thinking and language

which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving, decision making, concept formation, and forming judgements?
cognitive psychology
when we use the word “automobile” to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a
concept
a prototype is a
best example of a particular category
people are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more clearly resembles their __ of a nurse
prototype
an algorithm is a
methodical step by step procedure for solving problems
simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgements efficiently are called
heuristics
the confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
search for information consistent with our preconceptions
the inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a
fixation
a mental set is most likely to inhibit
creativity
marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. unfortunately, she never thought of using her down filled jacket as a pillow. marlenes oversight best illustrates
functional fixedness
by encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by a fire, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowner’s policies. they are most clearly exploiting the influence of
the availability heuristic
stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. this belief best illustrates
overconfidence
people asked to forfeit an early payment discount are less upset than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. this best illustrates the importance of
framing
the value of generating positive first impression in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on
belief perseverance
which of the following illustrates an application of artificial intelligence
a computer programmed to play chess
morphemes are
the smallest speech units that carry meaning
the smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a
phenome
lavonne was careful to avoid the use of dangling participles and run on sentences in her essay because she did not want to lose points for faulty
syntax
telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the __ stage of language development
two word
noam chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by
an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules
whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that
words shape the way people think
research with children indicates that the use of the generic pronoun “he” tends to trigger images of
a male
at the age of 15 months, anita repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. she is most likely in the __ stage of language development
one word
infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the __ stage
babbling
it has been suggested that eskimo’s rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to percieve differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. this suggestion most clearly indicates
linguistic determinism