Functionalists examine the ____ between the media and other social institutions
Structural relationship
Conflict theorists state that we can only fully understand the media when we
Learn who controls it
According to the conflict theorist, media frames it’s messages in such a way that it ____
Supports the ruling elite
Barner (1999) found in an analysis of children’s programming that women were typically portrayed in ____; and men were portrayed in
Passive roles; active roles
The interactionist perspective focuses on
Symbols and messages of the media
According to the lecture, digital divide is a symptom of a larger social problem – social inequality based on
Income, educational attainment, and ethnicity/race
The ___ enforces US federal laws regarding indecency
US federal communications commision
Individuals in the industrialized world devote an average of ____ hours of television every day
Girls and boys exposed to violent behavior on film or tv behave ____ immediately afterward, are ___ tolerant of aggressive behavior, and are ___ to the pain of others
More aggressively; more; desensitized
The Federal Communications Commission was established by
The Communications Act of 1934
The first major overhaul of the original 1934 act, the telecommunications Act of 1966 was seen as a way to
Encourage competition in the communications industry
News executives are in control of the selection and deployment of specific reporters, the expenditure of time and resources for gathering news, and the allocation of space for the presentation of news and because they are ___ motivated
What level of household income has more users of the internet than any other
More than $75,000 per year
The average american spends more time on the internet than reading a daily newspaper (2012)
The mass media provides people with a sense if connection that few other social institutions can offer
Research has not yet linked media-violence viewing and the development of aggression among young children
According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental principle in american media is to attract an audience to sell advertisers
The interactionist perspective focuses on the symbols and messages of the media and how the media comes to define our reality
According to sociologist Herbert Gans, women and men identified by their position in government, or by their game and fortune, does not automatically make them newsworthy
It seems that despite the increasing diffusion of computers and an overall increase in internet use, there remains a deep divide between those who possess the resources, education, and skills to reap the benefits from these technologies and those who do not
Households with a bachelor’s degree or higher are more likely to have access to computers and the internet than those with lower levels of educational attainment
Media literacy refers to the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain, and sell to us everyday
What major US corporation owns the ABC television network
What multinational media corporation owns the FOX network
News Corp
What are the countless hours of watching tv in most homes casing
All of the above (family members not communicating, heightened levels of aggression, promotion of obesity)
What are internet sites planting, on computer systems and various communication devices, that are used to track individual consumer purchases, selling this information to marketing departments, and is making the individual vulnerable to identity theft?
There has been a decline in overall support if the media by the public because they believe that news organizations are working primarily for ___ and not in the best interest of the general public
While the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was seen as a way to encourage competition in the communications industry, it actually
Decreased competition
Media had been caused of being a social problem by directing, creating, and promoting
All of the above( content-images that include violence, a highly controlled process of dissemination, unequal advantage for some social groups)
As the ownership of all forms of media are in the process in consolidation this trend will
All of the above (increase the likelihood that programming is focused on profit, limit potential diversification, limit and skew info)
___ refers to a construct of meaning and relationships both emotional and economic
Which of the following is not a trend identified in family composition from 1970-2007
Families composed of married couples with children increased
The only increase in family groups from 1970-2007 was
Other family households
From a functionalist perspective, the family
Serves many important functions in society
According to the conflict perspective, conflict between spouses of family members derive from ___ or ___ inequalities
Economic; power
From a feminist perspective, familial inequality emerges from a
Patriarchal family system
The persistent social ideals of women as homemakers and men as bread makers are problematic from which of the following sociological perspectives
Both a and c are correct (conflict, feminist)
From the interactionist perspective, we create and maintain our definition of a family through
Social interaction
According to the lecture, political and religious forces uphold and encourage a ___ family form as the standard for what all families should be like
No fault divorces were introduced in the
According to research, getting married at a young age ___ chances of divorce, while living with high levels of poverty ___ chances of divorce
Increases; increases
Current data suggests that between ________ of women will be assaulted by an intimate partner during their lifetime.
