Firstly, I would like to express deep sense of gratitude to Mr.. Man Sings Akimbo (HOOD), Department of Applied Elect. &lnstt. Engineering, JIMS for his guidance. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to, Mr.. Adult, Mr.. Gaur kapok and Mr.. Ashes for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completion of the study of the seminar through various stages. Lastly, I thank Almighty, my family and friends for their constant encouragement and their valuable support, without which this project would not have been possible.
I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my project. Hazier Lam 1211832 B. Tech 7th Semester A. E. I Abstract The Silent sound technology is an amazing solution for those who had lost their voice but wish to speak over phone. It is developed at the Karakul’s Institute of Technology and you can expect to see it in the near future. When demonstrated, it seems to detect every lip movement and internally converts the electrical pulses into sounds signals and sends them neglecting all other surrounding noise.
It is definitely going to be a good solution for those feeling annoyed when other speak loud over phone. The awesome feature added to this technology is that “it is an instant polyglot” I. E, events can be immediately transformed into the language of the user’s choice. This translation works for languages like English, French & German. But, for the languages like Chinese, different tones can hold many different meanings. This poses Problem said Wand. He also said that in five or may be in ten years this will Be used in every days technology. Silent Sound Technology is processed through some ways or methods.
They are ;Electromyography (MEG) ; Image Processing Keywords- silent sound, digital image processing, electromyography, image processing. 1. INTRODUCTION Silence is the best answer for all the situations … Even your mobile understands. The word Cell Phone has become greatest buzz word in Cellular Communication industry. There are lots and lots of technology that tries to reduce the Noise pollution and make the environment a better place to live in. This report will tell about a new technology known as Silent Sound Technology that will put an end to Noise pollution.
We are in a movie theater or noisy restaurant or a bus etc where there is lot of noise around is big issue while talking on a mobile phone. But in the future this problem is eliminated with “silent sounds”, a new technology unveiled at the Cubit fair, that ransoms lip movements into a computer-generated voice for the listener at the other end of the phone. It is a technology that helps us to transmit information without using your vocal cords . This technology aims to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone .
Hence person on other end of phone receives the information in audio. In the 2010 Cubit’s “future park”, a concept “Silent Sound” Technology demonstrated which aims to notice every movement of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent alls without bothering others. The device, developed by the Karakul’s Institute of Technology (KIT), uses electromyography, monitoring tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak and converting them into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered. Silent Sound’ technology aims to notice every movements of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent calls without bothering others. Rather than making any sounds, your handset would decipher the movements your mouth makes by measuring muscle activity, then convert this into beech that the person on the other end of the call can hear. So, basically, it reads your lips. “We currently use electrodes which are glued to the skin.
In the future, such electrodes might for example by incorporated into cellophanes,” said Michael Wand, from the KIT. Figure (a) Common people talking at same place without disturbance. The technology opens up a host of applications, from helping people who have lost their voice due to illness or accident to telling a trusted friend your PIN number over the phone without anyone eavesdropping -? assuming no lip-readers are around. The technology can also turn you into an instant polyglot. Because the electrical pulses are universal, they can be immediately transformed into the language of the user’s choice. Native speakers can silently utter a sentence in their language, and the receivers hear the translated sentence in their language. It appears as if the native speaker produced speech in a foreign language,” said Wand. The translation technology works for languages like English, French and German, but for languages like Chinese, where different tones can hold many different meanings, poses a problem, he added. Noisy people in your office ? Not anymore. “We are also working on technology to be used in an office environment,” the KIT scientist told APP.
The engineers have got the device working to 99 percent efficiency, so the mechanical voice at the other end of the phone gets one word in 100 wrong, explained Wand. “But we’re working to overcome the remaining technical difficulties. In five, maybe ten years, this will be useable, everyday technology,” he said. 2. NEED FOR SILENT SOUND Silent Sound Technology will put an end to embarrassed situation such as:- An person answering his silent, but vibrating cell phone in a meeting, lecture or reference, and whispering loudly, ‘ I can’t talk to you right now .
