The Internet

Internet
The world’s largest computer network – a physical infrastructure that provides us with the ability to communicate with others around the world. It’s made of hardware such as servers, routers, switches, and transmission lines/cables.
Web
The Web is a system that contains the body of content available as web pages that are stored on Internet servers. If the Internet is a pathway for information, the Web is the content that travels along that path.
web page
May contain text, images, interactive animations, games, music, and more.
website
Several web pages may make up a single website.
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 marks a change from people simply reading information online to people interacting by both reading and writing online content.
Web 3.0
Web 3.0 hosts collaborative content that is connected in meaningful ways.
Semantic Web
Web 3.0 is also called the Semantic Web, appropriately named because semantics is the study of meaning in language.
Internet service provider (ISP)
These companies let you use their technology (servers and software) to connect to the Internet for a fee. They provide you with an Internet connection through cable modems, DSL modems, cellular networks, or by satellite. Examples of ISPs in our area would include Charter and AT&T Uverse.
browser
Translates web pages, which are typically created using a language such as HTML into text, graphics, and multimedia.
Internet Protocol (IP) address
A series of numbers that uniquely identifies a location on the Internet. An IPv4 address consists of four groups of numbers separated by periods; for example: 255.73.110.102

IPv4 is being phased out and IPv6 is being adoped in its place, to add more possible device IP addresses. IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons, for example 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334

A nonprofit organization called ICANN keeps track of IP numbers around the world.

uniform resource locator (URL)
Because IP numbers would be difficult to remember for retrieving pages, we use a text-based address referred to as a URL. A URL is cross-referenced with an IP address using a Domain Name System (DNS).
web address
A URL, also called a web address, has several parts separated by a colon (:), slashes (/), and dots (.)
domain name
The domain name identifies the group of servers (the domain) to which the site belongs and the particular company or organization name. (google, bing, twitter are examples of domains)
top-level domain (TLD)
A suffix, such as .com, .edu, .net, .org, or .gov, which can help identify the type of organization which owns the domain name.
hyperlink
A hyperlink describes a destination within a web document and can be inserted in text or a graphical object such as a company logo.
hypertext
Text that is linked is called hypertext.
home page
Every website has a starting page, called the home page, which is displayed when you enter the site URL.
search engine
A search engine, such as Google.com, Bing.com, and Yahoo.com, catalogs and indexes web pages for you.
search directory
A type of search engine, called a search directory, can also catalog pages into topics such as finance, health, news, shopping, and so on.
keywords
You can search for information by going to a search engine’s website and typing you search text, which is comprised of one or more keywords or keyword phrases.
metasearch engine
A search engine, such as dogpile.com, searches keywords across several websites at the same time.
plug-in
Some multimedia components on a web page may require that you install a plug-in or player on your computer in order to view or hear content.
copyright
Online content may be protected by copyright, or legal ownership of content. It may be illegal to use or redistribute this content.
intellectual property
Intellectual property refers to “the creations of the mind; inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.” It is illegal to copy or distribute intellectual property without appropriate permission.
peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing program
P2P file sharing programs are used by millions of people to share music, video, and other types of files by downloading them from each others’ hard drives, rather than from the Internet.
invisible Web
There are huge hidden/password protected collections of information that are collectively known as the invisible Web or deep Web. A typical search engine won’t return links to these databases or documents.
deep Web
There are huge hidden/password protected collections of information that are collectively known as the invisible Web or deep Web. A typical search engine won’t return links to these databases or documents.
Crawler/Spider
A piece of software used by search engines that scans web servers connected to the Internet, then catalogs its findings and makes them accessible through a search engine.
e-commerce
Electronic commerce, involves using the Internet to transact business. Consists of B2B, B2C, and C2C types of transactions.
business-to-consumer (B2C)
B2C e-commerce involves the sale of goods or services online from a company to an individual person. (Amazon.com –> Jane Smith)
business-to-business (B2B)
B2B e-commerce involves the sale of goods or services online from a company to another company. (Michigan Flour Company –> Hamilton Bakery)
consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
C2C e-commerce involves the sale of goods or services online from an individual person to another individual person. (Jane Smith –> Joe Hamilton via eBay or Craigslist)
Domain Name System (DNS)
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a resource connected to the Internet. It associates various information with domain names. Most prominently, it translates easily memorized domain names or URLs to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. By providing a worldwide, distributed keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet.