Nature of the Study Teachers’ overall attitudes towards technology play a vital role in adopting a set method in determining how to instruct with wireless laptops (Serving ; Mantel, 2010). Alternatively, the way teachers perceive technology will hypothesize a key determinant of the nature of this quantitative, pre-experimental study. In this study, the reason why teachers do not routinely and effectively use available technology such as wireless laptops in K-12 classrooms will be examined. To take full advantage of technology, while reducing possible drawbacks, requires matching the technology tit the learning objectives (Lee, 2010).
The researcher will use a pre-experimental, quantitative study, which has a cross-sectional web-based, five point Liker-scale survey entitled the Technology Attitude Scale (TASK). The TASK will be administered to collect data during the course of this study. Subsequently, the TASK questionnaire is an adapted version of Swan and Dioxins (2006) model. The results of the TASK will be analyzed using an experimental and non experimental sample to establish teachers’ attitudes about wireless technology In the Instructional practice. The survey provides and shows the reliability of . And showed a proven validity tested through statistical analysis. Swan and Dixon (2006) used the TASK to examine any correlation between teachers’ attitudes towards technology and the use of such technology In their study. In this study, a convenience sample Instead of a random sample of teachers in a rural southeast Georgia school district will be used because teachers are both accessible and willing to participate. Accessibility and willingness to participate are characteristics of a convenience sample (Leeds ; Ramrod, 2010).
The use of a convenience sample also ensures that individuals who might be left out f a random sampling will be Included: thereby avoiding a solution that creates unrepresented minorities (Smith ; Ganja, 2007; Straus, 2009). In addition, this study will apply quantitative measures to generate numeric quantifiable concrete analyses of the findings (Deplete and Reason, 2008; Leeds and Ramrod, 2010). This study attempts to distinguish a concrete analysis between the measurements found and the natural abilities of teachers using available technology during instruction.
From those measurements and descriptions, the researcher will design an online purport network as an Instructional resource (Snider, 2009; Hennessey, Harrison ; Hematite, 2010). A professional learning network will assist K-12 teachers with integrating available technology effectively in the classroom. Access to professional learning resources will encourage teachers’ confidence through the use of available technology and help with any possible technophobia.
Research Questions and Hypotheses In this study, the proposed research question is: Do teachers’ attitudes towards technology, including their eagerness and curiosity to use it in their teaching, impact the integration of wireless laptops into their Instructional practices? The hypotheses are: 1 OFF to use it in their teaching, do not impact the integration of wireless laptops into their instructional practices. HA: Teachers’ attitudes towards technology, including their eagerness and curiosity to use it in their teaching, impacts the integration of wireless laptops into their instructional practices.
Teachers’ attitudes towards technology, including their eagerness and curiosity to use it in their teaching, are the independent variable; impacts the integration of wireless laptops into their instructional practices is the dependent variable. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative, pre-experimental study is to investigate whether EX. rural public school system K-12 teachers are curious and eager to learn new technological skills. There are numerous contributing factors to why technologies are not routinely used in K-12 classrooms effectively.
Current scholars have discussed substantial amount of theories that may attribute to why teachers are not infusing the technology resources accessible effectively in their instructional practices (Grub, Clark, Eng ; Wells, 2009; Koehler ; Mishear, 2009; Phelps ; Madison, 2008; Schuler, 2009). The EX. district available classroom technology includes inquiry- based software, online learning activities, software management systems, shareware programs, learning networks and wireless laptops.
During the 2010-2011 school year, teachers in a southeast Georgia rural school district will explore the use of wireless laptop technology to enhance teaching-learning. This study will assess Ex.’s teacher’s feedback to help analyze comparable factors and points to promote teaching-learning with wireless laptops. Only minimal data are available on the integration of wireless laps within a K-12 rural public school curriculum. Therefore, this study will construct a profile of the way teachers perceive technology.
The researchers will administer a survey based on Swan and Dioxins (2006) study. This research will add to the body of literature of prior empirical theoretical studies of classroom wireless technology usage and the Technology Attitude Scale (TASK). Swan and Dixon (2006) study evaluated teacher’s technology perspectives with The TASK. This proposed research will assist teachers with infusing existing technology resources (Moore, 2009). Teachers will infuse technology while following state standards.