In the case of an urgent call, apologetically rushing out of the room in order to answer or call the person back. ORIGINATION: ORIGINATION Humans are capable of producing and understanding whispered speech in quiet environments at remarkably low signal levels. Most people can also understand a few unspoken words by lip-reading The idea of interpreting silent speech electronically or with a computer has been around for a long time, and was popularized in the 1968 Stanley Cubic science-fiction film “2001 – A Space Odyssey ”
A major focal point was the DARPA Advanced Speech Encoding Program (EASE ) of the early sass’s, which funded research on low bit rate speech synthesis with acceptable intelligibility, quality , and aural speaker recognizably in acoustically harsh environments”,. When you add lawnmowers, snow blowers, leaf blowers, Jack hammers, Jet engines, transport trucks, and horns and buzzers of all types and descriptions you have a wall of constant noise and irritation. Even when watching a television program at a reasonable volume level you are blown out of your chair when a commercial comes on at the decibel level of a Jet.
The technology opens up a host of applications, from helping people who have lost their voice due to illness or accident to telling a trusted friend your PIN number over the phone without anyone eavesdropping -? assuming no lip-readers are around. Native speakers can silently utter a sentence in their language, and the receivers hear the translated sentence in their language. It appears as if the native speaker produced speech in a foreign language. You could pass the time by making phone calls from the cinema without disturbing anyone. In noisy places like bars and clubs you could feasibly make yourself heard without avian to shout.
The technology would be particularly handy if you’ve been taken hostage but managed to work your bound hands free enough to retrieve your secret mobile, dial and get your face close enough for the technology to work. 3. METHODS Silent Sound Technology is processed through some ways or methods. They are Electromyography (MEG) Image Processing Electromyography: The Silent Sound Technology uses electromyography, monitoring tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak. Monitored signals are converted into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered.
Electromyography (MEG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. An electromyography detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells, when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. Electromyography sensors attached to the face records the electric signals produced by the facial muscles, compare them with pre recorded signal pattern of spoken words When there is a match that sound is transmitted on to the other end of the line and person at the other end listen to the spoken words. Image Processing:
The simplest form of digital image processing converts the digital data tape into a film image with minimal corrections and calibrations. Then large mainframe computers are employed for sophisticated interactive manipulation of the data. In the present context, overhead prospective are employed to analyze the picture. In electrical engineering and computer science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image.
Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it. 4. ELECTROMYOGRAPHY activity produced by skeletal muscles. MEG is performed using an instrument called an electromyography, to produce a record called an electromyography. An electromyography detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, recruitment order or to analyze the biometrics of human or animal movement.
The Silent Sound Technology uses electromyography, monitoring tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak. Monitored signals are converted into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered. Electromyography (MEG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. An electromyography detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells, when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. Figure(b) Electromyography Electrical characteristics: The electrical source is the muscle membrane potential of about -90 NV.
Measured MEG potentials range between less than 50 iv and up to 20 to 30 NV, depending on the muscle under observation. Typical repetition rate of muscle motor unit firing is about 7-20 Haze, depending on the size of the muscle (eye muscles versus seat (glutei) muscles), previous axon damage and other factors. Damage to motor units can be expected at ranges between 450 and 780 ran. Procedure: There are two kinds of MEG in widespread use: surface MEG and intramuscular (needle and fine-wire) MEG.
To perform intramuscular MEG, a needle electrode or a needle containing two fine-wire electrodes is inserted through the skin into the muscle tissue. A trained professional (such as a neurologist, physicists, or physical therapist) observes the electrical activity while inserting the electrode. The insertion activity provides valuable information about the state of the muscle and its innervating nerve. Normal muscles at rest make certain, normal electrical signals when the needle is inserted into them. Then the electrical activity when the muscle is at rest is studied.
Abnormal spontaneous activity might indicate some nerve and/or muscle damage. Then the patient is asked to contract the muscle smoothly. The shape, size, and frequency of the resulting motor unit potentials are Judged. Then the electrode is retracted a few millimeters, and again the activity is analyzed until at least 10-20 units have been collected. Each electrode track gives only a very local picture of the activity of the whole muscle. Because skeletal muscles differ in the inner structure, the electrode has to be placed at various locations to obtain an accurate study.
Figure(c) Electromyography Instruments Intramuscular MEG may be considered too invasive or unnecessary in some cases. Instead, a surface electrode may be used to monitor the general picture of muscle activation, as opposed to the activity of only a few fibers as observed using an intramuscular MEG. This technique is used in a number of settings; for example, in the physiotherapy clinic, muscle activation is monitored using surface MEG and patients have an auditory or visual stimulus to help them know when they are activating the muscle (biofeedback).