All but which of the following social factors have been consistently linked to family violence
low religious participation.
Kevin is an 82 year old. According to the findings, which of the following people is most likely to abuse him?
family members
The U.S. teen birth rate is ________ to the other developed nations of the world
the highest compared
The Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides qualifying employees with up to ________ of unpaid, job protected leave per year.
twelve weeks
In 2002, ________ children were more likely than children from other ethnic/racial groups to live in their grandparent’s household.
When President Obama moved into the White House, much attention was paid to the fact that his _______ would also be a resident.
The ________ perspective(s) examine power within the family
both b and c are correct
(Conflict feminist)
According to the textbook and the lecture, all of the following reasons are believed to ioncrease the likelihood of child maltreatment except:
religious preoccupation
Despite some declining numbers in teen pregnancy overall, Black and Hispanic teens have seen birthrates:
5.4 million children live in homes where…which of the following relative type are their primary caregiver?
What percentage of cohabitating couple households contain children?
How many U.S. Families were among the 2010 U.S. Census?
117 million
According to sociologists, divorce is a personal family matter and not a public issue.
In 2003, the nuclear family comprised less than one forth of all U.S. households
There is a persistent belief that non-traditional families threaten and erode the integrity of the family as an institution.
From a functionalist perspective, the family is inextricably linked to the rest of society
Since the family is considered a basic social institution, changes in other institutions like the economy, politics, or religion have little effect on the family
While physical, sexual, and emotional abuses are often identified with child abuse, cases of neglect often go unnoticed
Which of the following sociological perspectives is/are concerned that schools often indoctrinate students in the U.S. in Western bureaucratic ideology?
________ refers to the practice where advanced learners are separated from regular learners.
The No Child Left Behind Act was passed during the ________ administration.
While the U.S. spends ________ on education than other high-income countries, our literacy scores are ________ in a world comparison.
________ is one of the most powerful predictors of student achievement.
Socioeconomic status
Which of the following racial or ethnic groups have the highest proportion of college graduates at the bachelor’s level?
A survey conducted in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) found that nationwide, about _____ of students had missed more than one day of school because they felt unsafe at school with ________ students the most likely to have missed school.
five percent; Hispanic and Black
The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network’s 2007 National School Climate Survey showed ________ percent of lesbian, gay, and transgendered youth reported feeling unsafe in school due to thei sexual orientation.
Evaluation data of the Head Start program has identified the positive relationship between early childhood program enrollment with all of the following except ________.
job promotibility
According to Shaw (2001), which of the following is not identified as a focus when promoting safety in schools
As family income increases, the likelihood of college attendance:
(UNESCO), literacy disparities are associated with all of the following except:
religious affiliation.
In the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas the U.S. Supreme Court ruling has worked to desegregate U.S. Schools. Today, school segregation is just as likely to be an issue with what primary demographic at the center?
Socioeconomic Status
According to the text, education is considered the “great divider” in our society
Younger Americans have earned more educational credentials (diplomas, degrees, certificates) than older Americans
The Center for Disease Control reported that the overall life expectancy, not accounting for race or gender, reached a record high of ________ in 2008.
77.8 years
________ is the study of the patterns in the distribution and frequency of sickness, injury and death, and the social factors that shape them.
Match the appropriate term to its definition in the order presented.
________ is the level of childbearing for an individual or population.
________ refers to the maximum number of children that could be born.
________ is the incidence of death in a population.
Fertility; Fecundity; Mortality
Today’s leading causes of death in the United States include all but which of the following?
intestinal infection
While women live ________ than men, the three leading causes of death ________ are identical for males and females.
five years longer; heart disease, cancer, and stroke,
Men experience higher rates of fatal illness dying more quickly than women when illness occurs for all but which of the following reasons?
level of education earned
Which of the following was/were offered as explanation(s) into why the poor are more likely to be ill than those of higher economic status?
the poor live in areas exposed to contaminated air and water.
