Technology In Action

World Wide Web (WWW)
The part of the Internet used the most.
What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet?
(1) its use of common communication protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP) and special languages (such as the HyperText Markup Language, or HTML) that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats
(2) its use of special links (called hyperlinks) that enable users to jump from one place to another in the Web.
Web browser (browser)
Software installed on a computer system that allows individuals to locate, view, and navigate the Web.
Client
A computer that requests information from a server in a client/server network (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet).
Server
A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
Client/server network
A type of network that uses servers to deliver services to computers that are requesting them (clients).
Internet backbone
The main pathway of high-speed communications lines over which all Internet traffic flows.
Internet Protocol address (IP address)
The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other. It consists of a unique set of four numbers separated by dots such as 123.45.178.91.
Web 2.0
Tools and Web-based services that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users.
Social networking
A means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information among their immediate friends, and meet and connect with others through common interests, experiences, and friends.
E-mail (Electronic mail)
Internet-based communication in which senders and recipients correspond.
E-mail client
A software program that runs on a computer and is used to send and receive e-mail through the ISP’s server.
Instant messaging (IM)
A program that enables users to communicate online in real time with others who are also online.
Blog (weblog)
Personal log or journal posted on the web.
Video log (Vlog/Video Blog)
Personal online journal that uses video as the primary content in addition to text, images, and audio.
Wiki
A type of Web site that allows anyone visiting the site to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content.
Podcast
A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio or video files in formats such as MP3.
RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
An XML-based format that allows frequent updates of content on the World Wide Web.
Aggregators
A software program that goes out and grabs the latest update of Web material (usually podcasts) according to your specifications.
Webcast
The broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet. Unlike a podcast, a webcast is not updated automatically.
Multimedia
Anything that involves one or more forms of media plus text.
Streaming audio
Technology that enables audio files to be fed to a browser continuously. This lets users avoid having to download an entire file before listening.
Streaming video
Technology that enables video files to be fed to a browser continuously. This lets users avoid having to download the entire file before viewing.
Multiplayer online games
An online game in which play occurs among hundreds or thousands of other players over the Internet in a persistent or ever-on game environment. In some games, players can interact with other players through trading, chatting, or playing cooperative or combative mini-games.
Massively multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMORPG’s)
A gaming environment in which thousands of participants interact in a virtual game world by assuming roles of fictitious characters.
Plug-in (player)
A small software program that “plugs in” to a Web browser to enable a specific function—for example, to view and hear certain multimedia files on the Web.
E-commerce (electronic commerce)
The process of conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products.
Business-to-consumer (B2C)
E-commerce transactions between businesses and consumers.
Business-to-business (B2B)
E-commerce transactions between businesses.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
E-commerce transactions between consumers through online sites such as eBay.com.
Secure socket layer
A protocol that provides for the encryption of data transmitted using the Internet. The current versions of all major Web browsers support SSL.
Website
A location on the Web.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A Web site’s unique address; an example is microsoft.com.
Home page
The main or opening page of a Web site.
Domain name
A part of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Domain names consist of two parts: the site’s host and a suffix that indicates the type of organization. (Example: popsci.com)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The protocol that allows files to be transferred from a Web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser.
Web Server
A computer running a specialized operating system that enables it to host Web pages (and other information) and provide requested Web pages to clients.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet.
Host
The portion of a domain name that identifies who maintains a given Web site. For example, berkeley.edu is the domain name for the University of California at Berkeley, which maintains that site.
Top-level domain
The suffix, often of three letters, in the domain name (such as .com or .edu) that indicates the kind of organization the host is.
Path (subdirectory)
The information after the slash indicates a particular file or path (or subdirectory) within the Web site.
