The initiation ceremonies re the most important of these, educationally. From animism develop the natural religions, early philosophies, and rudimentary sciences. With the formulation of these, written languages are Invented, and a special body of knowledge accessible to a few is developed. This forms the subject-matter of a higher stage of education. Along with this there develops a special priesthood differing from the familiars or exorcists on the one hand, and from the common people on the other. This priesthood becomes a special teaching-class for all.
As they organize to teach prospective members of their own order, the first school emerges. With the formation of definite curriculum, teaching class, and school, the primitive stage In education Is passed, and the early stages of collocation are reached. Primitive people were mostly nomadic having to move from one spot to another in order to follow the food. Even back in this time the concept of the “survival of the fittest” was around. In fact, for most primitive peoples it was all about who could learn to survive and be strong enough to survive.
Youth that could not survive were often left or ended up dying early. Given the parameters of survival of the fittest It was necessary to provide hands on training. Young people were taught about life through stories. Primitive people did not have the concept of writing. A lot of the primitive artwork we see was used to teach youths. It was mostly through stories passed down from elder to youth that taught life lessons. Hands-on-training was a way of life. There was no school room to learn how to survive. Instead nature was the school room.
Youths were taught the hard way about life such as how to survive, have children, find food, etc. The skills needed to survive were often taught in hands-on experiences. When possible fighting skills were trained but when on the move it was kill or be killed. Any youth who could not fight to survive would not make it. Youths were taught what to look for and how to look for food by doing. Parents would take the youths with them help the camp, while others would hunt. Hunting parties were formed with hands-on experience necessary.
At the camps it was often the women and younger children gathering berries and other necessities. 2. Describe how primitive learners may be taught during the early period of American colonization in the Philippines. Education as a Colonial Tool “Education is power- the power to forge realities, the power to propel cultures, the power to interrupt life. ” Flacon Martin -Isabel Both photos each show an American woman teaching a group of Filipino children at an American-run school. Education became very important for the Filipinos.
This was something that the Americans gave importance to, The spread of democracy and formation of good citizens including the rights and responsibilities of the people were the focus of American education in the country. Education allowed the Americans to spread or share their culture, particularly the English language, to the Filipinos. The American government wanted to give everyone the chance to study so they built public schools for the Filipinos. Volunteer Filipino soldiers became the first teachers of the Filipinos. Part of their mission was to build classrooms in every place where they were assigned.
The Filipino soldiers stopped teaching only when a group of teachers from the U. S. Came to the Philippines in June 1901. They came aboard the ship “Sheridan. ” In August 1901, 600 teachers called “Tomatoes” arrived. Their name came from the ship they traveled on, the S. S. Thomas. This group became successful in their mission. Due to the Education Act No. 34, the Tomatoes were created. Tomatoes were a group of American teachers sent by the United States overspent in August 1901. An interesting short fact is that Tomatoes get their name from the ship US Thomas that brought them to the Philippines.
The Tomatoes help expand the public school system previously established by the Spanish by introducing the English as the medium of instruction. They also were directed to train Filipino teachers as an incentive to make the Philippines self- sustainable. The Tomatoes were paid $125/ month, which is more than they could get paid in the United States. There was a high influx of Tomatoes due to various motivations of Job security, high pay, philanthropic fulfillment, and the desire to ravel outside of the United States.
Even though the Tomatoes had acquired a taught them English to institute the groundwork for the Philippine public school system. The first public school opened before the Tomatoes arrived on Corridor Island. When the Tomatoes arrived, they were quarantined for a few days and then moved on to their assigned provinces. They taught subjects in areas of language, mathematics, domestic work, specific trade work, freehand drawing, and athletics. Obviously it is shown that there was no other creative opportunity other than freehand drawing.
This inhibited the indigenous people from learning how to express their feelings or reactions from being oppressed. Also, the teaching of freehand drawing was seen as practical for future Jobs. There were three areas of language which included English, grammar, and reading. Much emphasis was placed on language in order to best prepare Filipinos to assimilate into American society or in other words to follow American instruction within American society. It was very damaging in the sense of national consciousness because the Filipinos don’t have their own language.
They’re learning another country’s language while destroying the many variations of their country’s languages. This is an imperative indication of what the future of Filipino identity will become. It will be so enmeshed with American society due to the foundation of an American education. Domestic work included housekeeping, sewing, crocheting, and cooking. These classes were obviously constructed to attract the female Filipino population, which is distinguished later in the mid-ass’s when a large population of female Filipinos studies to become nurses because it included “women’s work. The Tomatoes left behind elementary schools and learning institutions that helped transform the Philippines into the third largest English-speaking nation in the world. I Every child from age 7 was required to register in schools located in their own town or province. The students were given free school materials. There were three levels of education during the American period. The “elementary” level consisted of four primary years and 3 intermediate years. The “secondary” or high school level consisted of four years; and the third was the “college” or tertiary level.
