Review for Mass Comm Final Exam

1939 New York World’s Fair
Here the RCA is the first to demonstrate electrical television. They broadcast an image to show how it worked.
80/20 Rule
Industry common sense:
80% of their product purchases are made by 20% of their consumer base. Those 20% are labeled as LOYALS. There are certain shows that target only the 20% (like Lost)
A Trip to the Moon
1902 – George Melies – Known for its special effects which was one of the trends in early cinema
A.C. Nielsen
Associated with particular households. He paid people in the industry to create ratings. They got this information through people meters (including local), diaries (sweeps), etc. There are roughly 12,000 PM households (1PM is supposed to represent ~9600 households)
CATV
Community Antenna Television – in the 50s – Giant antennas would pick up broadcasts.

Coaxial Cable – runs from the back of the television, all about bandwidth/space, AT&T responsible for reveloping the cable in the 20s
+1935 – 1MHZ cable from NY to Philly
+1944 – 7MHZ cable system

Microwave Transmitters – late 1950s – worked as “line of sight” transmissions but the world is round so the signal ultimately went off into space

Satellite TV – signal no longer travels along the ground, (Telstar in 1962), AT&T and NASA developed this! COMSAT oversees it. OUR FIRST COMMUNICATION SATELLITE

Super Station – WGN (Chicago), WTCG (Atlanta – later TBS), A local station that provided signal to many cable companies so they could include their broadcast on many cable systems

MSO – the “fate of cable” as its developed, everything was local and then it was about MULTI-SYSTEM OPERATORS or single companies that operate all over the country (like COMCAST)

Celluloid
A kind of plastic in the 1870s that film is made of. In 1889 Hannibal Goodwin experimented with it and George Eastman (1980s) worked to create a flexible celluloid.
Censorship
Government – direct – you cannot do that!

Market – pro-government – does this to keep the government happy because they don’t want to get in trouble (parts include complementary copy, ad boycotts, and conglomerate)

Chapter Shows
In television production, any situation comedy or dramatic program whose narrative structure includes self-contained stories that feature a problem, a series of conflicts, and a resolution from week to week (CONTRAST: Serial/Episodic series)
Above the Line
Part of the TV production company known as the “talent”. Includes actors, directors, writers. Typically amounts for 60% of costs for TV shows. They get paid residuals.
Access Channels
In cable television, a tier of non-broadcast channels dedicated to local education, government, and the public
Acquisitions Editor
In the book industry, editors who seek out and sign authors to contracts
Actual Malice
Came from NYT v. Sullivan – Sullivan was head of police and claimed things in the NYT were false and he sues. This set up NEW STANDARDS for PUBLIC and PRIVATE figures. He needed to prove that NYT had THIS – meaning they had knowledge that it was false or reckless disregard for whether it was false or not.

Since Sullivan was a public figure, he had to prove that there was _________ in order for it to be considered libel.

(We private people don’t need to prove this to call it libel)

Actuality Films
Created by the Lumiere brothers Auguste & Louis. They documented reality (aka documentaries) in the 1980s. They captured everyday scenes because they claimed there was something powerful in them. FRENCH and REALISM
Charles Van Doren
Part of the quiz show scandals – The show “21” in 1956 – he kept coming back and winning and this had people tune in to see if he would win again. It turned out that he was fed all the answers and this lead to blame on the sponsors!

Part of the fall of sponsorship.

Clearance Rules
Affiliates are responsible for any programs they broadcast. (The FCC regulates the affiliates)
CNN
Another second choice network started on June 1st, 1980. Just like MTV and HBO – it’s ONLY on cable.

1985 Hostage Crisis – first big spike in their ratings, they tripled because people wanted to know what was happening!

Moment that really established them: Gulf War 1990 – they were being watched by 4.7-10.9 million households (as opposed to 930,000)

Other networks actually started buying into their news feeds (like NBC)

“Economy of Crisis” – They are a first choice network during moments of crisis!

Coaxial Cable
Part of CATV – It runs from the back of your TV and its all about BANDWITH/SPACE, AT&T and Bell were responsible for creating it (started experiments in 1920)

1935 – 1MHZ one from NY to Philly
1944 – 7MHZ system

Color Television
In regulating TV – there was a fight between CBS and the RCA over THIS.

CBS had decided to develop a new camera to film with but the problem was if CBS became standard, it wouldn’t work out. ISSUE OF COMPATIBILITY.

RCA’s new standard was then adopted in 1954.

Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPAnet – the original internet founded in 1958 in response to Sputnik (1957)

Overseen by Dept. of Defence because of Cold War fears.

Formed the IPTO (information processing techniques office) – interconnected university computer centers in the 1960s

This was a distributed communications system about SURVIVABILITY
+ redundancy
+ decentralized

Affiliate Station
Makes decisions – FCC regulates them – NOT OWNED BY NETWORKS

o The station that actually broadcasts the show
o Some include WPXI, KDKA-TV, WTAE-TV in Pittsburgh
o Paid by networks to carry programs!
o Sell local advertising!
• People in Cleveland are seeing a different ad.
o BROADCAST NETWORKS DO NOT OWN THE AFFILIATES (NETWORKS ONLY PROVIDE PROGRAMS)
o Clearance Rules – Affiliates are responsible for any programs they broadcast. (The FCC regulates the affiliates)

Alternative Media Structures
• Direct Tax Support – In this, the idea is that there should be a tax on the people that use media, and that tax should go directly to the broadcasters.
o British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
o No government intermediary – Don’t want the money to go to the government first because if that happens, if the BBC had to take their money from the government – they couldn’t criticize the government. Protect the BBC from the government!

• Intermediary Market Model
o South Korean broadcast television, a good example – put together an organization KOBACO
o Korean Broadcast Advertising Corp.
• Line between advertisers and broadcasting – Protection from the advertisers!
o Controlled contact between advertisers and program producers.
• If you are an advertiser and you want to put an ad on TV. → they aren’t able to choose specifically though!

• Private Trust Model
o Where someone sets up a fund of money that is paying out to a beneficiary.
o Guardian Media Group (UK) – got wealthy people to put money in this trust.
• Listener/Viewer Support
o Asking the viewers for support
o Telethon
o Ex: PBS uses this! May be getting some money from the government, but a lot from this.
• Underwriting
o Lots of public television and radio stations will get this
o You will have a program that will be “underwritten” by “___”
o Public stations can’t advocate a product!
o Criticism: Not that different than advertising…
• Government Subsidy
o Happens with lots of media worldwide and U.S. specific.
o Idea was that we need to have lots of information so the government subsidized magazines
• Government Ownership
o Government pays for it.

Anthology Drama
A radio or television series that presents a different story and a different set of characters in each episode
ARPAnet
the original internet founded in 1958 in response to Sputnik (1957)

Overseen by Dept. of Defence because of Cold War fears.

Formed the IPTO (information processing techniques office) – interconnected university computer centers in the 1960s

This was a distributed communications system about SURVIVABILITY
+ redundancy
+ decentralized

Commission on the Freedom of the Press
In Social Responsibility Model – New Libertarianism (Theory of the Press)

o Consolidation of media threatens the free marketplace of ideas
o Sees the tensions between commercial and public interests
o No longer enough only to protect the press from the government – you also have to protect the press from commercial interests

Common Carriers
A communication or transportation business, such as a phone company or a taxi service, that is required by law to offer service on a first-come, first-serve basis to whoever can pay the rate; such companies do not get involved in content
COMSAT
Oversees satellite transmission in 1960s
Conflict of Interest
o “Both Sides” – Part of being professional is including both sides of an issue
• Good: not just having one side
• Problem: many things don’t just have TWO SIDES. They could have HUNDREDS!
Continuity Editing
when you change scenes and change back – you can’t tell!

Ex: Birth of a Nation (1915) by D.W. Griffith

Astroturf Lobbying
a form of advocacy often in support of a political or corporate agenda designed to give the appearance of a “grassroots” movement.
Auguste Lumiere
formed actuality films with his brother louis – documented reality in the 1980s.
Barrier to Entry
This is the thing that prevents people from going into a particular industry.

Ex: In deficit financing for broadcast television: It’s very difficult to produce a program to put on the air. You have to be able to carry a 4-8million dollar deficit before hand.

Barter Deal
Way that syndication is paid for.

• I give you the program (don’t have to pay upfront) – but we’ll negotiate some percentage of the advertising revenue, and that’s how I’ll be paid.
• The more ads I sell, the more money I’ll get
• ITS LOW RISK FOR THE STATION – MORE RISK FOR THE SYNDICATOR

Basic Cable
Carries cable networks (ESPN, MTV, CNN), superstations (WGN, TBS), and local broadcast stations (KDKA).