Hyperlink
A type of specially coded text that, when clicked, enables a user to jump from one location, or Web page, to another within a Web site or to another Web site altogether.
Breadcrumb trail
A list that shows the hierarchy of previously viewed Web pages within the Web site that you are currently visiting. Shown at the top of some Web pages, it aids Web site navigation.
Favorites
A feature in Microsoft Internet Explorer that places a marker of a Web site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list in the browser’s toolbar. (Called Bookmarks in some browsers.)
Bookmark
A feature in some browsers that places a marker of a Web site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list. (Bookmarks are called Favorites in Microsoft Internet Explorer.)
Social bookmarking/Tagging
A keyword or term that Internet users assign to a Web resource such as a Web page, digital image, or video.
Keyword
(1) A specific word a user wishes to query (or look for) in an Internet search. (2) A specific word that has a predefined meaning in a particular programming language.
Search engine
A set of programs that searches the Web for specific words (or keywords) you wish to query (or look for) and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found.
Subject directory
A structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics.
Metasearch engines
A metasearch engine, such as Dogpile, searches other search engines rather than individual Web sites.
Spider
A program used by search engines that constantly collects information on the Web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages. Spiders get their name because they crawl over the Web using multiple “legs” to visit many sites simultaneously.
Boolean operators
A word used to refine logical searches. For Internet searches,the words AND, NOT, and OR describe the relationships between keywords in the search.
Semantic Web (Web 3.0)
An evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which information is defined in such a way to make it more easily readable by computers.
Which is NOT true about the Internet?
It was developed as an additional means of commerce.
What do you need to read, send, and organize e-mail from ANY computer connected to the Internet?
A web-based e-mail account
Which is NOT an example of social networking?
e-mail
Which is NOT a characteristic of a blog?
Blogs are private and require password access
Which of the following is true about plug-ins?
Plug-ins are necessary for viewing most Web graphics
What feature is a list of links you’ve visited WITHIN a Web sit?
Breadcrumb trails
Which is NOT a component of a search engine?
Subject directory
When using the Internet for research, you…
should evaluate sites for bias and relevance
Which of the following is NOT an Internet protocol?
ARPANET
eBay and Craigslist are examples of what kind of electronic commerce?
C2C (consumer to consumer)
The information in e-mail is no more private than a postcard. True/False?
True
A search engine that searches other search engines is called a SuperSearch engine. True/False?
False. It’s called a Metasearch engine
A green shaded address bar on a Web site indicates that the Web site is secure. True/False?
True
Each time you connect to the Internet, your computer is assigned a UNIQUE address. True/False?
False
In the Web address www.facebook.com, Facebook is the top-level domain. True/False?
False. Top-level domain is .com
A/an ________ like Microsoft Outlook, is used to read, send, and organize your e-mail.
e-mail client
The first “internet” was a U.S. government-funded “internetworking” project named __________.
ARPANET
Which of the following is a social networking and microblogging service?
Twitter
The original Web browser could handle only text and was usable only with what operating system?
NeXT
__________ is an XML-based format that facilitates the delivery of frequent content updates on Web pages.
RSS
To access the Internet, your computer is assigned a unique identification number called a(n) __________.
IP address
Which of the following are the three parts of a search engine?
Spider, indexer program, and search engine software
A personal journal that uses video as the primary content is a __________.
Video logs
A __________ is a structured outline of Websites organized by topics and subtopics.
subject directory
Which of the following is a recent browser on the market distributed by Google?
Chrome
Which of the following top-level domains is reserved for mostly non-profit institutions?
.org
What does a URL consist of?
A URL consists of a protocol, domain name, and path, NOT a hyperlink
PayPal is now a standard means of online payment exchange for many online merchants. True/False?
True
Most browsers now offer tabbed browsing, which allows for convenient navigation.
True/False?
True
The “s” in https:// means “secure socket lock.”
True/False?
True
PayPal offers a security key that provides additional security to all PayPal accounts. True/False?
True
A breadcrumb trail is a list of pages within a Website that have been visited.
True/False?
True
Omaha Paper Company (www.omahapaper.com) is an example of a consumer-to-consumer Website.
True/False?
False.
Omaha Paper Company (www.omahapaper.com) is an example of a business-to-business Website. eBay is an example of a consumer-to-consumer Website.
A video log, such as found on YouTube, is a type of blog.
True/False?
True
The question mark (?) is a wildcard, or placeholder, that is used to search for unknown terms in a search engine.
True/False?
False.

