Technology in Action Chapter 3

Internet
A network of networks that is the largest network in the world, connecting millions of computers from more than one hundred countries.
World Wide Web (WWW or Web)
The part of the Internet used the most; what distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is its use of: 1.) common communications protocols that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats and 2.) special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another on the Web.
Web Browser (Browser)
Software installed on a computer system that allows individuals to locate, view, and navigate the web.
Client
A computer that requests information from a server in a client/server network (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet).
Server
A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
Client/Server Network (Server-Based Network)
A type of network that uses servers to deliver services to computers that are requesting them (clients).
Internet Backbone
The main pathway of high-speed communications lines over which all Internet traffic flows.
Internet Protocol Address (IP Address)
The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other. It consists of a unique set of numbers separated by dots. (ex: 123.45.178.91)
Web 2.0
Tools and Web-based services that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users.
Social Networking
A means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information among their immediate friends, and meet and connect with others through common interests, experiences, and friends.
E-mail (Electronic Mail)
Internet based communication in which senders and recipients correspond.
E-mail Client
A software program that runs on a computer and is used to send and receive e-mail through the ISP’s server.
Instant Messaging (IM)
A program that enables users to communicate online in real time with others who are also online.
Blog (Weblog)
A personal log or journal posted on the web.
Video Log (Vlog or Video Blog)
A personal online journal that uses video as the primary content in addition to text, images, and audio.
Wiki
A type of Web site that allows anyone visiting the site to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content.
Podcast
A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio or video files in formats such as MP3.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
An XML-based format that allows frequent updates of content on the World Wide Web.
Aggregators
A software program that goes out and grabs the latest update if the Web material (usually podcasts) according to your specifications.
Webcast
The broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet. Unlike a podcast, it is not updated automatically.
Multimedia
Anything that involves one or more forms of media plus text.
Streaming Audio
Technology that enables audio files to be fed to a browser continuously. This lets the users avoid having to download an entire file before listening.
Streaming Video
Technology that enables video files to be fed to a browser continuously. This lets users avoid having to download an entire file before viewing.
Multiplayer Online Games
An online game in which play occurs among hundreds or thousands of other players over the Internet in a persistent or ever-on game environment. In some games, players can interact through trading, chatting, or playing cooperative or combative mini-games.
Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs)
A gaming environment in which thousands of participants interact in a virtual game world by assuming roles of fictitious characters.
Plug-in (Player)
A small software program that “plugs in” to a Web browser to enable a specific function, such as to view and hear certain multimedia files on the Web.
E-commerce (Electronic Commerce)
The process of conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
E-commerce transactions between businesses and consumers.
Business-to-Business (B2B)
E-commerce transactions between businesses.
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
E-commerce transactions between consumers through online sites such as eBay.com.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
A protocol that provides for the encryption of data transmitted using the Internet.
Web Site
A location on the Web.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
A website’s unique address. (Ex: microsoft.com)
Home Page
The main or opening page of a Web site.
Domain Name
A part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that consists of two parts: the site’s host and a suffix that indicates the type of organization.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol that allows files to be transferred from a Web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser.
Web Server
A computer running a specialized operating system that enables it to host Web pages (and other information) and provide requested Web pages to clients.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet.
Host
The portion of a domain name that identifies who maintains a given Web site. For example, berkeley.edu is the domain for the University of California, which maintains that site,
Top-Level Domain (TLD)
The suffix, often of three letters, in the domain name (such as .com or .edu) that indicates what kind of organization the host is.
Path (Subdirectory)
The information after the slash indicates a particular file within the Web site.
Hyperlink
A type of specifically coded text, that when clicked, enables the user to jump from one location, or Web page, to another within a Web site or to another Web site altogether.
Breadcrumb Trail
A navigation bar that displays the page names in order of level from the home page to the current page based on the navigation structure. Also called the path.
Favorites
A feature in Microsoft Internet Explorer that places a marker of a Web site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list in the browser’s toolbar. (Called “Bookmarks” in some browser’s)
Bookmark
Internet browser feature that allows users easy and quick access to websites deemed as “favorites”.
Live Bookmark
A bookmark that delivers updates to you as soon as they become available using Really Simple Syndication (RSS).
Social Bookmark (Tag)
A keyword or term that Internet users assign to a Web resource such as a Web page, digital image, or video.
Keyword
1.) A specific word a user wishes to query (or look for) in an Internet search or 2.) a specific word that has a predefined meaning in a particular programming language.
Search Engine
A set of programs that searches the Web for specific words (or keywords) you wish to query (look for) and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found.
Subject Directory
A structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics.
Metasearch Engines
A search engine, such as Dogpile, that searches other search engines rather than individual websites.
Spider
A program used by a search engines that constantly collects information on the Web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages. It gets its name because they crawl over the Web using multiple “legs” to visit as many sites simultaneously.
Boolean Operators
A word used to refine logical searches. For Internet searches, the words “and,” “not,” and “or” describe the relationships between keywords in the search.
Semantic Web (Web 3.0)
An evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which information is defined in such a way to make it more easily readable by computers.
social commerce
A type of electronic commerce that uses social media to assist in the online buying and selling of products and services.
Web-based e-mail
An e-mail system that allows users to access e-mail messages using a browser.