It is estimated that the United States spends roughly ________ of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health care; ________ expenditure among industrialized countries.
about 18%; the largest
Which of the following major industrial countries provides some form of “universal health care” coverage for all of its’ citizens?
All of the above countries provide coverage:
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia
________ became the first state to provide universal health care coverage to all its citizens?
because of the opportunity to save up to one million dollars annually, a number of cities in the United States have decided to defy U.S. laws and purchase prescription drugs from ________.
________ are the largest minority group in the United States and they are also the ________.
Hispanics; youngest
One in Four newborns in the United States is ________.
Which of the following is NOT a factor related to health coverage?
According to the functionalist theoretical perspective, illness has a legitimate place in society.
According to Paul Hawken (Biosphere II Experiment), modern industrialization uses _________ resources to make ________ people more productive
Which of the following is Ehrlick and Ehrlick’s formula for environment damage? This was presented in the lecture/discussion and in the text.
Environmental Damage=(Population Growth) X (Level of Affluence) X (Technological Damage)
Which of the following sociological perspectives deem that environmental problems are created by humans that are competing for power, income, and their own interests.
Research consistently indicates how ________ and ________ are exposed to ________ environmental risks ________ and ________ communities.
low income persons; people of color; greater; than white; affluent
Interactionists address how environmental problems are
created and defined
According to your textbook, the U.S. Government seriously became committed to maintaining and preserving the environment for the first time in the ________.
late 1960s
The decade ________ was the warmest on record for the globe.
In 2011 the United Nations announced that the world’s population has reached which of the following?
7 billion
According to the textbook, China, India, and Russia are among the world’s most polluted places.
The Biosphere II experiment (Paul Hawken, 1970) was a great success in that all the plant and animal life introduced to the ecosystem flourished.
Whether someone is looking at a social system or an eco-system, a functionalist examines the entire system and its components
In the United States, our capitalist economic system has been identified as a primary source of the conflict over polluting our physical and natural world.
Social constructionists do not deny that real environmental problems exist.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970.
Climate change is also referred to as global warming.
Which of the following dimensions of diversity is not classified as a primary characteristic to Loden and Rosener (1991)?
Educational Attainment
Social stratification refers to
the ranking of individuals into social strata or groups
____ used to term life chances to describe the consequences of social stratification on one’s life
Max Weber
Discrimination refers to a ____, while prejudice refers to a ___
Act, attitude
Which of the following federal acts is dubbed “The center piece of the social welfare system?”
Social Security Act
The Social Security Act was passed in
Under Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, assistance was provided for all but which of the following?
Specific Relief
All but which of the following are programs resulting from Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society?
Significant social welfare reform, implementing strict work requirements and time limitations, was signed into law by ___ in the ___.
Bill CLinton; Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act.
___ poverty refers to a lack of basic necessities, such as food, shelter, and income, while ___ poverty refers to a situation where people are falling behind from the average income or life style enjoyed by the rest of society
absolute; relative
the gap between the richest and poorest americans has ___ over the last two decades
the poverty guidelines are issued each year by the ___ and are used for determining family or individual eligibility for federal programs
Department of health and human services
define the following terms in the order presented. ___refers to a lack of basic necessities such as food, shelter, and income. ___ refers to a situation where people are falling behind the average income or lifestyle enjoyed by the rest of society. ___ refers to the original federal poverty measure developed by the Social Security Administration and updated each year by the US Census Bureau. ___ refers to criteria used for determining family or individual eligibility for federal programs such as head start
absolute poverty; relative poverty; poverty threshold; poverty guidelines
according to the 2012 poverty figures, ___ compose the largest group of poor individuals in the US
according to recent research, ___ are more likely to live in poverty than americans in any other age group
according to the 2012 state map presented in the textbook, ___ had the highest rate of poverty, while ___ had the lowest poverty rate
louisiana, new hampshire
social scientists reject the biological notions of race, instead favoring an approach that treats race as a
ethnicity refers to one’s ____, while race refers to one’s ___.