The asterisk (*) is a wildcard, or placeholder feature that is helpful when you need to search with unknown terms.

Social networking is for entertainment purposes only.
True/False?
False.

Social networking can be useful in the business community for the purposes of finding and filling open job positions as well as finding clients.

E-mail communications are private.
True/False?
False.
Internet backbones are the largest and fastest pathways and are the main arteries of the Internet.
True
The Internet is the largest computer network in the world.
True
Software
The set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasks.
Program
A series of instructions to be followed by a computer to accomplish a task.
System software
The set of programs that enables a computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs.
Application software
The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software that is delivered on demand over the Internet.
Web-based applications
A program that is hosted on a Web site and does not require installation on the computer.
Productivity software
Programs that enable a user to perform various tasks generally required in home, school, and business.

Examples include word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, personal information management (PIM), and database programs.

Word processing software
Programs used to create and edit written documents such as papers, letters, and résumés.
Open source software
Program code made publicly available for free; it can be copied, distributed, or changed without the stringent copyright protections of proprietary software products.
Proprietary software
Custom software application that is owned and controlled by the company that created it.
Spreadsheet software
An application program such as Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3 that enables a user to do calculations and numerical analyses easily.
Presentation software
An application program for creating dynamic slide shows such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Apple Keynote.
Database software
An electronic filing system best used for larger and more complicated groups of data that require more than one table and the ability to group, sort, and retrieve data and generate reports.
Personal information manager (PIM) software
Programs such as Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Organizer that strive to replace the various management tools found on a traditional desk such as a calendar, address book, notepad, and to-do lists.
Wizard
A step-by-step guide that walks a user through the necessary steps to complete a complicated task.
Template
A form included in many productivity applications that provides the basic structure for a particular kind of document, spreadsheet, or presentation.
Macro
A small program that groups a series of commands to run as a single command.
Software suite
A collection of software programs that have been bundled together as a package.
Tax preparation software
An application program, such as Intuit’s TurboTax or H&R Block’s TaxCut, for preparing state and federal taxes. Each program offers a complete set of tax forms and instructions as well as expert advice on how to complete each form.
Financial planning software
Programs for managing finances, such as Intuit’s Quicken and Microsoft Money, which include electronic checkbook registers and automatic bill payment tools.
Accounting software
An application program that helps business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools for tracking accounting transactions such as sales, accounts receivable, inventory purchases, and accounts payable.
Desktop publishing (DTP) software
Programs for incorporating and arranging graphics and text to produce creative documents.
Web page authoring software
Programs you can use to design interactive Web pages without knowing any HyperText Markup Language (HTML) code.
Project management software
An application program, such as Microsoft Project, that helps project managers generate charts and tables used to manage aspects of a project.
Customer relationship management (CRM) software
A business program used for storing sales and client contact information in one central database.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system
Used to control many “back office” operations and processing functions such as billing, production, inventory management, and human resources management.
Mapping programs
Software that provides street maps and written directions to locations.
Online mapping service
An alternative to more traditional mapping software programs; easily accessible with any Internet connection and updated more frequently than offline services. Examples include MapQuest, Yahoo! Maps, and Google Maps.
Vertical market software
Software that is developed for and customized to a specific industry’s needs (such as a wood inventory system for a sawmill) as opposed to software that is useful across a range of industries (such as word processing software).
Computer-aided design (CAD)
A 3D modeling program used to create automated designs, technical drawings, and model visualizations.
Multimedia software
Programs that include image, video, and audio editing software, animation software, and other specialty software required to produce computer games, animations, and movies.
Image editing software (photo editing software)
Programs for editing photographs and other images.
Audio editing software
Programs that perform basic editing tasks on audio files such as cutting dead air space from the beginning or end of a song or cutting a portion from the middle.
Digital video editing software
A program for editing digital video.
Entertainment software