Many elementary and secondary schools were opened in cities and provinces. Normal, vocational, agricultural, and business schools were also opened. There were also colleges during the American period. Some of these colleges are: Philippine Normal School in 1901 (now a university); National University of Manila (1914); Philippine Women University (1919); and Far Eastern University (1933). Examples of vocational schools are: the Philippine Nautical School, Philippine School of Arts and Trades and the Central Luzon Agriculture School. The University of the Philippines was also founded in 1908. Religion was not included in the curriculum of the schools. The Americans also gave recognition to those students who excelled academically. They were sent to the U. S. To continue their studies and to become expert in their desired fields or professions. They were called “scholars” because the government covered all their expenses. In return, they were to teach or work in government offices after they finished their studies. There were successful Filipino scholars like Judge Jose Bad Santos, Francisco Benefit, Dry. Honoraria Soon and Francisco Delano. Education was also provided to those who were of age. Schools were also built in non-Catholic areas like Sulk, Mindanao, and the Mountain Provinces. Attention was given to vocational and health practice. The knowledge of the Filipinos in reading and writing were very high during the American period. I Like the Spaniards, the Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the country. Until now, these American influences can still be seen in our lifestyle or way of life. The Commonwealth provided free education in public schools all over the country, in accordance with the 1935 constitution.
Education also emphasized nationalism so the students were taught about the life of the Filipino heroes. Vocational education and some household activities like sewing, cooking, and farming were also given importance. Good manners and discipline were also taught to the students. The institute of Private Education was established in order to observe private schools. In 1941, the total number of students studying in the 400 private schools in the country reached 10,000. There was also the existence of “Adult Education” in order to give formal education even to adults. . Describe how modern students could be taught considering the advent of audio- video machines and the computer. Modern students are taught visually by the use of modern audio and visual equipment. Visual audio and video presentations have en found to help students better retain any information they may have been shown through these options, and they do better on tests and schoolwork. During the ass’s, programmed instruction emerged as the first true educational technology, that is, the first technology developed specifically to meet educational needs.
With every other technology, including computers, educators recognized its importance and debated how to apply each nascent commercial technology for educational purposes. Unfortunately, educators have almost always tried to use technologies to teach students in the same ways that teachers had always taught. So information was recorded in the technology (e. G. , the content presented by films and television programs), and the technology presented that information to the students. The students’ role was to learn the information presented by the technology, Just as they learned information presented by the teacher.
The role of the technology was to deliver lessons to students, Just as trucks deliver groceries to supermarkets (Clark, 1983). If you deliver groceries, people will eat. If you deliver instruction, students will learn. Not necessarily! We will tell you why later. The introduction of modern imputer technologies in classrooms has followed the same pattern of use. Before the advent of microcomputers in the ass’s, mainframe computers were used to deliver drill and practice and simple tutorials for teaching students lessons.
When microcomputers began populating classrooms, the natural inclination was to use them in the same way. A 1983 national survey of computer uses showed that drill and practice was the most common use of microcomputers (Becker, 1985). Later in the ass’s, educators began to perceive the importance of computers as productivity programs, and desktop publishing was enabling businesses to become more reductive. So, students in classroom began word processing and using graphics packages and desktop publishing programs to write with.
This tool conception pervaded computer use according to a 1993 study by Hadley and Shingled that showed that well-informed teachers were extensively using text processing tools (word processors), analytic and information tools (especially databases and some spreadsheet use), and graphics tools (paint programs and desktop publishing) along with instructional software (including problem-solving programs along with drill and practice and tutorials). The development of inexpensive multimedia computers and the eruption of the Internet in the mid-ass’s quickly changed the nature of educational computing.
Communications tools (e. G. , e-mail and computer conferences) and multimedia, little used according to Hadley and Shingled, have dominated the role of technologies in the classroom ever since. But what are the students producing? Too often, they are using the technology to reproduce what the teacher or textbook told them or what they copy from the Internet. Our conception of educational computing and technology use, described next, does not conceive of cosmologies as teachers or repositories of information.
Rather, we believe that, in order to learn, students should teach the computer or use the technology to represent what they know rather than memorizing what teachers and textbooks tell them. Technologies provide rich and flexible media for representing what students know and what they are learning. A great deal of research on computers and other technologies has shown that they are no more effective at teaching students than teachers, but if we begin to think about technologies as learning tools that students learn with, not from, then the nature of student learning will change.