Cultural Intelligence will be assessed through this report, analyzing whether such thesis can be utilized wealth our organization to enhance staff development. Cultural intelligence also called cultural quotient (ICQ), can be defined as “the ability to engage in set of behaviors that uses skills and qualities that are tuned appropriately to the culture-based values and attitudes of the people with whom one interacts'(Peterson, 2004).
Respect for basic rights, human dignity and good citizenship are core human values(Donaldson 1 996), understanding differing cultures present through our employees and foreign dignitaries will Improve our relations with different cultural belief systems, and adorn more sophistication In our diplomacy. Globalization has dramatically increased foreign trade due to the falling trade barriers, easier emigration possibilities, improved transportation and technological revolutions. Growing interconnections bought about by the globalization process require that both managers and organizations expand repertoires of roles'(Parker,2005). Hence effective communications with differing cultures Is more important than ever(Tauten, 1985). Culture Is man-made part of the just consider the relativity in such analysis, since absolute meanings cannot be derived due to the differing meanings of cultures explained either through the actor or observer.
One may assume cultural idioms using models such as ‘Hypotheses Cultural Dimensions’ or ‘Turner Cultural Analysis’ but may create sophisticated stereotyping, by using such analyses as absolute 2000). Culturally intelligent person must acknowledge the differences between cultures, using them as a guideline to better understand differing product and organization perceptions. One must distinguish the stereotype of cultures, realizing he uncertainty affecting situational and personal factors in the cultural context(Bucolically et al. 003). Hefted states ‘a plea is made for internationalization not only of business, but also of management theories'(Hefted, 1993). For example ‘Japanese workers tend to be controlled more by their peer group than their manager, since Japan embodies a group consensus, collectivist attitude. Whereas many western countries such as UK delegate higher Individuality, hence personal gain is more widely accepted and workers prefer independence, and reliance on their personal abilities to accomplish set tasks(Hefted,1993).
Consequently culturally intelligent people can use such models to avoid cultural pitfalls. The creation of this report, aims to analyses two articles for the benefit of the management, seeking the prudence of cultural Intelligence. Early’s Towards Cultural on…. Will be reviewed. Followed by ‘The Convergent, Discriminate, and Incremental Validity of Scores on a Self-Report Measure of Cultural Intelligence’ by Ward et al. 2009), the article discussing the possible relation between emotional and cultural intelligence, with their measurements seeking conclusions whether such an analysis is worth recognizing. The final section contrasts the purpose of both reports, whether cultural intelligence Is a tool our management can utilize to better develop our understanding of different Towards Cultural Intelligence Increasing globalization has enhanced the views on cultural analysis, with researchers using anthropology, sociology and psychology to derive the impacts on culture in working environments(Early&Mosakowski, 2006).
Cross cultural management describes an organization’s behavior relations between countries and cultures, pursuing to improve understanding on the interactions between employees, management, clients, executives and strategic partners originating from different cultures and countries(Adler,2002). Early & Moisakos(2006) identify two main traditional streams on cross-cultural management. Firstly, the culturally essentialist ‘aggregate approach to culture’ identifying common issues within country or regional levels, pursuing the views of people in regards to their beliefs and values, I. . The French value intellectual achievements, whereas the Chinese people highly value historical Confucian principalities(Hefted,1993). Secondly, the ‘individual approach to culture’ refers to the extent the organizational and national values influence an individual’s attitudes, values and beliefs. Individualistic countries such as England and Australia value personal achievement higher due to intrinsic motives, valuing self-empowerment more compared to their Asian counterparts(Hefted, 1993).
ICQ may help us better understand Why people from different backgrounds act as they id(Early & Moisakos,2006). They propose three features empirical to harnessing ICQ. (1)the Head’ referring to one’s know on their personal knowledge ND the ability to gain newer knowledge, I. E. The added effort a manager might exert in order to find out about their counterparts, an American expatriate may seek to learn the British way of business, vice versa. (2)the Heart’ of ICQ focuses on self- empowerment and energize actions to boost personal actions.
People lacking confidence may fail to learn from mistakes and confusion they might encounter when dealing with culturally diverse individuals. A person’s openness to change and self- benevolence are key factors influencing cultural intelligence(Schwartz,1992), an expatriate manager high on confidence might improve their ICQ at a quicker rate. Finally (3)the Body combines the first two components by transcending thought into action, failure to initiate one’s knowledge into practice will not improve ICQ.
Multinationals such as Wall-Mart owning subsidiaries in over 1 5 countries understand the importance of cultural adaptation, localizing their practices, management and marketing strategies to improve adjustment(Wall-Mart,2011). ICQ can offer Wall-Mart’s management culturally based solutions, creating dynamic understanding amongst their employees, whilst improving foreign understanding to improve relationship marketing, supplier relation whilst better integrating their multi-cultural workforce.
The article provides in depth analysis on the importance of cultural intelligence and the ways to harness ICQ, but doesn’t provide procedures to measure it. ICQ is still a relative rather than absolute accepted practice(Peterson, 2004), thus must be used with caution…….. Critique more…. The insurability of ICQ will be analyses in the following Ward et al. (2009) article. Cultural Intelligence V Emotional Intelligence intelligence (ICQ) is more imperative than emotional intelligence (CEQ), or that ICQ is just an added abbreviation of CEQ.
Self reported tests are used to measure both quotients throughout their research, seeking the correlations or anonymity between both ideals. Ward et all’s (2009) questions on CEQ included ‘l am aware of my emotions’, ‘l present myself in a way that makes a good impression’ and ICQ questions such as” am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds’ and “l know about the history of other cultures” (Ward et al. , 2009). Self-reported answers may carry differing meaning and consciousness understanding for each participant.
People’s perception on cultural understanding may perplex them to strongly agree with their beliefs upon differing cultures, but may not understand the sub-text involved, thus influencing their perception more on their emotional intelligence. For example one may understand the diversity of cultures in India, but not be unaware of Confucius influences in China. ICQ once analyses did not provide clarity when assessing the feasibility of adapting in new countries, whereas CEQ seemed to explain this dilemma better, since ICQ strongly correlates with emotional intelligence.
Strong influence of one’s emotions may outweigh understanding on cultural differences. ICQ may be easier controlled than cognitive behavior due to differing perception on ones conscious and subconscious(Ward et al. , 2009). Ward et al (2009) use self reported analysis to condone this research,which may cause potential pitfalls when concluding the effectiveness of this research. CEQ has established that performance-based analyses may be seen more efficient, whereas self-reporting may be influenced by self- empowerment and possibly influenced by egoistic self-bias(Mathews,Giddier,Robert, 2004).
Performance based measures may provide more insight on genetic disposition by using psychometric tests to analyses behavior more closely. Although the actor-observer error may influence performance behavior analysis, whilst aiding to fundamental attribution errors, by over-estimating role of personal factors over situational Nag et al. (2006), composed similar study critiquing the relations between CEQ and ICQ, stating ‘our results generally supported our theoretically based predictions and demonstrated that personality was associated with ICQ’.
Close links between ICQ and CEQ require further research to revived empirical conclusions, although their relation is quite extensive. Critical Analysis What else have you learned about cultural intelligence and cultural values that may be useful in terms of a) decision making, b) Negotiations and communication and c) Leadership? Cross-cultural communication is crucial especially at global level, negotiations among representatives of governments with different cultural assumptions and ways of communicating are potential barriers, modern business must aim to avoid.
High context communication cultures’, infer messages more through indirect communications I. E. Japan,China,Linda, whereas cultures communicating through low contexts infer messages more explicitly and directly Effective cross-cultural communication has grown in importance due to the rise of better problem solvers then homogeneous ones'(Rash,2012). Current staff can be trained upon worldly recognized Hypotheses cultural dimensions, combined with Early’s (2006) cultural intelligence procedures.
They suggest the five models of culturally intelligent personalities (1) ‘Local’ a person focused on their own environment, (2) ‘The Analyst’ a strategic thinker possessing natural intuition leaning with new cultural environments, (3) ‘The Confident’ someone exuding personal confidence and focused on embracing new cultures with austerity and openness, (4) ‘The mimic’ possessing effective personal control, whilst replicating other cultures to ensure he fits in and (5) ‘Cultural Chameleon’ a person possessing all such qualities, a rare quality.
