true and false

Communication skills including public speaking are often ranked among the qualities employers seek in college graduates
True
The growth of the internet and social networking is reducing the need for public speaking
False
As your textbook states public speaking is a form of empowerment because it gives speakers the ability to manipulate people
False
The teaching and study of public speaking began more than 4000 years ago
True
Both public speaking and conversation involve adapting to listener feedback
True
Public speaking requires the same method of delivery as ordinary conversation
False
Public speaking usually requires more formal language than everyday conversation
True
Public speaking is more highly structured than everyday conversation.
True
When you adjust to the situation of a public speech, you are doing on a larger scale what you do every day in conversation.
True
As a speaker, you can usually assume that an audience will be interested in what you have to say.
False
Fortunately, stage fright only affects inexperienced speakers.
False
Most successful speakers are nervous before taking the floor.
True
Some nervousness before you speak is usually beneficial.
True
Many of the symptoms of stage fright are due to adrenaline, a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
True
Thinking of stage fright as “stage excitement” or “stage enthusiasm” can help you get focused and energized for a speech.
True
For most beginning speakers, the biggest part of stage fright is fear of the unknown.
True
The aim of an ethical speaker is to accomplish his or her goals by any means necessary.
False
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
True
Ethical issues can arise at every stage of the speechmaking process.
True
The ethical obligation of a speaker to be fully prepared increases as the size of the audience increases.
False
A public speaker need only be concerned about ethics in the conclusion of a speech.
False
The first responsibility of a speaker is to make sure her or his goal is ethically sound.
True
A speaker’s ethical obligations decrease as the size of the audience decreases.
False
As the Roman rhetorician Quintilian noted 2,000 years ago, the ideal of speechmaking is to persuade the audience by any means necessary.
False
As the Roman rhetorician Quintilian noted 2,000 years ago, the ideal of speechmaking is the good person speaking well.
True
Because persuasion is such a complex process, juggling statistics and quoting out of context to maximize your persuasive effect are ethically acceptable in speeches to persuade.
False
As long as the goal of your speech is ethically sound, it is acceptable to use any means necessary to achieve your goal.
False
Ethical decisions need to be justified against a set of standards or criteria.
True
Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.
True
Because ethical decisions are complex, ethical choices are simply a matter of personal preference.
False
As your textbook explains, ethical decisions are essentially a matter of personal whim or opinion.
False
You have an ethical obligation to make sure the information you present in your speeches is accurate.
Trye
Hearing and listening are essentially the same.
False
People need effective listening skills in almost all occupations.
True
Research indicates that even when we listen carefully, we understand and retain only about half of what we hear.
True
People spend more time listening than in any other communicative activity.
True
You can improve your own speeches by listening carefully to the speeches of other people.
True
As your textbook explains, focusing on a speaker’s delivery and personal appearance is an excellent way to strengthen your listening skills.
False
One of the major obstacles to listening effectively is that the brain can process many more words than can be spoken in a minute.
True
According to your textbook, a skilled therapist listening to a patient is an example of appreciative listening.
False
Appreciative listening is closely tied to critical thinking.
False
Listening is a passive process, while critical thinking is an active process.
False
Listening to provide emotional support for someone is called empathic listening.
True
According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of appreciative listening.
False
According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of comprehensive listening.
True
When you listen to someone give a sales presentation, and you need to decide whether you will buy the item, you are engaged in comprehensive listening.
False
Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it is known as critical listening.
True
Critical listening involves listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it.
True
Much of the anxiety associated with public speaking comes from lack of experience giving speeches.
True
One of the most common mistakes students make on their first speech is trying to cover too much.
True
Use of negative stereotypes in an introductory speech is acceptable as long as they are used in a humorous way.
False
As your textbook states, colorful or descriptive language is an effective way to generate audience interest in an introductory speech.
True
Each main point in the body of your first speech should cover a single aspect of the topic.
True
The topical method of speech organization follows a time pattern.
False
The chronological method of speech organization follows a time pattern.
True
For your first speech, your textbook recommends trying to end on a clever or thought-provoking note.
True
According to your textbook, the best way to prepare to give your first speech is to memorize it and deliver it word for word.
False
Most experts recommend that you read your speeches to the audience so you don’t forget any of the words.
False
Extemporaneous delivery means delivering a speech “off the cuff,” with no advance preparation.
False
When delivering your first speech, you should try to adopt the relaxed and confident tone you use in everyday in conversation.
True
In order to learn your first speech well enough to deliver it extemporaneously, you need to practice it out loud.
True
According to your textbook, the best way to practice a speech is to look silently over your notes until you think you know the speech well enough to deliver it in class.
False
Your textbook recommends that you present your first speech without advance preparation so it will sound spontaneous in class.
False
Taking a moment to look at your audience and smile before you begin to speak can help you establish rapport with them.
True
The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic for your speech.
True
Outside the classroom, the topic of a speech is usually determined by the occasion, the audience, and the speaker’s qualifications.
True
It is usually a poor idea to choose a speech topic that requires research.
False
You should usually avoid drawing on your personal knowledge or experience when choosing a speech topic.
False
You should usually avoid choosing speech topics that you feel strongly about.
False
Brainstorming is a method of generating ideas for a speech through free association of words and ideas.
True
Brainstorming is a way of clearing your mind so you can relax while choosing a speech topic.
False
No matter how you go about choosing a speech topic, it is important to start the process early.
True
After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your central idea.
False
Once you choose the central idea of your speech, the next step is to formulate your general purpose.
False
After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your general purpose.
True
After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your specific purpose.
False
Most often, your general purpose as a speaker is to inform or to persuade.
True
Most often, a speaker’s general purpose will fall into one of two categories—to inform or to demonstrate.
False
The difference between informing and persuading is like the difference between explaining and entertaining.
False
When your general purpose is to persuade, you act as a teacher or lecturer.
False
The primary purpose of speechmaking is to demonstrate your command of the topic.
False
According to your textbook, public speakers need to be audience-centered.
False
Being audience-centered means that your primary purpose as a speaker is to gain a desired response from the audience.
True
The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners by any means necessary.
False
The need to adapt to the audience means that speechmakers must usually compromise their own beliefs or values.
False
The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners even if the speaker must compromise his or her beliefs to do so.
False
Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience.
False
Adapting to audiences is one of the easiest tasks facing beginning speakers.
False
The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation.
False
The classroom is an artificial speaking situation in which you can overlook the attitudes and interests of your audience.
False
You are most likely to be successful in your classroom speeches if you think of your classmates as a real audience.
True
An audience’s response to a message is invariably colored by its perception of the speaker.
True
Unlike beginning speakers, experienced speakers have little need for audience analysis.
False
Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself.
False
The process of audience analysis and adaptation affects every aspect of speech preparation from choosing a topic to delivering the speech.
True
Public speaking is essentially like acting because once you learn a speech, you can give it over and over without adapting to the different audiences you address.
False
Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a speech topic.
False
Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a specific purpose.
False
It is possible to disagree entirely with a speaker’s ideas but still support the speaker’s right to express those ideas.
True
No matter how well intentioned they may be, efforts to protect society by restricting free speech usually end up repressing minority viewpoints and unpopular opinions.
True