Have the option of ordering premium channels (HBO, Cinemax)

Convergence
Part of the Digital World;

o Multiple media in a single form (not possible in an analog format)
o Ex: iPhone – books, music, movies, telephone, television, internet, gaming, camera, compass

Cookies
Information profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by a Web browser and stored on the user’s own computer hard drive
Copy Editors
The people in magazine, newspaper, and book publishing who attend to specific problems in writing such as style, content, and length
Copyright
• Copyright Act of 1976
• “Original works of authorship”
• “Fixed in a tangible form of expression”
o As soon as you record anything, it is copyrighted!
• Act of 1976: Death of the author + 70 years (as of January 1, 1978)
• Complications:
o Fair Use – you CAN use a copyrighted piece of information and you don’t have to pay for it.
• Criticism – If you want to criticize something (like a news story – giving quotes)
• Comment – If you’re talking about them (like a movie review – taking quotes)
• News Reporting – News reporter quotes
• Teaching – Using images and information for teaching purposes
• Research – When you write your papers, you can quote from CDs or websites (can argue that its for research).
• FOUGHT OVER ALL THE TIME
• Giving out articles in class used to be fair use, but now they are squeamish about it.
o Copyright expires = BECOMES Public Domain – you can use and you don’t have to pay. When you make something, you don’t HAVE to copyright – you can make it public domain automatically.
Copyright Act of 1976
• Death of the author + 70 years (how long it lasts)
o As of January 1, 1978
• YOU DON’T HAVE TO SEND IT IN AND REGISTER IT IN ORDER FOR IT TO BE COPYRIGHTED.
Below the Line
Part of Production Company for TV:

• These are often known as THE CREW
o Hang up lights, do the catering, drive things around, they operate cameras
• Paid direct wages for the work they do.
o You get paid based on the hours that you’re there
• This typically amounts to 40% of the total costs for a TV show

Big Six (Motion Pictures)
Hollywood studios that currently rule the commercial film business: Warner Brothers, Paramount, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal, Columbia Pictures, and Disney
Birth of a Nation
(1915) by D.W. Griffith
• One of the first feature length films
• Has a memorable hero – the KKK (clansman)
• MONTAGE – takes it even futher – how can we use it to establish emotion and contribute to the story in various ways
• CONTINUITY EDITING – when you change scenes and change back – you can’t tell!
• Most of the people were white people in black face (extras could have been African American)
Block Booking
An early tactic of movie studios to control exhibition, involving pressuring theater operators to accept marginal films with no stars in order to get access to films with the most popular stars
Block Printing
A printing technique developed by the early Chinese printers, who hand-carved characters and illustrations into a block of wood, applied ink to the block, and then printed copies on multiple sheets of paper
CSNET
Part of the internet:
o 1982
o Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF)
o Connected university computer science departments across the country (still all funded by the government)
Cultural Hybridity
Part of Globalization;
o Different global things all coming together
o Ex: McDonalds in England – there is Indian music, and a lamb mcspicy meal.
o Is this beautiful? The lamb mcspicy?
o Ex: Kill Bill – you see all the Japanese anime, Italian spaghetti western, kung-fu movies → all sorts of interesting relationships in an American movie
Cultural Imperialism
Part of Globalization;
o You don’t physically possess another part of the world – but you are colonizing them with cultural goods. You get them to be part of your empire!
• Interesting reaction: Screen Quota Systems – there is a limit to how many Hollywood movies you can show in a year
• We have to show X hours of OUR movies every year.
D.W. Griffith
o Birth of a Nation (1915)
• One of the first feature length films
• Has a memorable hero – the KKK (clansman)
• MONTAGE – takes it even futher – how can we use it to establish emotion and contribute to the story in various ways
• CONTINUITY EDITING – when you change scenes and change back – you can’t tell!
• Most of the people were white people in black face (extras could have been African American)
Decentralization
o Designed characteristic of the internet
• No center, lots of different places to get on
o Of authorship
• Different from TV (central place to get on – you can’t all of a sudden make your own program)
• Different people can make things and put them out there
• In the end, its CO-CREATED
o Of editorial responsibility
• There is no editor of the internet (there is no clear “on”)
• Ex: Wikipedia – many people participate
Blockbuster
o 1970s
o Jaws 1975
o Star Wars 1977
o First moves to gross over $100 million at the U.S. Box office in their first year
o What can be the next blockbuster movie?
o Films that will appeal to a very large number of people

Need big special effects to sell them around the world!

Blogs
Sites that contain articles in reverse chronological journal-like form, often with reader comments and links to other articles on the Web
Book Challenge
A formal complaint to have a book removed from a public or school library’s collection
Broadband
Data transmission over a fiber-optic cable – a signaling method that handles a wide range of frequencies
Broadcast Network
In Broadcast television economics:

These make their money through advertisements

Deficit Financing
In Broadcast television:

o The production companies make a program, sell it to the network for less than it cost to produce it.
o You hope that you make your money back in SYNDICATION
o The average sitcom: 4-8million dollar deficit by the time it can go into syndication
o The average drama: 12-14million dollar deficit by the time it can go into syndication
o ITS GAMBELING!
o It is a BARRIER TO ENTRY – It’s very difficult to produce a program to put on the air. You have to be able to carry a 4-8million dollar deficit before hand.
o It is for this reason that companies that already have programs on the air can afford to put more on.

Deregulation
In the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (last one was 1934)

Increased the number of things people could own. People could buy many different things.
o PRO-BUSINESS!
o Merger MANIA (AOL & Time Warner)

Design Managers
Publishing industry personnel who work on the look of a book, making decisions about type style, paper, cover design, and layout
Designated Marker Area
In Nielsen households – Using the LPM (local people meter) – An example of THIS is Pittsburgh.
Developmental Editor
In book publishing, the editor who provides authors with feedback, makes suggestions for improvements, and obtains advice from knowledgeable members of the academic community.
Budd Dwyer
Under Ethical Issues:

– Member of the PA House of Representatives
o He shoots himself on live television
o Jan. 22, 1987
o If you were that local station, you really had no choice but to show it.
o Big question here: COMMUNITY STANDARDS.

Buffalo Bill Cody
Wild West Show
o Frontier showman who roped cattle, shot guns, twirled lassos, etc
o 1846 – 1917
o Used his celebrity status as publicity. His brand was Buffalo Bill so whenever he was in public, dressed/acted the part
o Many books and stories were written about him and also added to his celebrity status and thus, gave him even more publicity
o Identity as a brand!
Cable Syndication
Typically it’s like reruns. If a program is on syndication, it’s available for whoever wants to buy and run it.
Cash Deal
• How is syndication paid for? A couple ways… First way:
• Syndicator offers the program to the highest bidder in each market
• Which station in Pittsburgh wants to show the Simpsons? Who ever pays the most.
Digital Communication
• It’s all binary (1,0) (yes, no) (on, off)
o A common language for ALL MEDIA
• Everything that we call digital is made up of 0s and 1s (unlike analog)
Digital Divide
• What is this? Divide between people with access to computers/internet and people who don’t. (Information HAVES and Information HAVE NOTS)
o Not everyone in our country has access to these things that we’re talking about.
• North America (U.S. and Canada)
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 77.4%!
• United States – 77.3%
• Africa
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 10.9%!
o It is increasing quickly, but it’s still low.
• Egypt
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 21.2%!
• Asia
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 21.5%!
• Europe
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 58.4%!
• Middle East
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 29.8%!
• Latin America
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 34.5%!
• Australia/Oceana
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 61.3%!
• THE WORLD
o What percentage of people have access to the internet? 28.7%!!
Digital Video
The production format that is replacing celluloid film and revolutionizing filmmaking because the cameras are more portable and production costs are much less expensive.
Digitization
o What does it mean for this?
• It’s all binary (1,0) (yes, no) (on, off)
o A common language for ALL MEDIA
• Everything that is this is made up of 0s and 1s (unlike analog)
Dilemma of Dispersion
Part of the Information Revolution:
o What do you think are currently the most popular websites?
• Facebook, Google, Wikipedia, Youtube, etc.
o All of them are PORTALS
• They disperse ATTENTION.
• What you see is going to be totally different depending on what you’re looking for.
o Relative to the traditional media (tv, newspapers, etc)
• Tends to DISPERSE rather than FOCUS ATTENTION
o It’s harder to maintain peoples attention if we’re on the internet
Cash Plus
Way syndication is paid for:

• Syndicator retains some advertising spots and charges less money for programs.
• There will be advertisements already in the program (slight disadvantage for the affiliate), but it’s cheaper!
• You could make this deal in a small market (some hicktown in Montana)

Cathode Ray Tube
In early technical history:
o Paves the way for television
o Also seen on your computer monitor…
o Developed in the late 1800s
o Ferdinand Braun responsible
• 1909 he won the noble prize in physics for his developments
o Exciting electrons are emitted in it and you see light on a screen
Dime Novels
Popular books in the US:
o Mid-late 19th century
o Erastus and Irwin Beadle (lots of fighting and killing)
o 1870 – 7 million copies of the Beadle books sold
o One thing that helped with the rise in popular books – technological developments
Direct Response Marketing
Part of the three goals associated with MTV: Convince cable operators to carry the network!

• Instead of going to the cable operators, they went to the people to ask for them by name. (They used ads on other networks to promote)

Direct Tax Support
In this alternative media structure,

The idea is that there should be a tax on the people that use media, and that tax should go directly to the broadcasters.
o British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
o No government intermediary – Don’t want the money to go to the government first because if that happens, if the BBC had to take their money from the government – they couldn’t criticize the government. Protect the BBC from the government!

Diversification
Christopher Yoo – competition and innovation would be beter if internet providers were able to decide if some things should be faster (like if CNN pays more)
Domestic Comedy
Minstrel shows underlied a lot of this in the US
Eadweard Muybridge
“persistence of vision”

this man engaged in a debate, when a horse ran – at any time were the horses feet all off the ground?
• Took a succession of images
• How can we use these still images together to suggest movement
• 1879 “zoopraxiscope” – put in a player that spins it, horse/figure seems to jump
• This was a prerequisite for movies

Economies of Scale
o When you reduce your Long Run Average Cost (average cost per unit when you spread it across the whole production) by producing multiple units. You make them les and less expensive for you.
o High fixed costs + low variable costs = high economy of scale
• Ex: Lemonade stand – the fixed costs low, and variable costs low → this has a very low economy of scale.
• Ex: Hand made quilts expensive because of tons of labor
• Ex: Television – high fixed costs + low variable costs = high economy of scale.
o Barrier to Entry – because of the high fixed costs and also in order to take advantage of those low variable costs, fixed costs increase even more!
o Oligopolistic tendencies – BECAUSE OF OUR COMMERCIAL ECONOMIC STRUCTURE!
o Less diversity in products – the whole point is to sell as many as one thing as you can.
Edward Bernays
• Founder of PR as a field and coins the term Public Relations
• Psychoanalytical ideas from his uncle, Dr. Sigmund Freud
• Wrote several books:
o 1923 – Crystallizing Public Opinion
o 1928 – Propaganda
• Proper-ganda – the good use of propaganda
• Improper-ganda – the bad use of propaganda
o Torches of Freedom
• Working for the George Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, Bernays sent a group of young models to march in the New York City Easter Parade. He then told the press that a group of women’s rights marchers would light “Torches of Freedom”. On his signal, the models lit Lucky Strike cigarettes in front of the eager photographers. The New York Times printed: “Group of Girls Puff at Cigarettes as a Gesture of ‘Freedom'”. This helped to break the taboo against women smoking in public.
Hollywood Ten
These were people accused of being communists and jailed!
o During this time, if you went to a wedding of someone who turned out to be a communist, you would be labeled one too!
• You could be BLACKLISTED. (seen as someone associated with communists) – People would not work with you.
o Ex: Lucile Ball (I Love Lucy – they didn’t arrest her though.)
Hyper Text Markup Language
o A language that would tell computers what to do
HUAC
• Very important for America
• House Un-American Activities Committee
o What were they looking for? Communists!
o Attitude of the time: “I’m kind of particular about who calls me “brother”
• 1947 – Hollywood 10 that were accused of being communists and jailed!
o During this time, if you went to a wedding of someone who turned out to be a communist, you would be labeled one too!
• You could be BLACKLISTED. (seen as someone associated with communists) – People would not work with you.
o Lucile Ball (I Love Lucy – they didn’t arrest her though.)
• Paramount Decision (1948) – ENDS THE GOLDEN AGE OF HOLLYWOOD
o Legal decision that put an end to vertical integration in the movie industry (made the movies, distributed the movies, and owned the venues that played the movies)
o Effected all the studios – THEY HAD TO SELL THEIR THEATERS.
o Ends the golden age because Hollywood had a lot of power because of vertical integration (court thought the amount of power was unfair)
Hypertext
o Embedded links – things you can click on and it takes you somewhere
Iconoscope
In the formation of electrical television in 1923
o Vladimir Zworykin (Russian)
o Developed two important pieces:
• THIS – an early video camera
• The Kinescope – allows you to see the television image
Illuminated Manuscript
hand drawn manuscripts
Edwin S. Porter
Important in turn of the century US film:
o “The Great Train Robbery” (1903)
o Credited with the development of a montage
• Show different small clips that show movement happening over a period of time
• You could cut together things happening at the same time
o Ex: “cuts” from robbery to helping the victim to a party
• IMPORTANT and REVOLUTIONARY at the time
Electrical Television
Created in 1923
o Vladimir Zworykin (Russian)
o Developed two important pieces:
• The Iconoscope – an early video camera
• The Kinescope – allows you to see the television image
o Ends up working closely with RCA
o Philo T. Farnsworth (American)
• When he started working on his first electrical television, he was 16 years old
• He created an image dissector tube (affiliated with image scanning – breaks images into parts)
• Got the first TV patent in 1927
o Electron Scanning
• The concept is not much different (scan and recreate) but electrical television used electrons to do so (they would get excited and get a certain charge)
• How you scan the image and how you recreate the image…
• THIS IS WHAT GAVE US ELECTRICAL TELEVISION
Electron Scanning
• The concept is not much different (scan and recreate) but electrical television used THESE to do so (they would get excited and get a certain charge)
• How you scan the image and how you recreate the image…
• THIS IS WHAT GAVE US ELECTRICAL TELEVISION
Electronic Publishers
Communication businesses, such as broadcasters or cable TV companies, that are entitled to choose what channels or content to carry
E-mail
Developed by Ray Tomlinson in 1971, these are messages sent over the Internet
Enduring Values of Journalism
Herbert Gans “Deciding What’s News…” 1979 – He describes these…
• Ethnocentrism
• Responsible Capitalism
• Small Town Pastoralism
• Individualism
• There are GOOD and BAD things about each.
Image Dissector Tube
Developed by Philo T. Farnsworth (American)
• When he started working on his first electrical television, he was 16 years old
• He created THIS (affiliated with image scanning – breaks images into parts)
• Got the first TV patent in 1927
Improper-ganda
The bad use of propaganda
Indecency
(crosses a community standard)
• Federal Communications Commission (FCC) v. Pacifica Foundation
o Radio station got in trouble in 1978 (US Supreme Court)
o Did an act where he went through and says the 7 ‘wrong words’.
o FCC says you can’t do that! This is a violation of your license and we’ll sanction you.
o FCC won! Don’t have to have prurient interest standard – only that it violates community standards
o BROADCASTING HAS THE MOST LIMITED FIRST AMENDMENT PROTECTION (Less First Amendment rights than average people)
Indirect Payment
In media economics, the financial support of media products by advertisers, who pay for the quantity or quality of audience members that a particular medium attracts
Individualism
Part of the Enduring Values of Journalism as stated by Herbert Gans:
– Emphasize stories about individuals
o Character-centered – makes sense because its interesting to read about someone to identify with or hate
o Neglect of Structural Issues -If we just tell one persons story, it doesn’t tell us much about the rest of the story!
Information Economy
Factor of Globalization:
• Now, moreso than trading goods, we’re trading information (this includes media! Like movies and music – much less tangible)
• Enhanced Global Flow (of goods and people)
• Things like Facebook (can easily be around the world – all you need is internet access)
Episodic Television
the story arch begins and ends in one episode (may have bits that jump across) (typically sitcoms)
E-Publishing
Internet based publishing houses that design and distribute books for comparatively low prices for authors who want to self-publish a title
Erastus and Irwin Beadle
Associated with dime novels (popular in the US) –
o Mid-late 19th century
o Lots of fighting and killing
o 1870 – 7 million copies of the Beadle books sold
o One thing that helped with the rise in popular books – technological developments
Ethical Issues in Journalism
Public Good, Privacy, Community Standards…
Ethnocentrism
An enduring value of journalism listed by Herbert Gans:

One of the ways a story is told
o Through an AMERICAN LENS – we’re looking through everything in an American perspective
• Ex: An Indian-American woman discussing India
• Ex: Japanese Earthquake – Pittsburgh gets the information from the Pittsburgher who was stuck in Japan during the earthquake.
o A common reference
o Middle-American values – not ‘American’ in that it represents what America believes, but it gives us the ‘typical perspective’
o A ‘flattened’ world – emphasizing the differences between their culture and ours – talk about how ‘weird’ they are as opposed to the ‘typical American’

Evergreens
in TV syndication, popular, lucrative, and enduring network reruns, such as the Andy Griffith Show or I Love Lucy
Information Processing Techniques Office
Formed by ARPAnet (the original internet)
• Interconnected university computer centers around the company
• Happened in the late 1960s
Instant Book
In the book industry, a marketing strategy that involves publishing a topical book quickly after a major event occurs
Instant Messaging
a Web feature that enables users to chat with buddies in real time via pop-up windows assigned to each conversation
Intermediary Market Model
An alternative media structure;

o South Korean broadcast television, a good example – put together an organization KOBACO
o Korean Broadcast Advertising Corp.
• Line between advertisers and broadcasting – Protection from the advertisers!
o Controlled contact between advertisers and program producers.
• If you are an advertiser and you want to put an ad on TV. → they aren’t able to choose specifically though!

Internet
a network of networks (a bunch connected to each other as a series of wires)
Internet Protocol Suite
• Directs the packets from node to node
o PAIRED WITH TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
• Verifies the correct transmission of the message
o Available on Most American computers by 1990
Fair Use
As a part of the Copyright act of 1976 –

This states you CAN use a piece of copyrighted information and you don’t have to pay for it if…
+ Criticism
+ Comment
+ News Reporting
+ Teaching
+ Research

Fairness Doctrine
o “Fairness Doctrine”
• 1949 – If you attacked someone, you must give them free time to respond!
• FCC Fred Cook vs. Red Lion WGCB
• Attacks book and guy on the radio
• People tell Fred to respond
o The FCC won!
• The broadcasters had a special responsibility.
o Fairness Doctrine removed in 1987
FCC Analog Television Standard
Gets involved in earlier regulation
• 525-line image scanned at 30 SPF (1941) – BECOMES THE STANDARD
• 1-13 Very High Frequency Channels (1941)
• MOST MARKETS COULD SUPPORT ONLY THREE STATIONS
o Maybe if you’re a big city in an isolated place you could have more
o This worked out well for the big three television networks!
• ALLEN DUMONT – wanted to start his own but he was left out of a lot and the network ended up falling out
• 1948 – 100 television licenses given out
• Any one company could have only 5 “owned and operated”
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation
INDECENCY –
o Radio station got in trouble in 1978 (US Supreme Court)
o Did an act where he went through and says the 7 ‘wrong words’.
o FCC says you can’t do that! This is a violation of your license and we’ll sanction you.
o FCC won! Don’t have to have prurient interest standard – only that it violates community standards
o BROADCASTING HAS THE MOST LIMITED FIRST AMENDMENT PROTECTION (Less First Amendment rights than average people)
Ferdinand Braun
Responsible for the Cathode Ray Tube that paved the way for television in the 1800s.

