Free Sample: Science and Technology as Engines of Economic Growth paper example for writing essay

Science and Technology as Engines of Economic Growth - Essay Example

One significant social consequence of the first industrial revolution was the shift of population from out of the farms and countryside to the cities and urban areas. This shift changed England’s economic landscape from a rural agrarian society to an urban industrialized society. With these large shifts in population, the cities and urban areas became overwhelmed, as they did not have the proper infrastructure to handle the large influx in population.

Cities grew so quickly that neither physical nor social infrastructures could keep up. Cheap and shabbily built homes were erected to house the influx of factory workers, most had wood floors and no plumbing. Public wells became contaminated with feces as sanitations systems became overwhelmed. Conditions In the city became very unhealthy and mortality rates skyrocketed due to sickness, disease and Industrial accidents. Also there were no laws to protect workers and no social systems In place to help the working poor. Arbitration became a very dangerous place to live for the working poor.

Life in the countryside was much better or the working poor in the countryside before the industrial revolution. The second social consequence was the disintegration of the family unit and the development of child labor. Before the industrial revolution life was slower paced and families had more contact time. Families often worked together and shared daily activities of life, women usually tended to the home and raised the children. The industrial revolution changed all that, many families were forced to move to the cities, and factories employed many women and children, with grueling days sometimes up to 18 hours a day.

Many If not all family members were forced to work Just to provide for a substandard living. Children who used to be nourished and educated, now were working In factories with shifts so long that left no time for anything but sleep. Families and children basically became slaves In a sense for the wealthier factory owners. Part B The first industrial revolution provided the means for capitalism through investment in factories and machinery. Capitalism is seen as the investment of monies in the means of production. The workers that flocked to the factories had rebelliously been self-sufficient when living in the countryside.

Now with workers spending all their time In factories demand for products such as clothing, Coal for heat were needed to sustain living conditions. These Items were now being mass produced In factories or mining operations for sale to the general public which Included the working poor. People with money that Invested In factories and machinery were called venture capitalists. This cycle of mass production and then part c The rise of capitalism also led to the development of the communist theory. The unionism theory embraces the revolt of workers against the capitalists.

Abuses suffered by workers in the first industrial revolution which included being dependability, degraded including possible loss of life aided in the formulation and development of the communist theory. The communist theory is very much a reaction to the abuses that workers suffered in the first industrial revolution and the growth of capitalism. Capitalism created huge disparities in wealth and boom and bust cycles in which the poor were unable to sustain basic needs for life. Due to these disparities the communist theory was born. Art CLC One significant difference between capitalism and communist theories is idea of ownership.

A capitalism theory believes in private ownership of land and means of production of goods. In this scenario the majority of earnings would revert to the business or the person who owns the business or means of production. The workers on the other hand who run the business would get small shares of the profits based on their perceived value or merits. Decisions would be made by the capitalists since they had ownership. Communist theory believes in ownership of land and means of reduction being owned by the state or the whole community of the people.

Decisions about production of goods would be made by the whole community and decisions would take into consideration what would be good for all in the community. Wages would be equally dispersed with everyone’s contribution been seen as equally important in the case of wages. Secondly a significant difference between the two theories would be social structure of society. Capitalism theory would create major divisions in class, the rich would get richer as they would control the majorities of monies, land and means of production.

In capitalism the poor would stay poor, unless they had the ability to save and invest themselves, thereby creating a middle class in societal structure. In the communist theory the goal would to have a classless or egalitarian society. All men and women would be equal with no class distinctions based on wealth, race religion or nationality, this in essence would be to promote peace among the people. You have no bibliographies. If you have an account.