cultural traits; genetic characteristics
As of 2002, ___ americans were the nation’s largest minority group
___ is the belief that one’s own group values and bahaviors are not only right, but superior to others
___ refers to the practice of prohibiting or restricting the entry or participation of groups in society
____ refers to the physical and social separation of ethnic or racial groups
___ refers to the removal of a group due to direct force or intimidation
Exclusion; segregation; expulsion
according to the ___ perspective, assimilation is the solution to the differences between racial and ethnic groups
___ theorists focus on how the dynamics of racial and ethnic relations divides groups while maintaining a dominant group
which of the following perspectives believe that race is a social construct that we learn through our social institutions
which of the following statements is inaccurate concerning affirmative action
affirmative action applies only to african-americans
functionalists assume that not everyone in society can and should be equal
conflict theorists feel the answer to racism lies in the implementation of assimilation
feminist theory intersects with multiculturalism through the analysis of mulitple systems of oppression, not just gender, but including categories of race, class, sexual orientation, nation of origin, language, culture, and ethnicity
according to the interactionist perspective, we learn about racial and ethnic categories of white, black, latino, asian, and native american through our social interactions
regions of the country in order from the highest poverty rate to the lowest poverty rate:
south, west, midwest, northeast
which theoretical perspective: during periods of economic crisis, the state expands welfare rolls to pacify the poor and reduce the likelihood of serious uprising
in regards to poverty, interactionists focus on
how poverty is learned and publics perceptions of welfare and its recipients
under the temporary assistance for needy families welfare program, there is a federal lifetime limit of ___ of assistance, though states may put shorter limits on bnefits
60 months
approximately ___ of US households were “food insecure” sometime during 2010.
poor households are likely to have ___ food prices as compared to the national average
families that left welfare between ___ were more likely to report difficulty in paying a mortgage, rent, or utility than families leaving between ___.
1997 & 1999; 1995 & 1997
all but which of the following reasons were cited for the decline in welfare caseloads
an increase in bureaucratic paperwork required to apply for and receive welfare benefits
studies that have traced people who have left welfare over a long period of time indicate ___ earning growth after leaving welfare
no significant
since the pew research center first starting collecting data on economic progress, they have found that most americans feel less economic progress in their lives now than any time in the last ___ years
5 or 44?
(Unicef) “Child well-being in rich countries” report identifying the percentage of children that receive national funding and regulating early childhood education and care. four countries?
denmark, finland, france, sweden.
as mentioned in the textbook reading and lecture, poverty rates vary across geographic areas because of difference in ___ specific and ___ specific characteristics
manning marable argues that ___ is fraud because while it promotes the idea that everyone has a fair and equal chance to succeed. advantages are given to members of particular groups based on their gender, race, or social class.
aid to families with dependent children
was never authorized by congress and therefore never became law
as household income increases, so does the likelihood of which of the following
access to healthcare coverage
how many states in the US have cute their welfare rolls 10% or more since 2007 by reducing welfare
in 2011, the US census released what to look at with the poverty issue according to geographic differences
supplemental poverty measure
what percentage of americans believe that there is a strong or very strong conflict between the poor and the wealthy in our country
wealth provides access to key social and cultural capital, which of the following does not apply to this access
good health
the original poverty threshold was based on the cost of ___
theorists from the ___ perspectives argue that only the most qualified should fill the important jobs in society and be rewarded for their talent and skills
which of the following racial/ethnic groups have the highest poverty rate proportional to their group?
in 2012, the upper ___ of americans personal income was 22.5% of the total personal income of the entire US population
the top 10% of earners, in 2012, took home more than ___ of the US total personal income — the highest recorded level ever
even though the US supreme court’s 1954 decision on Brown v. Board of Education ruled that racial segregation in public school’s was illegal, a new form of segregation has developed called:
pluralist segregation
which of teh following countries account for the majority of immigrants into the US?