In 1909 he won the noble prize in physics for his developments

Fiber-Optic Cable
Thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of messages converted to shooting pulses of light along cable wires; these bundles of fiber can carry broadcast channels, telephone signals, and all sorts of digital code
Internet Service Provider
o Ex: Comcast
o Late 80s and Early 90s
• Private companies can sell service to people
o NSFNET decommissioned in 1995 – NO LONGER FUNDED BY THE GOVERNMENT (was for 35 years)
o Internet is now largely privatized
IPTO
Created by ARPAnet – information processing techniques office
• Interconnected university computer centers around the company
• Happened in the late 1960s
Ivy Lee
o His detractors gave him the nickname, “Poison”
o Early 1900s
o Known as the “founder of public relations”.
o Hired by Rockefeller and Standard Oil to increate the popularity and improve the attitude towards Standard Oil
• Ludlow Massacre, 19 people died including women and children, when Standard Oil hired ‘enforcers’ to stop striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914.
• Credited with creating the PR fact sheet, that set out the facts as they happened and made the deaths the fault of the strikers
• This was the event that earned him the name Poison
Kinescope
Electrical Television – 1923
o Vladimir Zworykin (Russian)
o Developed two important pieces:
• The Iconoscope – an early video camera
• THIS – allows you to see the television image
Kinetoscope
• 1880s
• Edison et al.
• Private viewer – there is someone looking in it, and there’s a movie image
KOBACO
An example of the Intermediary Market Model –
• Line between advertisers and broadcasting – Protection from the advertisers!
o Controlled contact between advertisers and program producers.
• If you are an advertiser and you want to put an ad on TV. → they aren’t able to choose specifically though!
Financial Interest and Syndication Rules
o Happening right around 1970s
o Had to do with syndication rights
• If you made a show before THESE, NBC says we will own ALL the rights to your program – so future reruns we will get all the money from it.
o “In House Production”
• THIS ALLOWED you have a limited number of hours per week that networks can OWN.
o Production Companies
• More access to different people to produce things for television
• The networks can no longer force anyone to sell their programs to them.
First Run Syndication
• You can make a program without intention to make any contract with a single network
• Ex: Jerry Springer, Oprah, Wheel of Fortune
• The program is on whatever station in that area that bought it
Fixed Costs
aka Capital Costs:
o Cost for one unit of a product (the first unit)
o How much does it cost to make the first television program or CD?
• Expensive because you have to build the factory to build the product
o Commercial media has very high fixed costs!
Flow
Now the television networks themselves have a certain freedom with multiple advertisers. DESIRE THIS!

Concept from Raymond Williams (1974)
o THIS is the relationship of the things on television
o There are three levels of THIS
• Programs – producers think about how they will put programs together
• Segments – the show is made for the commercials (built into segments to watch the advertisements)
• Images – There are a succession of constant images
o People watch “flow” more so than discrete programs
• His idea is that people will turn on the television for a night and just watch one channel for a night (like NBC for a night)

Four Theories of the Press
Authoritarian Model, Libertarian Model, Social Responsibility Model (“New-libertarianism”), and Soviet-Communist Model (“New-authoritarianism”)
Fox’s Unique Position in the Television Industry
• How is he going to compete against networks that have been around since radio? Poor Rupert Burdock
• FOX is EXEMPTED from the Fin-Syn Rules
o No longer had limited the in-house production of shows.
o FOX could produce and own their own programs – as many as they wanted
• FOX made X-Files – they show was broadcast on the network
• This created a problem for fox: MONEY vs. CONTROL?
o Sell it for as much money as they could get? Or lose some money but have full control?
o They picked CONTROL – they syndicated it with FX.
• David Duchovny (from X-Files) sues because he could have made a lot more money if they sold.
o This was eventually settled but it still ended up on FX.
Laura Mulvey
“Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” (1975)
o In Hollywood film, it looks from the perspective of a man
o If you want, you’re looking as if you’re a man looking at what you’re seeing
o EX: Think about watching a TV Show or Movie – camera pans a woman’s body.
o “The Woman as Image and Man as Bearer of the Look”
o Women are always objectified (objects of a male gaze)
o Camera wants to look at woman
o Ex: Scene from the movie PSYCHO – man looks through peephole, shower scene, etc.
o Compare how many times you see women shower in movies than how many times you see men shower.
o The way you look and even what you’re supposed to look at is set up to see naked women – When you see a naked man, it’s a huge deal.
o “Phallocentrism” – It’s about male power, and this male gaze ends up reinforcing ideas of male power.
o Who ever you are watching a movie, you can’t help but objectify women.
o WOMEN ALSO LEARN HOW TO OBJECTIFY WOMEN AS WELL.
o She think this is problematic because women begin seeing themselves as objects
o Still this case? Perhaps worse now?
o “Destruction of pleasure as a radical weapon” – find ways to challenge what we choose to enjoy.
o Problem is the overemphasis on the male gaze.
Leased Channels
In cable television, channels that allow citizens to buy time for producing programs or presenting their own viewpoints
Libel
• When something is written or said about you that is damaging in some way.
• Trial of John Peter Zenger
• New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
o US Supreme Court, 1964 (NYT – Alabama police – give money to the cause)
• Sullivan was the head of police and he said that some of the things in the advertisement in the NYT that weren’t true. He sues.
o Sets up NEW Different standards for PUBLIC and PRIVATE figures. (ESTABLISHED ACTUAL MALICE STANDARD)
o Needed to prove that NYT had “actual malice’ – with knowledge that it was false or reckless disregard for whether it was false or not
o WE are private people.
o Justice Brennan
o Being private people, we have to prove it’s false, damagers, and negligence. = LIBEL
o Being public figures, you have to prove ^^ AND that there was actual malice. = LIBEL
Limited Competition
A commercial media structure;

You have many producers but few products (the same products)
o Example: Format radio (hearing the exact same songs on the different radio stations)
o Variation is a financial risk!

Linotype
Helped cheapen popular books in the US:
o Faster than a traditional printing press
o 1880s
o Accelerates popular books
o Ottmar Mergenthaler
Listener/Viewer Support
An alternative media structure:
o Asking the viewers for support
o Telethon
o Ex: PBS uses this! May be getting some money from the government, but a lot from this.
Frictions between Public Relations and the Press
• The public agenda is set by the publicist of companies
• Individual issues are addressed at the expense of structural ones
o Example: phishing as a scam is covered and highlights a specific company but the story ‘why isn’t the Internet secure’ which might be the bigger story isn’t covered
• Journalist transparency
o Who works from whom
• Journalist dependency
o Reports rely on the releases for their stories, they get lazy and don’t investigate the truth but relay the information pre-written for them
Fringe Time
In television, the time slot either immediately before the evening’s prime-time schedule (called early _____) or immediately following the local evening news or the network’s late-night talk shows (called late _____)
Gag Orders
Legal restrictions prohibiting the press from releasing preliminary information that might prejudice jury selection
George Eastman
One of the founders of Kodak!

(1890s) – Worked together with Hannibal Goodwin to create a flexible celluloid

Little Three
Those studios that did not own theaters: Columbia, Universal, and United Artists
Lobbying
In government public relations, the process of attempting to influence the voting lawmakers to support a client’s or an organization’s best interest
Local Monopolies
When a single power dominates an industry.
o Rare in the United States
Local Origination
o One of the things the cable companies figured out, was that if they were the central place, they could add channels into their system.
Local People Meter
Part of tool for Nielsen houses:
o Ratings for American Idol are NATIONAL RATINGS
o Now they do local people meters
o Get a group of people just in Pittsburgh to be local meters
o DESIGNATED MARKET AREAS (DMA)
• Pittsburgh is a designated market area
Long Run Average Cost
o Average cost per unit when you spread it across the whole production
George Melies
• A Trip to the Moon (1902) – Special effects (Fantasy)
Geosynchronous Orbit
The orbit in space, 22,300 miles above the earth, where communication satellites traveling at about 6,800 miles per hour can maintain the same position (or “footprint”) above the earth as the planet rotates on its axis
Globalization
Refers to the increasing global connection between people around the world. People are becoming more and more connected.
+ Long history
+ Contemporary Emphasis
+ Cultural Hybridity
+ Cultural Imperialism
Government Censorship
Direct censorship – YOU CANNOT DO THAT!
Guardian Media Group
An example of the Private Trust Model (an alternative media structure)

In the UK – Wealthy people to put money in this trust.

Gutenberg’s Revolution
• 1446
• Helped introduce Protestantism
• There are a LOT MORE BIBLES (they are cheaper and easier to obtain)
• Preservation
• Standardization – all essentially the same!
• Mass production – we have mass produced books
• Scientific Reasoning
o “Typographic man”
o Rationality of form
o Disciplinary knowledge
o Indexical thinking
o Alphabetic thinking
• Knowledge and Power
o The printing press created illiteracy because beforehand, most people never saw books!
Louis Lumiere
The brother of Auguste who created French actuality films in the 1890s.
Magazine Concept
Created by : Sylvester “Pat” Weaver for NBC
• What we need are multiple sponsors! (turn a page, different ad)
o Introduces ADVERTIZING SPOTS
• You can buy a spot so you’re paying for part of the program
Major Cable and DBS Corporations
This is a satellite based service that for a monthly fee downlinks hundreds of satellite channels and services; they began distributing video programming directly to households in 1994
Manuscript Culture
o 400-1400 CE
o “Illuminated manuscripts” – hand drawn manuscripts
o People HAND COPYING BOOKS
o Multi-Media (drawing pictures)
o All unique!
o All MONKS doing this work (monastic culture)
o These were media of the ELITE (takes a very long time)
Market Censorship
Was a pro-government type of censorship that isn’t DIRECT.