Figure(d) Electromyography Instrument A motor unit is defined as one motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates. When a motor unit fires, the impulse (called an action potential) is carried down the motor neuron to the muscle. The area where the nerve contacts the muscle s called the neuromuscular Junction, or the motor end plate. After the action potential is transmitted across the neuromuscular Junction, an action potential is elicited in all of the innervated muscle fibers of that particular motor unit. The sum of all this electrical activity is known as a motor unit action potential (MAP).
This electrophoresis activity from multiple motor units is the signal typically evaluated during an MEG. The composition of the motor unit, the number of muscle fibers per motor unit, the metabolic type of muscle fibers and many other factors affect the shape of the motor unit potentials in the mammogram. Nerve conduction testing is also often done at the same time as an MEG to diagnose neurological diseases. Some patients can find the procedure somewhat painful, whereas others experience only a small amount of discomfort when the needle is inserted.
The muscle or muscles being tested may be slightly sore for a day or two after the procedure. Normal results: Muscle tissue at rest is normally electrically inactive. After the electrical activity caused by the irritation of needle insertion subsides, the electromyography should detect no abnormal spontaneous activity (I. E. , a muscle at rest should be electrically lent, with the exception of the area of the neuromuscular Junction, which is, under normal circumstances, very spontaneously active).
When the muscle is voluntarily contracted, action potentials begin to appear. As the strength of the muscle contraction is increased, more and more muscle fibers produce action potentials. When the muscle is fully contracted, there should appear a disorderly group of action potentials of varying rates and amplitudes (a complete recruitment and interference pattern). Abnormal results: MEG is used to diagnose diseases that generally may be classified into one of the allowing categories: neuropathology, neuromuscular Junction diseases and monopolies.
Neurotic disease has the following defining MEG characteristics: An action potential amplitude that is twice normal due to the increased number of fibers per motor unit because of reintegration of denigrated fibers An increase in duration of the action potential A decrease in the number of motor units in the muscle (as found using motor unit number estimation techniques) Myopic disease has these defining MEG characteristics: A decrease in duration of the action potential A reduction in the area to amplitude ratio of the action potential A decrease in the umber of motor units in the muscle (in extremely severe cases only) Because of the individuality of each patient and disease, some of these characteristics may not appear in every case. MEG signal decomposition: MEG signals are essentially made up of superimposed motor unit action potentials (Maps) from several motor units. For a thorough analysis, the measured MEG signals can be decomposed into their constituent Maps. Maps from different motor units tend to have different characteristic shapes, while MI-SAPS recorded by the same electrode from the same motor unit are typically similar. Notably MI-JAPE size and shape depend on where the electrode is located with respect to the fibers and so can appear to be different if the electrode moves position.
MEG decomposition is non-trivial, although many methods have been proposed. Applications of MEG: MEG signals are used in many clinical and biomedical applications. MEG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain, sinology, and disorders of motor control. MEG signals are also used as a control signal for prosthetic devices such as prosthetic hands, arms, and lower limbs. MEG an be used to sense isometric muscular activity where no movement is produced. This enables definition of a class of subtle motionless gestures to control interfaces without being noticed and without disrupting the surrounding environment.
These signals can be used to control a prosthesis or as a control signal for an electronic device such as a mobile phone or PDA. MEG signals have been targeted as control for flight systems. The Human Senses Group at the NASA Ames Research Center at Movement Field, CA seeks to advance man-machine interfaces by directly connecting a person to a computer. In this project, an MEG signal is used to substitute for mechanical Joysticks and keyboards. MEG has also been used in research towards a “wearable cockpit,” which employs MEG-based gestures to manipulate switches and control sticks necessary for flight in conjunction with a goggle-based display.
Unvoiced speech recognition recognizes speech by observing the MEG activity of muscles associated with speech. It is targeted for use in noisy environments, and may be helpful for people without vocal cords and people with aphasia. MEG has also been used as a control signal for computers and other devices. An interface device eased on MEG could be used to control moving objects, such as mobile robots or an electric wheelchair. This may be helpful for individuals that cannot operate a Joystick- controlled wheelchair. Surface MEG recordings may also be a suitable control signal for some interactive video games. 5. IMAGE PROCESSING techniques to it.
Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them. The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging. Image processing is a physical recess used to convert an image signal into a physical image. The image signal can be either digital or analog. The actual output itself can be an actual physical image or the characteristics of an image. The most common type of image processing is photography. In this process, an image is captured using a camera to create a digital or analog image.
In order to produce a physical picture, the image is processed using the appropriate technology based on the input source type. In digital photography, the image is stored as a computer file. This file is translated using photographic software to generate an actual image. The colors, shading, and nuances are all captured at the time the photograph is taken the software translates this information into an image. When creating images using analog photography, the image is burned into a film using a chemical reaction triggered by controlled exposure to light. The image is processed in a darkroom, using special chemicals to create the actual image.
This process is decreasing in popularity due to the advent of digital photography, which requires less effort and special training to product images. In addition to photography, there are a wide range of other image processing operations. The field f digital imaging has created a whole range of new applications and tools that were previously impossible. Face recognition software, medical image processing and remote sensing are all possible due to the development of digital image processing. Specialized computer programs are used to enhance and correct images. These programs apply algorithms to the actual data and are able to reduce signal distortion, clarify fuzzy images and add light to an underexposed image. There are three major benefits to digital image processing.
The consistent high quality of the image, the low cost of processing and the ability to manipulate all aspects of the recess are all great benefits. As long as computer processing speed continues to increase while the cost of storage memory continues to drop, the field of image processing will grow. Image Processing techniques: Analysis of remotely sensed data is done using various image processing techniques and methods that includes: Analog image processing Digital image processing Analog Image Processing Analog processing technique sees is applied to hard copy data such as photographs or printouts. It adopts certain elements of interpretation, such as primary element, spatial arrangement etc. With the combination of multi-concept of examining motley sensed data in multicultural, multicultural, multicasts and in conjunction with multidisciplinary, allows us to make a verdict not only as to what an object is but also its importance. Apart from these it also includes optical photometrical techniques allowing for precise measurement of the height, width, location, etc. Of an object. Analog processing techniques is applied to hard copy data such as photographs or printouts. Image analysis in visual techniques adopts certain elements of interpretation, which are as follow: The use of these fundamental elements of depends not only on the area being studied, but the knowledge of the analyst has of the study area.
Figure(e) Element of image interpretation Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them. The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging. Image processing is a physical process used to convert an image signal into a physical image. The image signal can be either digital or analog. The actual output itself can be an actual physical image or the characteristics of an image. The most common type of image processing is he appropriate technology based on the input source type.
DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING: Digital Image Processing involves a collection of techniques for the manipulation of digital images by computers. Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing. It allows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. Since images are defined over two dimensions (perhaps more) digital image processing may be modeled in the form of Multidimensional Systems.
Digital processing is used in a variety of applications. The different types of digital processing include image processing, audio processing, video processing, signal processing, and data processing. In the most basic terms, digital processing refers to any manipulation of electronic data to produce a specific effect. Data Formats For Digital Satellite Imagery: Digital data from the various satellite systems supplied to the user in the form of computer readable tapes or CD-ROOM. As no worldwide standard for the storage and transfer of remotely sensed data has been agreed upon, though the COOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) format is becoming accepted as the standard.
Digital remote sensing data are often organized using one of the three common formats used to organism image data . For an instance an image consisting of four spectral channels, which can be visualized as four superimposed images, with corresponding pixels in one band registering exactly to those in the other bands. These common formats are: Band Interleaved by Pixel (BPI) Band Interleaved by Line (BILL) Band Sequential (BC) Image Resolution: Resolution can be defined as “the ability of an imaging system to record fine details in a distinguishable manner”. A working knowledge of resolution is essential for understanding both practical and conceptual details of remote sensing.
Along with the actual positioning of spectral bands, they are of paramount importance in determining the suitability of remotely sensed data for a given applications. The major characteristics of imaging remote sensing instrument operating in the visible and infrared spectral region are described in terms as follow: Spectral resolution Radiometric resolution Spatial resolution Temporal resolution Spectral Resolution refers to the width of the spectral bands. As different material on the earth surface exhibit different spectral reflectance’s and mistresses. These spectral characteristics define the spectral position and spectral sensitivity in order to distinguish materials. There is a tradeoff between spectral resolution and signal to noise.