Scholars identify “ethnic attrition” as which of the following?
ethnic identities being absorbed through assimilation
Based from the information presented in lecture and textbook which of the following racial groups has the highest median income in the US
sociologists refer to the unequal distribution of resources services and positions as social stratification
prejudice refers to an action while discrimination refers to an attitude
it is estimated that by the 2050s the majority of americans will comprised of african, latino, asican, middle-eastern, and native american descent
on average, working women earn ___ cents for every dollar working men earn.
marger reports that regardless of their level of technological development or complexity of their social structure, ___ society have some form of gender inequality
sex refers to ___ while gender refers to ___
fixed physiological characteristics; learned social cultural characteristics
which of the following theorectical perspectives argues that gender inequality is inevitable due to biological division of labor in the household which is necessary to establish role differentiation in the family
according to the conflict and feminist perspectives, women’s subordinate position in society is linked to
their relationship to the means of production
which of the following workplace sex segregation types were specifically mentioned in the text, lecture, discussion
horizontal and vertical
according to the lecture and duscussed in class, the US feminist movement began in
as presented in the lecture series and also identified in the textbook by the author, there has/have been ___ waves to the US feminist movement
according to research, women have transitioned from a housekeeper role to a dual role of earner and caregiver, as men’s involvement in domestic work
remains low
gender serves to legitmize certain avtivities and ways of thinking over others which ultimately grants privilege to one group over another
social scientists believe that gender differences are due to biological differences
functionalists may arge that it is appropriate for men, and not women, to pursue political office because it is more practical or natural for men to be in leadership positions
horizontal segregation refers to the separation of women into non-manual labor and men into manual labor sectors
in 2007, the US supreme court ruled that employess could not challenge ongoing compensation discrimination if the employers original discriminatory act or decision occurred more than 5 years earlier
in general women may have a wage gap in some areas of the US markerplace, but there is no wage gap in American culture
___ is defined as the classification of individuals according to their prefernce for emotional sexual relationship
sexual orientation
a women is ___ if she has exclusive emotional-sexual relationships with persons of the same sex
if an individual is born a biological male, but identifies as a female…. then based only on this provided information, this individual is considered
in 2000, ___ was the first state to recognize civil unions while in 2004 ___ became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage
vermont, massachussetts
which sociological perspective supports the concept of institutionalized hetersexuality – set of ideas, institutions, and relationships that desire the heterosexual family as the societal norm
the defence of marriage act was passed in
heterosexual marriage in the US grants approximately ___ federal benefits, ranging from the right to sue based on wrongful death of a partner, access to employment based health benefits, and the ability to make medical decisions on behalf of a partner
five hundred
the term ___ has come to symbolize the pursuit of individual rights and self-identification for gay and lesbian persons
“coming – out”
the US supreme court __ overturned sodomy laws in the US and did so in ___
has; 2003
which US president signed into law the Mychal Judge Act which allows for federal death benefits to be paid to the same0sex partners of firefighters and police officers who die in the line of duty
george w. bush
protections against public and private workplace discrimination because of one’s exual orientation exist in ___ states and approximately ___ percent of fortune 500 companies have antidiscrimination policies protecting gay employees
twenty-one; eighty-eight
researchers exploring the ___ basis of sexual orientation have considered two theoretical approaches; neurohormonal theory and behavioral genetics
confirmation of a genetic link to sexual orientation has ___
been found through identical and fraternal twins
the reaffirmation of heterosexuality as the moral standard is the basis of what
culture wars
A public opinion poll by Gallup Org. in 2010 revealed that support for gay rights in the last three decades has
anna leon – guerrero reports that a lot of prejudice and dsicrimination practices towards homosexuals are a direct result of formal laws
rates of metal health problems are higher among homosexual men and women due in part to the social discrimination and cultural stigmatization they experience
a review of existing studies on workplace discrimination reveals that somewhere between one quarter and two thirds of GLB people report losing their jobs, or missing promotions because of their sexual orientation
beginning with the 2010 census a same-sex couple could select between two options to indicate their relationship status: husband and wife or unmarried partners