Includes things like Complementary Copy, Ad Boycotts, and Conglomerate Censorship

Marketplace of Ideas
Social Responsibility Model (aka “New-libertarianism”) –consolidation of media threatens THIS
Hannibal Goodwin
In 1889, HE experimented with celluloid, a kind of plastic in the 1870s used for film.

Worked with George Eastman (in the 1890s) – to create a flexible celluloid

HBO
• Origins of Pay Television
o Phonevision developed by Zenith in 1949
• Give you a box on your television
• Call up Zenith – you want to subscribe to a show – they would descramble through your phone line.

o Subscription TV (STV, 1963)
• Wired pay television
• Using coaxial cables
• Pay per view television
• Started by PAT WEAVER, President (responsible for getting rid of sponsorship at NBC)
• This was in California
• Watch movies (similar to HBO)
• HOLLYWOOD UPSET! = Proposition 15 – Outlaw pay television (1964) IT PASSED! But the Supreme Court said no.
• What happened as a result – STV had to pay so much money to fight that it just fizzled out anyways.

• November 8, 1972
o Home Box Office Corporation
o Connected with Sterling Manhattan Cable
o Incorporated with Time, Inc.
o It’s supposed to be in NY that this happens, but there are regulations preventing that
o They use connected microwaves broadcasting to Wilkes-Barre, PA

• October 1, 1975
o HBO has their first satellite broadcast
o Ali vs. Frasier “Thrilla in Manila” (boxing match)

• By 1980, HBO had 4.1 million subscribers around the U.S.
• It’s what is called a PREMIUM CHANNEL
o Make revenues from subscriptions
o There is no advertising!
o Gives certain kinds of programs (risqué, drugs, violence…)
• Not about making an advertiser happy! More freedom

Headend
A cable TV system’s computerized nerve center, where TV signals from local broadcast stations and satellites are received, processed, and distributed to area homes
Herbert Gans
In his “Deciding What’s News…” 1979 – He describes the enduring values of journalism:

Ethnocentrism, Responsible Capitalism, Small Town Pastoralism, and Individualism

Herd Journalism
If we don’t get it first, we get it VERY QUICKLY (compared to everyone else)
Hollywood Studio System
• 1910s-1940s (Golden Age of Hollywood)
• Vertical Integration – When you own each step of some process you’re involved in
o Owning PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION and EXHIBITION (all parts of the film process)
• Production – the studio to make the film
• Distribution – the person that distributes the films and advertises
• Exhibition – the theaters
• Contributed to the Golden Age because STUDIOS HAD A LOT OF POWER because they OWNED THEIR OWN THEATERS
• Ultimately the theater is your employee
• They could make crappy movies and good movies
o Make the theaters take them!
• Genres, Stars, Authors
o Establishment of a series of these.
o Just like radio established genres for television, film genres were formulated in the silent age (westerns, love stories, comedies, dramas)
o Star systems – famous actors that people start to look for

• Feature Length Film
o Industry had to figure out how to show multiple films
o 1910s
o Birth of a Nation (1915) by D.W. Griffith
• One of the first feature length films
• Has a memorable hero – the KKK (clansman)
• MONTAGE – takes it even futher – how can we use it to establish emotion and contribute to the story in various ways
• CONTINUITY EDITING – when you change scenes and change back – you can’t tell!
• Most of the people were white people in black face (extras could have been African American)
• Concentration
o Talked about this with magazines and radio
o Main film studios at the time: Paramount, Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, MGM, RKO Keiths – THESE WERE VERTICALLY INTEGRATED!

• Movie Places
o Now especially with feature length films, people start to think going to the movies could be an important cultural experience (FANCY)

• The Talkies
o Sound movies – until now there weren’t REALLY any SILENT film (usually someone playing the piano – score would come with the movie)
• If you went to a really nice theater, there might have been an orchestra
o SYNCHRONOUS SOUND – sound synched to an image
o Vitaphone – How can we put sound with the movie and make it go along with it? This system was a SOUND on DISK system
• You would have a record that had a recording – when you started the movie you would start the record at the same time
o Sound on Film – THING THAT WAS THE REVOLUTION – sound would be on the film itself. Linked to the image that you’re seeing!
o The Jazz Singer (1927) – first SOUND ON FILM movie! (most famous)

Mass Market Paperback Books
Type of book: Sensational themes (romance, celebrity, etc)
Mechanical Television
o Scanning disk
• Paul Nipkow
• 1885
• You have this disk that’s attached to a motor that has holes and it spins – the holes travel down in a spiral and scan the image it has in front of it.
• He would shine a bright light on the persons face and discovered SELENIUM (#34 on periodical table) – gave off an electrical charge when light was shown on it & the charge would be translated back to another scanning disk…
• Ex: Video shown in class… FELIX THE CAT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST IMAGES BROADCAST OVER TV
• What would happen was some of the early mechanical televisions were set up with radio stations – sent over radio – could see image on your home-made disk
• Not ultimately what television we ended up with.
Megaplexes
Movie theater facilities with 14+ screens
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo
o US Supreme Court (1974)
o Tornillo wanted to speak back to the paper
o Supreme court says no, you don’t need to let him.
o NEWS PAPERS HAVE MORE FIRST AMANDMENT RIGHTS
o BROADCAST DIFFERENT THAN PRINT, (read in the book) FOR BROADCASTERS THE FAIRNESS DOCTRINE IS UPHELD. NOT THE NEWSPAPERS
Microprocessors
Miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals, integrating thousands of electronic components into thin strands of silicon along which binary codes travel.
Microwave Transmitter
o In the late 1950s
o They work on a “line of sight” – transmissions were shot out in a straight line.
• Problem? If something got in the way or turns out, or the world is ROUND and this signal was going off into space!
• This was hard to set up over the ocean!
o Used early on but there were lots of places you couldn’t transmit easily from.
Miller v. California
o Supreme Court 1973
o Problem is that he is sending porn and ADVERTISMENTS!
o “The Miller Test” – Makes it difficult to demonstrate that things are obscene. You have to take it AS A WHOLE. (Any artistic, political, or scientific value?)
Monopoly
(These are not just applied to media): When a single power dominates an industry.
o Rare in the United States
o If they exist, they are primarily local (local newspaper/radio station)
Montage
• Edwin S. Porter
o “The Great Train Robbery” (1903)
o The development of THIS
• Show different small clips that show movement happening over a period of time
• You could cut together things happening at the same time
o Ex: “cuts” from robbery to helping the victim to a party
• IMPORTANT and REVOLUTIONARY at the time
Mosaic
Part of the WWW – 1993

a Web Browser – these things that allow communication

Movie Palaces
Ornate, lavish single screen movie theaters that emerged in the 1910s in the US
Printing Press
• 1446
• Helped introduce Protestantism
• There are a LOT MORE BIBLES (they are cheaper and easier to obtain)
• Preservation
• Standardization – all essentially the same!
• Mass production – we have mass produced books
• Scientific Reasoning
o “Typographic man”
o Rationality of form
o Disciplinary knowledge
o Indexical thinking
o Alphabetic thinking
• Knowledge and Power
o THIS created illiteracy because beforehand, most people never saw books!
Prior Restraint
The legal definition of censorship in the United States, which prohibits courts and governments from blocking any publication or speech before it actually occurs
Private Trust Model
o Where someone sets up a fund of money that is paying out to a beneficiary.
o Guardian Media Group (UK) – got wealthy people to put money in this trust.
Production Company
o They are responsible for producing the show.
o Ex: 20th Century Television, Bad Robot
o HOW THEY GET MADE
• 1. Below the line
• These are often known as THE CREW
o Hang up lights, do the catering, drive things around, they operate cameras
• Paid direct wages for the work they do.
o You get paid based on the hours that you’re there
• This typically amounts to 40% of the total costs for a TV show
• 2. Above the line
• Typically known as “the talent”
o Actors, directors, writers
• This typically amounts to 60% of the total costs for a TV show
• They also get paid RESIDUALS
o Like royalties – every time this show is broadcast/sold, the above the line make MORE money.
o DEFICIT FINANCING
• You sell your program for less than it cost to produce it, and you make your money back in syndication.
o Syndication
• Typically production companies make their money with syndication (that’s where the big money is)
Professional Books
o You may not ever see these!
o Books for doctors, plumbers, etc.
o When you join a particular industry, there will be books published FOR YOU
Proper-ganda
The good use of propaganda
MSO
o The fate of cable as its developed
o Everything was local before but eventually it became all about MULTISYSTEM OPERATORS
• Single companies that operate all over the country (like COMCAST)
MTV
• Started August 1st, 1981
o Cable network is only available over cable
o Need to be carried on different cable systems
• Three Goals
o Make connections with the ROCK industry because they needed videos
• Turned out it was very easy to do.
• Rock industry was suffering at the time
• MTV found that if they offered to show the videos, it would be for free.
o Convince cable operators to carry the network
• You needed to get it distributed!
• Launched a campaign of DIRECT RESPONSE MARKETING
• Instead of going to the cable operators, they went to the people to ask for them by name. (They used ads on other networks to promote)
o They needed to sell advertising time
• Unlike HBO, it’s NOT a premium channel.
• President was Robert Pittman
• Introduced ZERO BASED PROGRAMMING
o Ask the audience what they want and make something for them.
o They went to visit people to get information
• Complete “environment” based on the teens to 20something year old viewers. Everything was perfectly fit to demographics.
• An MTV lifestyle.

