Many of the reduces produced by Instructional technologists represent radical Innovations In the form, organization, sequence, and delivery of instruction. (Chiffon, 1991 So, instructional technology may be described as the use computers, CD-Rooms, interactive media, modems, satellites, teleconferencing, and other technological means to support learning. CD-ROOM – Short for Compact Disc-Read-only Memory, a type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data up to KGB, although the most common size Is MOB (megabytes). A single CD-ROOM has the storage capacity of 700 floppy disks, enough memory to store about 300,000 text pages.
CD-Rooms are particularly well-suited to information that requires large storage capacity. This includes large software applications that support color, graphics, sound, and especially video. Interactive Media – Interactive media is the integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes. The digital environment can Include the Internet, telecoms and interactive digital television. Teleconferencing – is a telephone all between more than two participants.
The most simple form of teleconferencing is using three-way calling to setup your own teleconference between yourself and two other participants’. Satellites – are anything natural or man made that orbit a body of matter or planet. Man-made satellites are used for communication, navigation, collecting Information about changes seen from above, e. G. Weather, military, and much more. A modem – (modulator-demodulator) Is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a airier signal to decode the transmitted information.
The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from light emitting diodes to radio. Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience is a model that incorporates several theories related to Instructional design and learning processes. During the sass, Edgar Dale theorized that learners retain more information by what they “do” as opposed to what is “heard”, “read” or “observed”. His research led to the development of the Cone of Experience.
Today, this “learning by doing’ has become known as “experiential learning’ or “action learning’. According to Dale’s research, the least effective method at the top, involves learning from Information presented through verbal symbols, I. E. , listening to spoken words. The most effective hands-on or field experience. Direct purposeful experiences represent reality or the closet things to real, everyday life. The cone charts the average retention rate for various methods of teaching. The further you progress down the cone, the greater the learning and the more information is likely to be retained.
It also suggests that when choosing an instructional method it is important to remember that involving students in the process strengthens knowledge retention. It reveals that “action- learning” techniques result in up to 90% retention. People learn best when they use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based. The more sensory channels possible in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many students can learn from it. According to Dale, instructors should design instructional activities that build upon more real-life experiences.
Dales’ cone of experience is a tool to help instructors make decisions about resources and activities. The instructor can ask the following: Where will the student’s experience with this instructional resource fit on the cone? How far is it removed from real-life? What kind of learning experience do you want to provide in the classroom? How does this instructional resource augment the information supplied by the textbook? What and how many senses can students use to learn this instructional material? Does the instructional material enhance learning? Behaviorism originated with the work of John B.
Watson, an American psychologist. Watson claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead, psychology would be concerned only with behavior. In this way, men could be studied objectively, like rats and apes. Watson coined the term “Behaviorism” in 1913. Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events. Thus, there are events that precede and follow behavior. Behaviorist’s goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior (responses), ND consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect).
Some Aspects of Watson theory were that he opposed mentalist concepts. He used contiguity to explain learning. He considered emotion to be Just another example of classical conditioning. He rejected the notion of individual differences. He thought complex behaviors came about through combinations of identifiable reflexes. He was a chief proponent of “nurture” and believed that all human differences were the result of learning and he believed that practice strengthens learning.
While Watson position fell short of his AOL of explaining human learning, his work is now considered as an early beginning of the development of learning science. Advanced technology has the potential to significantly expand the breadth and depth of the curriculum. With the Internet, for example, students can access information far beyond the scope of their traditional textbooks. Curricula can be individualized and adapted to students’ specific learning styles. Instructional technology has the power to enhance overall knowledge accumulation, instead of Just focusing on content mastery.
Instructional technology s a growing field of study which uses technology as a means to solve educational challenges, both in the classroom and in distance learning environments. While instructional technology promises solutions to many educational problems, resistance from faculty and administrators to the use of technology in the classroom is not unusual. This reaction can arise from the belief–or fear–that the ultimate aim instruction. However, most instructional technologists would counter that education will always require human intervention from instructors or facilitators.
Many radiate programs are producing instructional designers, who increasingly are being employed by industry and universities to create materials for distance education programs. These professionals often employ e-learning tools, which provide distance learners the opportunity to interact with instructors and experts in the field, even if they are not located physically close to each other. More recently a new form of Instructional technology known as Human Performance Technology has evolved. HP focuses on performance problems and deals primarily with corporate entities.