Programs designed to provide users with entertainment. Computer games make up the vast majority of entertainment software.
Simulation programs
Software, often used for training purposes, which allows the user to experience or control an event as if it is reality.
Course management software
A program that provides traditional classroom tools, such as calendars and grade books, over the Internet, as well as areas for students to exchange ideas and information in chat rooms, discussion forums, and e-mail.
Drawing software (illustration software)
Programs for creating or editing two-dimensional line-based drawings.
Software license (End Users License Agreement-EULA)
An agreement between the user and the software developer that must be accepted before installing the software on a computer.
Copyleft
A simplified licensing scheme that enables copyright holders to grant certain rights to a work while retaining other rights.
Bloatware
The pre-installed software (often trial versions) on a new computer.
Freeware
Any copyrighted software that can be used for free.
Beta version
A version of the software that is still under development. Many beta versions are available for a limited trial period, and are used to help the developers correct any errors before they launch the software on the market.
Shareware
Software that enables users to “test” the software by running it for a limited time free of charge.
System requirements
The set of minimum storage, memory capacity, and processing standards recommended by the software manufacturer to ensure proper operation of a software application.
Full installation
The process of installing all the files and programs from the distribution CD to the computer’s hard drive.
Custom installation
The process of installing only those features of a software program that a user wants on the hard drive.
Integrated help
Documentation for a software product that is built directly into the software.
The minimum set of recommended standards for a program is known as the ____
System requirements
Software that is available on-demand via the Internet is called ____
Web-based software
What type of software enables you to create dynamic slide shows?
Presentation
Which is NOT an advantage of using a software suite?
The programs integrate easily with programs from other software suites.
Image, video, and audio editing software belong in the category of what kind of software?
Multimedia software
What kind of software is responsible for back office operations such as billing and inventory?
Enterprise resource planning
Which of the following is true about open source software?
The program can be changed and freely distributed.
A small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command is called a _____
macro
Which program can you use when you are taking notes in class?
SoundNote, EverNote, OneNote
10. What is another name for Software as a Service (SaaS)?
Web-based application
A macro is a small program that groups a series of commands so that they run as a single command. T/F?
True
When you need help with software, you should use the program’s help features or manufacturer FAQs, not online help like podcasts or YouTube videos. T/F?
False
System software includes the operating system and utility programs. T/F?
True
A software suite is a group of programs bundled as a package. T/F?
True
When you buy software, you then own it and can do anything you’d like with it, including giving it to a friend to install on their machine. T/F?
False
Which of the following statements is TRUE about system software?
It helps run the computer and coordinate instructions between application software and the computer’s hardware devices.
Programs such as Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access are what type of productivity software?
Database software
Equations that you build yourself using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as values and cell references are known as ____________.
formulas
Which of the following is an example of values?
Numeric data that represents a quantity or an amount and is often the basis for calculations.
A small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command is a __________.
macro
An application that is open for others to use while it is under development is __________.
a beta version
Unwanted preinstalled software is referred to as __________.
bloatware
Software that enables users to experience or control the software as if it were the actual software or an actual event known as __________.
simulation programs
The type of software that helps create and modify scheduling charts, allowing for the planning and tracking of specific tasks and coordinating personnel resources is a(n) __________.
project management software
Web page authoring software cannot be used without knowledge of HTML. T/F?
False
Software that is designed for a specific industry is called horizontal market software. T/F?
False. Vertical market software
Integrated help means that the documentation for the product can be found online. T/F?
False.

Integrated help means that the documentation for the product is built directly into the software so you don’t need to search on line.

As long as you have a license for software, you can copy an application onto more than one computer. T/F?
False
Open source software is program code that is publicly available for a fee with few restrictions.
T/F?
False.

Open source software is program code that is publicly available FREE of charge and has few restrictions.

Freeware and shareware software both offer free programs without any restrictions. T/F?
False.
MP3 files are not compressed, so the file size will usually be large. T/F?
False

MP3 files are compressed, so the file size will tend to be smaller.