• Ratings good in the 80s, but then Slide

• The Story Arcs Kill the Video Star
o 1989 – President John Reardon announces move to almost all show format.
• Videos were short, and when they saw one they didn’t like, they would flip to another channel.
o Real World 1992 – Stories that go start to finish that make you want to watch for an hour or so.

• MTV is a “Second Choice” Network
o It’s not the first place you go. (NBC, ABC, FOX)
o The best that they could do is try to grab your attention while you’re going past.

Multiplex
o You can see 15 different movies
o 1970s
o Connected to urban flight (people moving away because they’re nervous about the area)
o The rise of the shopping mall (brings more people)
Must Carry Rules
Rules (1972) – When cable systems were developing, the government said that if you have a cable company in a local community, you have to carry all the local stations on it.
Narrowcasting
Movement from broadcasting to everyone to targeting small niche groups
Prurient Interest
FCC v. Pacifica – FCC won because it didn’t have to have THIS. It only needed to violate community standards.
Public Domain
When copyright expires = becomes THIS – you can use it and you don’t have to pay. When you make something, you don’t HAVE to copyright – you can make it public domain automatically.
Public Journalism
A type of journalism, driven by citizen forums, that goes beyond telling the news to embrace a broader mission of improving the quality of public life; also called “civic”
Public Relation Strategies
Talking points, press releases, VNR, special events, psuedo-events
Public Relations vs. Advertising
Advertising:
o Advertising is paid for – you buy and place the advertisement.
o You control the content directly – you make the ad as you see fit
o Advertisements are partisan – you know they are biased from the company
o Example: Coca-cola ad

Public Relations:
o Any information is placed as the media sees fit – and the placement is not paid for nor controlled.
o “spun” indirectly, that is the company tries to spin the information to get free publicity by the media
o PR is a 3rd party testimonial – other people are endorsing your product so it seems non-partisan or biased
o You want to be talked about.
o Example: Article about Coca-cola is not a paid ad, but viewers hear/see your company name in the news!
o There is an air of objectivity; again, it looks as though the media is talking about YOU.
Public Relations is the quest for free media

Public Service Announcements
Reports or announcements, carried free by radio and TV stations, that promote government programs, educational projects, voluntary agencies, or social reform
National Television Systems Committee
The first group responsible for thinking about TV in the 1930s
Net Neutrality
Very interesting debate – Columbia Law School Professor Tim Woo sides with THIS and thinks…
o “Aspires to treat all platforms equally”
o The internet should treat everyone’s site and information the same!!
• No difference in speed of that information (like electricity! It doesn’t change)
o USED TO BE LIKE THIS
Network Era
Part of the fall of sponsorship:

Now the networks themselves have a certain freedom with multiple advertisers.

New York Times v. Sullivan
o US Supreme Court, 1964 (NYT – Alabama police – give money to the cause)
• Sullivan was the head of police and he said that some of the things in the advertisement in the NYT that weren’t true. He sues.
o Sets up NEW Different standards for PUBLIC and PRIVATE figures. (ESTABLISHED ACTUAL MALICE STANDARD)
o Needed to prove that NYT had “actual malice’ – with knowledge that it was false or reckless disregard for whether it was false or not
o WE are private people.
o Justice Brennan
o Being private people, we have to prove it’s false, damagers, and negligence. = LIBEL
o Being public figures, you have to prove ^^ AND that there was actual malice. = LIBEL
Newsworthiness
• Timeliness – Something that is happening RIGHT NOW. Is it current?
• Prominence – Lots of people know about it
• Human Interest – Things that will make us feel good/VERY EMOTIONAL
• Consequence – Whatever this decision is, it will have an important outcome
• Usefulness – This is information that will be useful in some way (Ex: the weather – do I need to put a coat on?)
• Novelty – Something unique, unusual, weird, different, not expectant.
Niche Marketing
Something that lead toward narrowcasting in the 90’s
• Because of space and syndication allowances, programs could experiment more with THIS
• Ex: X Files – Started as a sci-fi alien police show. People didn’t expect it to do well. It was on FOX and didn’t get good ratings. BUT it did well in syndication eventually! (Same with Buffy the Vampire Slayer)
Public Television
Associated with UHF channels & Just like radio debates with commercial television,

Has one nonprofit channel for each nonprofit station for every four commercial licenses

Pulp Fiction
An example of a Miramax “Independent” (owned by Disney)
Qualified Privilege
A legal right allowing journalists to report judicial or legislative proceedings even though the public statements being reported by be libelous
Quiz Show Scandal
Contributed to the downfall of sponsorship:

Very popular in the 1950s
o The $64,000 Question (1955)
o 21 (1956) – Charles Van Doren – kept coming back and winning and winning (will he keep winning?) (good drama)
• It came out that he KNEW the answers
o Became “the sponsor’s fault”

Rating
is actually a fairly simple mathematical formula
• Households tuned into a television program (could be American Idol) divided by all households with television = percentage
• We’re not talking about people, we’re talking about HOUSEHOLDS.
• There are currently 115.9 million households with a television in the US. (one million more than last year)
• 1 ratings point (1 percentage point) = 1,159,000 households…
• ADVERTISERS CARE MOST ABOUT THIS
Red Lion Broadcasting Co v. FCC
o US Supreme Court (1969)
o “Fairness Doctrine”
• 1949 – If you attacked someone, you must give them free time to respond!
• FCC Fred Cook vs. Red Lion WGCB
• Attacks book and guy on the radio
• People tell Fred to respond
o The FCC won!
• The broadcasters had a special responsibility.
o Fairness Doctrine removed in 1987
Nickelodeon
o Urbanization – increasing number in cities – form of entertainment for the people
o Immigration – relatively affordable entertainment for these groups
o Mass Entertainment – the cultural critics HATED movies because they were decadent and over stimulating and anyone could go to them
o EX: YOU COULD SEE A BOXING MATCH!

Things the theater thought working-class immigrants wanted to watch

James Corbett vs. Bob Fitzsimmons (1897)

NSFNET
Stage of the internet:
o Mid to late 1980s
o Connects most universities in the United States
o Funded by the NSF (thought there was something worth while about extending this internet)
O&O
TV stations “owned and operated” by networks
Obscenity
• Roth v. United States
o First important case in obscenity law
o Supreme Court 1957
o Roth had mail-order business with pornographic material
• Accused of obscenity because it was through the mail
o “OBSCENITY ISN’T PROTECTED BY THE 1ST AMENDMENT”
• Miller v. California
o Supreme Court 1973
o Problem is that he is sending porn and ADVERTISMENTS!
o “The Miller Test” – Makes it difficult to demonstrate that things are obscene. You have to take it AS A WHOLE. (Any artistic, political, or scientific value?)
Off-Network Syndication
Reruns are THIS: It’s available for ANYONE to pay to run.
Offset Lithography
A technology that enabled books to be printed from photographic plates rather than metal casts, reducing the cost of color and illustrations and eventually permitting computers to perform typesetting
Red Scare
o Senator Joseph McCarthy – COMMUNISM
o The concerns for communism were there in movies and TV, too.
Reference Books
Dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, and other reference manuals related to particular professions or trades
Reporting Rituals
Journalists focusing on the present, relying on experts, balancing story conflict, acting as adversaries
Repurposing
Syndication was a type of THIS but now its all the other things we could do to make money.

1. DVD
2. Online Viewing
WRITERS GUILD OF AMERICA STRIKE 2007 – recognized these new things, and before this, there were no residuals for online and dvd viewing!
3. Mobisodes – (Ex: Lost)

Serial programs are good for this!

Residuals
Like royalties – every time this show is broadcast/sold, the above the line make MORE money.

These are paid to “above the line” members of a production company

Oligopoly
It’s a few companies dominating an industry together
o Much more common in United States media
o When we think about television: Disney, TimeWarner, CBS, Viacom, Comcast, News Corporation
Open Source Software
Non-commercial software shared freely and developed collectively on the Internet
Opinion and Fair Comment
According to the Copyright Act of 1976, it is FAIR USE if you engage the material in the sort of way where you are talking about the material (like in a movie review – taking quotes from the source)
P.T. Barnum
o “There’s a sucker born every minute!”
o Founder of the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and _______ & Bailey Circus and was the emcee of the Freak Show.
o Great at creating news so that people would come out and see the show
• Feejee Mermaid (1842) – head of a monkey with the body of a fish.
• A letter or story would be leaked to a town to discuss the Fiji mermaid and that it would be in the circus coming to the town so the media would run the story.
• Another letter or leak would talk about the mermaid being a fake.
• _______ sent or leaked both stories! People would pay to see the Fiji mermaid…and then when ______ leaked the truth, they would come back to see the hoax and how it was done.
Packet Switching
o What happens with the internet – you send a message and its broken down into “bits” of information or “smaller packets” and those packets are send from host to host SEPERATELY.
o Through redundant “nodes” – more places where a message could travel to
o They are reassembled at their destination.
o You can have multiple users on these lines at the same time. (more like cell phones than landlines)
Paper
Papyrus – parchment – the codex – paper from cotton and linen – manuscript culture…
Responsible Capitalism
This is an enduring value of journalism:

Journalists tend to celebrate business and business practice by talking about how good they are
o Little critique
o You don’t bite the hand that feeds you! The newspapers are being paid by businesses (advertisements)

Rich Get Richer Effect
Part of the Search Engine Bias:
• Search something on Google – something comes up at the top (some of those things are paid for)
• The first one is almost always Wikipedia!
• How does Google decide what to put at the top?
• NUMBER OF LINKS – How many links are there to this site? The more links, the more popular the website is, so we will put the most links at the top!
• If you look over time, those sites that have a lot of links, they end up with MORE LINKS.
• Wikipedia is up at the top because a lot of people use it and link it. (NOT BECAUSE IT’S THE BEST, BUT BECAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE LINK TO IT)
Right to Privacy
An ethical issue associated with journalism:

o Institutional
o Individual
o Most of the time, journalists INVADE people’s ______. Is the _______ even more important than the public’s right to know?

