The Institutional Design of the E 1. Introduction E Institutions can be delved Into two categories: those with supranational guidance such as: Commission, Parliament and Court of Justice and the Intergovernmental orientation: Council of Ministers and the European Council. 2. European Parliament The U institution which is directly elected by E voters every 5 years. The number of Maps for each country is roughly proportionate to its population. The Members of the European Parliament sit in 7 political groups , which are organized by nationality.
The institution has three main roles:debating and passing European saws, with the Council, scrutinizing other EX. institutions, particularly the Commission, to make sure they are working democratically and debating and adopting the See’s budget, with the Council. Parliament has acquired ever more democratic, supervisory and legislative powers with each new Treaty. With the Treaty of Brussels, the Parliament acquired the right to scrutinize the E accounts, and assess whether the Commission has wisely and correctly spent the E budget.
Single European Act ensured that Parliament’s assent Is mandatory before a new country can Join the ELI. The Amsterdam Treaty gave a much stronger position to the Parliament In co- legislating with the Council on a whole range of areas that are subject to E law. Lisbon Treaty it strengthens the European Parliament, gives national parliaments more responsibility in determining the course of European policy, as well as allowing E citizens the power of initiative. Also the parliament has the role of co-legislator with increased budgetary powers and a key role in the election of the European Commission President. . The Council of Ministers The Council Is composed of 28 national ministers (one of each). The Council of Ministers has a triple role As a legislator, as an executive and as a political forum. As a legislator, “the Council” can request legislation and the Commission answer making a proposal. Also, all bill, which comes from the Commission, needs to be approved by the Council and the European Parliament. Finally, it has to lay down its position about the drafts and “reach an agreement in the contents of legislative drafts with the European Parliament” (Buoyant and Nugent, 2013, p. 9). As a executive, under the shadow of the Commission, the Council can make arrangements in different areas here the responsible aren’t clearly defined, Europe 2020 Agenda, and the main executive action of the Council is in the Common Security and Defense Policy and the Common Foreign and Security Policy in general. The Council also works as a policy forum about various Issues. The discussions can get to the end in a request to the commission or make possible to improve the International relations between countries or the common agenda (Europe 2020).
According to the website of the European Union, these are the tasks of the Council: approves the E legislation, ordinates the various economic policies of the EX., signing agreements between the defense policies of the ELI, coordinates the cooperation between the courts and the police in member countries. The members of the Council of Ministers vary according to the theme of the meeting and the president depends of the rotating presidency of the ELI. Only the Council of Foreign Affairs has a permanent president who is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
In the evolution of the Council is remarkable the change of presidency by the Lisbon Treaty. . The European Commission Is the executive branch of the European institutions and most of the processes and initiatives of the EX. are bound to it. The European Commission has to principal parts: The college is formed for 28 commissioners (one for each country member). Commissioners are national nominees, and the president is nominee by the European Council, with the PEP approval then being necessary.
Each of them has a particular area of responsibility in the European Commission (e. G education, environment etc). The main functions of the Commission are those as: the main initiator and proposes of European policies, mediator agent, and executive functions. 4. The Court of Justice of the European Union The Court of Justice is divided in three courts: Court of Justice, General Court and EX. Civil Service Tribunal. The Court is composed of one Judge from every member country and nine general lawyers.
The role of the court is different from the other institutions. First of all, the main function of the Court is interpreting De law of the ELI. From here the Court can influence in politics. Judges and lawyers are selected for six years by according of the governments of every member country. Historically stand out “Nouvelle Frontiers” ruling (1986) about deregulation of air transport. Or “cassis De Dijon” (1979). 5. The European Council The European Council is one of the seventh principal institutions of the European Union since the Treaty of Lisbon.
It is composed of the Heads of State and Government of the member states, as well as the President of the European Council and the Commission President. The president is elected by members of the European Council, for a term of two and a half years which may be renewed once. The main functions of the European Council are coordination functions, “provide the Union tit the necessary impetus for its development” and define the See’s agenda. In summary, it is chiefly an institution with a political nature, a forum of discussion.