Wireless computing will be employed to expand teaching content, and enhance the integration of wireless laptops into classroom instructions (Skivvies, 2010). A more detailed discussion is in chapter 3. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework for integrating wireless laptops involves the theory of social constructivism (SC). Dewey (1916/1997), appear (1993/2000), Pigged (1932/1997), and Weights (1978/1981) are the noted developers of the SC theory. The theory of SC underlies building collaborative relationships between teachers and their students.
Dewey (1916/1997), SC suggests that teachers facilitate and observe their students. The focus must convey on understanding the vast amenities that technology presents and how it impacts the world (Kelley&ump; Keller, 2009). Teachers can use wireless technology resources that support rich and multimedia models (Courts, 2010). Teachers can also use wireless computing to activate students thinking skills by providing meaningful learning experiences through explorations and discoveries. Wireless computing provides an access to immense knowledge.
One-to-one computing through wireless computing arguably provides the greatest potential of versatility in the hands of students (Grimes &ump; Weyerhaeuser, 2008). Without appropriate use of technology, students may encounter some challenge to shift information or locate what is important (Lee, 2010). Technology literacy in K-12 classroom illustrates SC because technology produces a network of social learning agents. Paper’s (1993/2000) prediction of computers transforming education plays an influential role with the demands on K-12 schools to integrate wireless computing in the instructional setting.
Teaching with wireless computing resources will demand that teachers manage a collaborative community which requires the student to take part in their learning process. According to Pigged (1932/1997), SC stimulates learners to achieve learning while constructing their knowledge. Hoosegows (1978/1981) SC learning model proposed that the teaching-learning process through a scientific model which holds a small aura of social connections. This social connection promotes input for the process of internationalist that Weights (1978/1981) suggests as personal acquisition of the societal demands in a wireless computing economy.
Wireless computing can have a strong impact on teachers’ uses by enlarging the likelihood of technology integration in teaching-learning (Moses, Chamber, &ump; Alan, 2008). Thus, teachers must first develop understandings of effective use of technology in socio-technical structures, accept the technological demands, and develop strategies to use available technologies in their instructional routines (Avatar’s, 2008). In others words, teacher must understand the core of teaching traditional cross-curriculum concepts with technological resources.
Teachers need training to utilize wireless laptops technology, promote social interaction and reinforce students’ cognition skills effectively (Gadded, 2008). The use of an instructional training method with established validity and noted premises will apply SC to assist teachers with classroom technology integration. Teachers need to be trained to teach with existing technologies, acquire skills through social meaning, cross-curricular instructional and SC approach.
Applying the underpinning of cross- curricular instructional and SC approach will help develop a guide to pedagogical training approaches to assist teachers with classroom technology integration. SC suggests the social construction of reality will necessitate the use of instructional models that promotes collaborative learning, encourage the process of using existing knowledge structure, and provide differentiating learning opportunities (Stanford, Crower, &ump; Flick, 2010).
The SC Theory promotes the contrast of the banking theory of learning in which teachers fill impressionable students with knowledge, active and independent learning using internal references to prepare learners with the confidence needed to carry knowledge beyond the classroom?or beyond the lesson in the study?into the world (Beck &ump; Skink, 2006; Patti, 2008). SC promotes teaching with a curriculum model that requires learners to play an active role through a social context and differentiated instructional approach that allows earners to discover new knowledge (Bulbous, 2007; Rye &ump; Parsons, 2009; Weston &ump; Pain, 2010).
The SC theory suggests the use of effective approaches in instructional practice through shared understanding between teacher-teacher, teacher- student, and student-student (Nines et al. , 2009). According to Ventral, (2009) creating a shared collaborative empathetic relationship of participants as areas will promote building a relationship between prior traditions methods and new ideas involving technology with tradition (Dockers, 2007). This framework will enable teachers to build a new foundation of knowledge based upon methodologies that erg technology with tradition (Dockers, 2007; Skivvies, 2010).
With the use of the SC approaches coupled with the TASK, a better determination can be made about the potential success and effectiveness a professional learning support network would have on educator attitudes towards technology (Wayne, Yon, GHz, Crone, &ump; Garret, 2008). Evaluating the extent of the relationship between teachers’ attitudes towards technology and level of application will assist with designing professional learning needs. Although this framework was originally designed by McFarland,
Hoffman, and Green (1997) in their evaluation of the technology attitude (THETA), the THETA/TASK has been discussed by researchers over in both health care and educational fields. For example, researchers Ward, Pollard, Golliwogs, Golliwogs, and Mould (2009), Yahoo Line (2006), and Heavy and Cousin (2005) adopted and revised this framework. The THETA/TASK measures technology attitudes and technology use in and out of the work setting. Researchers established the effectiveness and validity of the initial model and added to it by making a connection between previous traditional methodologies and new methods involving technology (Dockers, 2007;
Stewart, Bushman, ; Baby, 2009). The THETA/TASK was revised to introduce diverse technology effectively, train professionals, and conduct workshops. The THETA/TASK model focuses and emphasizes shared learning and collaborative efforts, as opposed to superior-subordinate relationships between mentors and those who took part in training (Era, 2009; Swan ; Dixon, 2006). In the present study, the TASK model will be revised and used to investigate whether teachers’ attitudes towards technology impacts the integration of wireless laptops into their instructional practices.
The researcher plans to use the findings to establish the attention of an online professional support network to facilitate successfully change and encourage teachers’ attitudes toward technology. To determine if an online professional support network is a warranted initiative, school officials can use the SC approaches and TASK model. The use of the TASK survey can be a viable instrument to help the progress of the integration of technology in classrooms and facilitate a professional learning network.
A professional learning network where professionals and educators meet to combine their knowledge of education using state aligned to he available technology resources. Through training and practice, it is anticipated that teachers will integrate wireless laptop technology in the classroom effectively. To help better understand the concept of wireless laptop technology in K-12 instructional setting a list of definition of terms follows. Definitions of Terms The operational definitions of the study are: Access : reading or writing information stored on a digital device (Williamson ; Reddish, 2009).
Active Learning: process by which students become active retrievers of information rather than passive recipients (Wang, 2009). Community: people living in a similar area, but also people with common backgrounds and those interacting online, with the latter often referred to as an online community (Skivvies, 2010). Constructivist learning: individualized learning through referencing prior knowledge incorporate what learned onto the past foundation (Rye ; Parsons, 2009).
Constructivist strategies: a condition of selected instructional technological methods (Stewart, Bushman, ; Baby, 2009). Handheld tools: mini technological devices commonly used to access the World Wide Web; such devices typically include cell hones, digital books, and personal digital assistants (Skivvies, 2010). Information or information technology: access to resources through Internet or satellite connection through wireless technologies or computers (Skivvies, 2010).
Instructional technology: online instructions through technologies (Sole ; Ally, 2009) such as wireless devices and software applications and both structured and unstructured knowledge in an active constrictive way (Wang, 2009). Instructional lead teacher: a specialist who assists teachers with developing or finding digital content (Corn, Osborne, Hallstead, Oliver, Tinge, ; Stanhope, 2009). In-service teachers: experienced teachers who take part in professional development to learn new educational trends (Skivvies, 2010). One-to-one computer: individualized technology user of computer or wireless technology (Lee, 2010).
Professional learning network: collaborative online learning among professionals (Collins ; Halverson, 2009; Snider, 2009; Verandas, 2010). Pedagogical strategies: methods that support standard instructions and promote innovative teacher training and student learning through genealogical forms (Snider, 2009; Verandas, 2010). Technology Attitude Scale (TASK): a model which measure for training demands or instrumentation for evaluating professional training (Swan ; Dixon, 2006; Ward, Pollard, Golliwogs, Golliwogs, and Mould 2009).
Social constructivism (SC): a setting which places teachers as learning leaders (Ally, 2008; Verily, inkle, Bali, ; Seriously, 2009; Saba, 2009) while students play an active role in acquiring their knowledge collaboratively. Traditional Pedagogy: Teaching and learning model past using experiences to new experience coupled with mass communication through technology access, multimedia, software and the web (Cloud, Hodgepodge ; Roisterers, 2010).
Technology: use of wireless laptop technology, desktop computers, software applications and Internet usage by students and teachers (Muriel, 2010). Technophobia: computer phobia, anxiety, unfavorable global attitudes, societal impact, specific negative cognitions or self-critical personal dialogues during actual computer usage or when considering future computer use (Auroras ; Kraal, 2009). Theory-Driven: a massive conventional teaching approaches for the incorporation of traditional teaching and learning approaches (Stewart et al. 2009). Wireless computing: devices that use electromagnetic waves rather than land-based wires to carry a communication signal; examples are laptops, clickers, cell phones, ‘Pods, and other such mobile devices, including printers and desktop that operate through wireless signals (Skivvies, 2010, rather than hardware technology.