Roth v. United States
A case regarding obscenity:
o First important case in obscenity law
o Supreme Court 1957
o Roth had mail-order business with pornographic material
• Accused of obscenity because it was through the mail
o “OBSCENITY ISN’T PROTECTED BY THE 1ST AMENDMENT”
Screen Quota System
As a reaction to cultural imperialism:

There is a limit to how many Hollywood movies you can show in a year
• We have to show X hours of OUR movies every year.

Papyrus
o Made from plant reeds
o in 2700 BCE
o Paper that we would write on
Paramount Decision
(1948) – ENDS THE GOLDEN AGE OF HOLLYWOOD
o Legal decision that put an end to vertical integration in the movie industry (made the movies, distributed the movies, and owned the venues that played the movies)
o Effected all the studios – THEY HAD TO SELL THEIR THEATERS.
o Ends the golden age because Hollywood had a lot of power because of vertical integration (court thought the amount of power was unfair)
Parchment
o Treated animal skin (typically calf, sheep, or goat) you could write on
Paul Nipkow
Associated with the scanning disk for Mechanical Television

• 1885
• You have this disk that’s attached to a motor that has holes and it spins – the holes travel down in a spiral and scan the image it has in front of it.
• He would shine a bright light on the persons face and discovered SELENIUM (#34 on periodical table) – gave off an electrical charge when light was shown on it & the charge would be translated back to another scanning disk…
• Ex: Video shown in class… FELIX THE CAT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST IMAGES BROADCAST OVER TV
• What would happen was some of the early mechanical televisions were set up with radio stations – sent over radio – could see image on your home-made disk
• Not ultimately what television we ended up with.

People Meter
Part of the Nielsen households:
o Watching computers, televisions, etc.
o There are 12,000 PM households – supposed to represent:
o 115.9 million total households with television.
o If you don’t have a meter, you don’t count.
o 1 of these = 9,658 National Households
Persistence of Vision
o If you show still images in a rapid enough succession, they appear to move. This is movies!
o Peter Mark Roget 1824 discovered this idea/published a paper
o Eadweard Muybridge – engaged in a debate, when a horse ran – at any time were the horses feet all off the ground?
• Took a succession of images
• How can we use these still images together to suggest movement
• 1879 “zoopraxiscope” – put in a player that spins it, horse/figure seems to jump
• This was a prerequisite for movies
Search Engine Bias
o Rich Get Richer Effect
• Search something on Google – something comes up at the top (some of those things are paid for)
• The first one is almost always Wikipedia!
• How does Google decide what to put at the top?
• NUMBER OF LINKS – How many links are there to this site? The more links, the more popular the website is, so we will put the most links at the top!
• If you look over time, those sites that have a lot of links, they end up with MORE LINKS.
• Wikipedia is up at the top because a lot of people use it and link it. (NOT BECAUSE IT’S THE BEST, BUT BECAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE LINK TO IT)
Second Choice Network
o It’s not the first place you go. (Ex: NBC, ABC, FOX, MTV)
o The best they could do is try to grab your attention while you’re going past their channel
Selenium
Associated with Paul Nipkow (1885) and the Scanning Disk (for Mechanical Television)

This gave off an electrical charge when light was shown on it & the charge would be translated back to another scanning disk…

Ex: Video shown in class… FELIX THE CAT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST IMAGES BROADCAST OVER TV

Serial Television
Stories that go over multiple episodes/seasons (typically dramas) – Part of a movement that happened in television in the 90s.
Peter Mark Roget
Discovered the ‘Persistence of Vision’ idea in 1824:

If you show still images in a rapid enough succession, they appear to move. This is movies!

Philo T. Farnswarth
An American
• When he started working on his first electrical television, he was 16 years old
• He created an image dissector tube (affiliated with image scanning – breaks images into parts – Electrical television)
• Got the first TV patent in 1927
Phishing
A way to steal information via the Internet – aka – The activity of defrauding an online account holder of financial information by posing as a legitimate company
Phonevision
Part of the Origins of Pay Television: THIS was developed by Zenith in 1949

Give you a box on your television & you would call up Zenith if you wanted to subscribe to a show – they would then descramble the show through your phone line.

Pre-History of Movies
Persistence of vision, celluloid, lighting, precision machinery (sprokets), product of the Industrial Revolution, previously technological sources – now cultural sources
Prelude to War
Part of the Office of War Information’s propaganda created for Americans around WWII

Exclusively for members of the armed forces but released for the public to watch

War Department oversaw it

Used movie to try to get Americans to get interested in the war

Share
Neilson takes measures for ratings and THIS

THIS is households turned into television programs divided by all house holds watching television = percentage

HOW WOULD A VERY BAD RATING BUT A VERY GOOD ______?

At 3am in the morning, you won’t get a good rating, but you may get a good _____.

PROGRAMMERS CARE MOST ABOUT THIS (HOW WELL IS A PROGRAM DOING IN ITS TIME SLOT?)

Shield Laws
Laws protecting the confidentiality of key interview subjects and reporters’ rights rights not to reveal the sources of controversial information used in news stories
Situation Comedy
A type of comedy series that features a reoccurring cast and set as well as several narrative scenes; each episode establishes a situation, complicates it, develops increasing confusion among its characters, and then resolves the complications
Sketch Comedy
Short television comedy skits that are usually segments of TV variety shows; sometimes known as vaudeo, the marriage of vaudeville and video
Slander
In law, spoken language that defames a person’s character
Small Town Pastoralism
One of the Enduring Values of Journalism:
Most of these stories emphasize rural innocence

Rural innocence – good stories about small town life
Urban decay – “main street hates wall street”

Premium Channel
HBO had 4.1 million subscribers around the U.S.

It’s what is called THIS
+ Make revenues from subscriptions
+ There is no advertising!
+ Gives certain kinds of programs (risqué, drugs, violence…)

Not about making an advertiser happy! More freedom.

Press Agents
The earliest type of public relations practicioner, who sought to advance a client’s image through media exposure
Press Release
An article or announcement that you write and send to media outlets.

Any story that you hear or see about a company probably started out as a press release.

Example: AIG – both Fox and MSN just published the unedited _______ as an article

Pretty Face and Happy Talk Culture
Created a stereotype of the half-wit physically attractive news anchor / ad-libbed or scripted banter that does on among local news anchors before and after the news
Prime Time
Happens in 1970 and runs from 7:00pm to 11:00pm

Access Rule: What we’re going to do – 7-8pm is for local affiliate stations (Mon-Sat) & Networks provide 22 hours of primetime programming per week to their affiliates

Three hours Mon-Sat
Four hours Sun

Prime Time Access Rule
7-8pm is for local affiliate stations (Mon-Sat) & Networks provide 22 hours of primetime programming per week to their affiliates

Three hours Mon-Sat
Four hours Sun

Sound Bite
In TV Journalism, the equivalent of a quote in print; the part of a news report in which an expert, a celebrity, a victim, or a person on the street is interviewed about some aspect of an event or issue
Spectacular
Created by Sylvester “Pat” Weaver who worked for NBC – This was a special event television show that was very elaborate, expensive, long…

Ex: Put Peter Pan on the air!

Sponsorship
Some company/brand would ________ a TV show like “This radio show as brought to you by…”

Ex: Texaco every Sunday evening & Buick sponsorship commercial

ALL TV SHOWS WERE PAID FOR BY SPONSORSHIP

Spot Advertising
Created by Sylvester “Pat” Weaver who worked for NBC –
This way you can buy a spot so that you’re paying for only part of the program (since the Magazine Concept made it too expensive to host an entire one)
Spyware
Software with secretive codes that enable commercial firms to “spy” on users and gain access to their computers
Strengths of the Book
Legacy, Portability, Low Technology, Low Break-Even Point
Stripped Syndication
A rerun in TV syndication, the showing of programs, either older network reruns or programs made for syndication-five days a week
Subscription TV (STV)
Started in 1963
• Wired pay television
• Using coaxial cables
• Pay per view television
• Started by PAT WEAVER, President (responsible for getting rid of sponsorship at NBC)
• This was in California

• Watch movies (similar to HBO)
• HOLLYWOOD UPSET! = Proposition 15 – Outlaw pay television (1964) IT PASSED! But the Supreme Court said no.
• What happened as a result – STV had to pay so much money to fight that it just fizzled out anyways.

Subsidiary Rights
In the book industry, selling the rights to a book for use in other media forms, such as a mass market paperback, a CD-ROM, or the basis for a movie screen play
Subdance Film Festival
An “Independent” in Park City Utah, 1978.

