibility and work ethic
A young adult whose parents can provide funds for college, reliable health care, and emotional support stands a better chance of achieving her material goals in life. This is an example of
life chances
The difference between one’s class origin and class destination is known as
social mobility
The tendency of people to be in the same social class throughout their lives is called
class persistence
The practice of setting tax rates so that wealth is redistributed toward the poor is called
progressive taxation
The process of families deciding who will do various chores and duties is an example of
division of labor
Which of the following is NOT true about class identity?
It is stronger in societies with more social mobility.
Which of the following is true about social class and parenting?
Parents usually guide their children to value the traits that will prepare them to stay at the same social class level
Being a member of a family or other exclusive group gives individual members access to all of the resources of that group. Sociologists call these resources
social capital
The process by which labor produces wealth that is not controlled by the laborers but by others, is called
exploitation
A young adult who can provide letters of recommendation from respected community leaders who are friends with his parents is often more likely to get a desired position or admission. This is an example of
social capital
Which of the following is NOT a trend in poverty in the United States?
Homelessness has increased
In the General Social Survey, 8 percent of Americans identify as
lower class
Many children of single parents have a smaller extended family network on which to rely. This causes a reduction in
social capital
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the poverty line as a measure of poverty?
It is not updated frequently enough
Which of the following describes the change in the Gini index scores for the United States in the past 60 years?
It has steadily increased since 1970
Members of the upper class often marry each other, maintaining the deep pool of social capital available to them. This mate selection practice is called
endogamy
The parenting practice of many poor and working-class families, which allows for informal play and a focus on protection and care is called
accomplishment of natural growth
The Gini index is
a measure of inequality
For members of a social class, the everyday interactions, shared economic circumstances, distinctive ways of life, and an awareness of those patterns is known as
class identity
Which of the following facts is true about social mobility?
Until recent decades, social class persistence was mitigated somewhat by estate taxes
In the General Social Survey, 3.2 percent of Americans identify as
upper class
The existence of social inequality indicates that it serves some beneficial purpose for society, according to what point of view?
functionalism
The social class gap between those with Internet access and those without is known as
digital divide
Which of the following is NOT a reason discussed in the text for the gap in “media time” between upper-income families and lower-income families?
stress and demands on time
The disparity in economic status and security between upper and lower classes is called
inequality
Which of the following is NOT true about the poverty line?
It is the level of income below which sociologists define a family or individual as poor
The social process of determining who does what work and for what reward is called
division of labor
Which of the following is NOT true about the government’s role in our social class system?
The amount of government intervention with the poor is higher in the United States than in other developed countries
Poverty increased dramatically during the 2000s because of all of the following, EXCEPT
poor work ethic
Employees of a retail restaurant chain work to generate profit for the corporation, and that wealth is controlled by executives. Conflict theorists call this
exploitation
Which of the following is true about the study of social class?
Most sociologists have given up on precisely defining social classes
The text describes the social class system in the United States as a “common description,” because it is
impossible to define classes specifically
Annette Lareau followed a handful of families in their daily lives in order to understand their
parenting practices
Parents who work in jobs that require creativity and divergent thinking are more likely to raise their children to value
creativity and divergent thinking
In the text’s discussion of poverty in single-parent households, which of the following is NOT one of the types of scarcity mentioned?
education