Seventies was a big moment for independent film (but its been there since the beginning!)

Superstation
Broadcast stations that are in some markets that make deals (Ex: WGN, TBS) – You pay for this no matter what with cable.
Sylvester “Pat” Weaver
o Worked for NBC
o Working on this attempt to get rid of sponsors
o He increased the show length from 15-30 minutes
• Double the time = more expensive
o He created shows like The Today Show
• On every day = very expensive
o He created the SPECTACULAR
• A special event television show
• He put on Peter Pan for television
• Very elaborate, expensive, long…
o He suggested the MAGAZINE CONCEPT of advertizing
• What we need are multiple sponsors! (turn a page, different ad)
o Introduces ADVERTIZING SPOTS
• You can buy a spot so you’re paying for part of the program
Synchronous Sound
Associated with The Talkies (or “sound movies”) – Sound is SYNCHED to an image!
Syndication
o Typically it’s like reruns
o If a program is on _______ – its available for whoever wants to buy it.
o Reruns are “Off-Network ______”
• It’s available for anyone
o FIRST RUN _______ – You can make a program without intention to make any contract with a single network

Ex: Jerry Springer, Oprah, Wheel of Fortune

The program is on whatever station in that area that buys it.

Synergy
In media economics, the promotion and sale of a product (and all its versions) throughout the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate
Talkies
Sound movies – until now there weren’t REALLY any SILENT film (usually someone playing the piano – score would come with the movie)
(If you went to a really nice theater, there might have been an orchestra)

SYNCHRONOUS SOUND – sound synched to an image

Vitaphone – How can we put sound with the movie and make it go along with it? This system was a SOUND on DISK system

You would have a record that had a recording – when you started the movie you would start the record at the same time

Sound on Film – THING THAT WAS THE REVOLUTION – sound would be on the film itself. Linked to the image that you’re seeing!

Ex: The Jazz Singer (1927) – first SOUND ON FILM movie! (most famous)

Talking Points
With regard to “reporting rituals” and Relying on Experts – THESE are the things you are suppose to say in response to an interview. If you rely on experts, the story ends up being the ‘party line’ on that topic (politicians).
Telecommunication Act of 1996
The last one was in 1934.

Deregulatory – Increased the number of things people could own. People could buy many different things.

PRO-BUSINESS! & Merger MANIA (AOL & Time Warner)

Telstar
1962 – The first of the active communication satellites!
Textbooks
Books made for the el-hi (elementary and high school) and college markets
The (Male) Gaze
Associated with Laura Mulvey “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” (1975)

In Hollywood film, it looks from the perspective of a man
o “The Woman as Image and Man as Bearer of the Look”
o Camera wants to look at woman
o “Phallocentrism” – It’s about male power, and this male gaze ends up reinforcing ideas of male power.
o THROUGH THIS WOMEN LEARN HOW TO OBJECTIFY WOMEN AS WELL.
o “Destruction of pleasure as a radical weapon” – find ways to challenge what we choose to enjoy.
o Problem is the overemphasis on THIS

The Codex
Pre-press History:

4th Century CE
Pages cut into sleeves (very much like a book)
Sewn together (very similar to today)
Bound with wood, covered in leather
Replaces the scroll (Scroll would be hard to SKIM)

The Fall of Sponsorship
Sylvester “Pat” Weaver primarily responsible, but also the Quiz Show Scandals and The Emergence of the Network Era
The Great Train Robbery
Turn of the Century US Film:

Created by Edwin S. Porter in (1903)

Credited with the development of a montage (show different small clips that show movement happening over a period of time)

IMPORTANT and REVOLUTIONARY at the time

The Greatest Happiness Principle
Associated with Ethical Issues of Journalism – Public Good & Utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham (English writer):

When you make ethical decisions, you are trying to increase happiness for as many people as possible

The Jazz Singer
In 1927) – First SOUND ON FILM movie! Most famous “talkie”
Tim Berners Lee
Started conceptualizing the WWW in 1990

He was a physicist (had access to the internet)

The internet could be a “pool of human knowledge”

Collaborate and work together through the internet

Inspired by “hacker counter culture” (things should be able to work on things together like hackers)

Torches of Freedom
Working for the George Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, Bernays sent a group of young models to march in the New York City Easter Parade. He then told the press that a group of women’s rights marchers would light “__________”. On his signal, the models lit Lucky Strike cigarettes in front of the eager photographers. The New York Times printed: “Group of Girls Puff at Cigarettes as a Gesture of ‘_______'”. This helped to break the taboo against women smoking in public.
Trade Books
These are basically all the general interest books that you might find at a Barnes and Noble or Borders.

For your classes, sometimes professors consider trade books!

Transponders
The relay points on a communication satellite that receive and transmit telephone and TV signals
Triumph of the Will
Made in 1935, directed by Leni Reifenstahl

Film is supporting the Nazis – Its about the 1934 Nuremberg Nazi Congress

Documentary showing the nazis in a wonderful light

Gives an idea of the kind of propaganda the Germans could produce

Created 20 years after the outbreak of the World War – 16 years after German suffering – 19 months after the start of Germany’s rebirth

Shows that Nazi Germany could produce beautiful film.

TV Freeze
Regulation of TV:

From 1948 to 52 (6 months turned into four years)

The government says no more t.v. licenses! Allocation issues. (too many people)

Reason one: KOREAN WAR
Reason two: Broadcast empires

VHF (very high frequency) and
UHF (ultra high frequency) channels (UHF associated with public tv)

TV Newsmagazine
A TV news program format, pioneered by CBS’s 60 Minutes in the late 1960s, that features multiple segments in an hour-long episode, usually ranging from a celebrity or political figure store to a hard-hitting investigative report
UHF
Channels associated with Public TV
University Press Books
Books published by Universities that don’t need to make a lot of money
Utilitarianism
Associated with Ethical Issues for Journalism – Public Good

Jeremy Bentham (English writer) states “Greatest Happiness Principle”:

When you make ethical decisions, you are trying to increase happiness for as many people as possible

Variable Costs
Cost that vary based on the number of units.

These include things like labor and raw material (things after the fact)

Hand-made items: low fixed costs but high variable costs (time you spend making it)

Commercial media have very low variable costs!

Vertical Integration
When you own each step of some process you’re involved in. IN FILM:

Owning PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION and EXHIBITION (aka all parts of the film process)

Contributed to the Golden Age because STUDIOS HAD A LOT OF POWER because they OWNED THEIR OWN THEATERS

Ultimately the theater is their employee & they could make crappy movies or good movies
& make the theaters run them

VHF
Very High Frequency Channels
Video News Release
This is a press release in video format

Example: Done by Trend Micro Software. It looked very much like a ______ on ‘phishing’ a way to steal information via the Internet. The video announcer spoke like a reporter, there was an interview with a female who claimed she got an email from eBay that duped her out of money, there was an interview with a Trend employee about ‘phishing’ scams, a detective, and showed Trend Software as a deterrent against phishing. At the end the announcer gave his last name but no affiliation.

Another example was from KOKH-25 (Fox affiliate) on 11/3/05. The news team introduced the story of ‘phishing’ and played the ____ from Trend in its entirety as a news story. Even leaving in the announcer’s name at the very end.

The third example was from WPIX-11 (WB affiliate) on 11/5/2005 and the news story is also introduced as a ‘women who got caught in an email scam’ and used one of their reporters to talk. They cut to the interview with the women from the Trend ______ and edited it for their use. They kept the interview with the Trend person and added their own voice over through the scenes from the ______.

_________ are done to mirror news stories and sent to media outlets. The media outlets can run the entire video or edit it but since it gets play on the media outlet, it looks like an unbiased news story about a company of interest. Thus publicity!

Vitaphone
How can we put sound with the movie and make it go along with it? This system was a SOUND on DISK system

You would have a record that had a recording & when you started the movie you would start the record at the same time!

Vladimir Zworykin
Associated with Electrical Television in 1923 – a Russian that…

Developed two important pieces:
+ The Iconoscope – an early video camera
+ The Kinescope – allows you to see the television image

He ended up working closely with RCA

Web 2.0
Social Networking (we already have images and sound but social networking was new)

Ex: Myspace, Friendster, Facebook…

Web Browser
The things that allow communication online
Why We Fight
Office of War Information created propaganda for Americans around WWII

One of the most important directors: Frank Capra

“U.S. Prelude to War” was exclusively for members of the armed forces but released for the public to watch

War Department oversaw it and used the movie to try to get Americans to get interested in the war

Wi-Fi
A standard for short-distance wireless networking, enabling users of notebook computers and other devices to connect to the Internet in cafes, hotels, airports, and parks
Wiki Web Sites
Very democratic system – Anyone can write an entry which could mean more people participating and have more things that would never end up in an actual encyclopedia.

DEMOCRATIC VS. QUALITY – No one is fact checking the quality.

THIS is a type of software that allows people to collaborate

World Wide Web
The content that flows across all those Internet wires
Zero-Based Programming
President of MTV Robert Pittman introduced THIS:

Asked the audience what they wanted and made something for them (They actually went to visit people to get information)

Zoopraxiscope
In the Pre-History of movies, Eadweard Muybridge engaged in a debate:

When a horse ran – at any time were the horses feet all off the ground?

He took a succession of images
& asked how can we use these still images together to suggest movement?

In 1879 THIS put the pictures in a player that spun them & horse/figure seemed to jump

This was a prerequisite for movies!