Management can analyses who fits in which category whilst encouraging managers with different styles to learn from each others’ victories and defeats. Both articles discussed found the dependency of ICQ on CEQ. Improving our understanding of CEQ can improve our understanding on individuals more suitable to enhance their cultural intelligence. At recruitment stages, our human resource department can use ‘Psychometric Tests’, which include verbal and non- verbal exercises.
These tests monitor the ability of an individual initially through questionnaires assessing their numerical, abstract and emotional reasoning, followed by situation specific verbal questions seeking efficiency in their actions(Byron,2011). Early and Onionskin’s article provides means of using cultural intelligence as an advantage, can provide our staff background knowledge on ICQ.
Ward et all’s assessment on the effectiveness of ICQ, concluding on the difficulties in measuring ICQ, whilst highlighting the importance of emotional intelligence, such knowledge can too benefit our staff by increasing pragmatic behavior when dealt with cultural dilemmas. Our organization can use similar self reported questionnaires to calculate basic understanding on ICQ and CEQ, we may then provide additional support, by encouraging employees to partake in such research to further enhance their careers. We should use expert opinion on such analyses seeking possible indicators of high ICQ.
Cultural specific tests can allow us to distinguish which employee is more suitable for differing cultural settings, I. E. John may posses higher ICQ(marks out of 100) on India(70) and low in Japan(34), and Jenny Higher ICQ in Japan(80). Experienced expatriate staff can be encouraged to hold meetings and seminars, educating potential new expatriates. Employees designated in specific cultural settings can share vital knowledge attained through real life examples. Their expertise can provide valuable insights into alienated cultures.
Furthermore, provide specific training procedures in the countries newer expatriates are delegated, providing training in the host nations will improve practical understanding that cannot be covered in theoretical thesis, since employees can utilities real life completeness, 2007). Encouraging cognitive moral development and character education, will further improve understanding of UN-planned personal and situational factors in cross-cultural environments, encouraging self-transcendence and benevolence. Different cultures may desire similar goals but the path towards the goals may differ(Lounge,1987).
For example Japanese decision making is heavily influenced by ‘Performance & Maintenance’, placing high emphasis on group performances centered down from senior management(Missus,1984). An expatriate may imitate such may in turn ignore his assertiveness as mere disrespect. To attain respect from differing cultures one must invest time and effort to attain respect(Thomas,2006). Management must avoid sophisticated stereotyping, using theories in relativity and not absolute, continually improving cultural intelligence on changing cultural preferences.
Management must also acknowledge the influence of individual and additional factors, treating individuals on a personal level rather than creating assumptions solely on their backgrounds. Developing transnational corporate codes is encouraged creating an organizational culture, allowing individuals to conform to a singular company identity regardless of differing cultural backgrounds. Personal or situational attributions can be better controlled to improve cultural intelligence.
We must acknowledge both idioms, using them in relativity, choosing the appropriate thesis when necessary. An employee possessing higher personality attributes may deed less assistance on their CEQ and is encouraged with practical experimentation of their ICQ, whereas someone possessing high ICQ may need more CEQ to improve their overall understanding. Finally we conclude that cultural intelligence can provide potent understanding to benefit our future orientations as a multinational company, whilst harnessing the attributes of globalization.
As a recommendation management can use Early’s article to improve background cultural intelligence knowledge, whilst using Ward et al. ‘s article as an inclination on the measurements of ICQ in relation to CEQ. Both articles showcase the significance of CEQ whilst highlighting the growing importance of ICQ, whilst showcasing the relativities of such studies, hence both articles can be utilized to tackle differing dilemmas. Cross-cultural management is affected by contextual and external factors.
Management must seek common grounds by using the benefits of homogeneous and diverse approaches, whilst minimizing its negative consequences. Measuring ICQ is important to ensure employees remain committed to such thesis, whilst also ensuring strict CEQ measures are in place when recruiting potential expatriates to ensure employees will possess he cognitive ability to harness ICQ. One must be careful when applying ICQ as an absolute as we may encourage false consensus effects.
ICQ measures have been criticized with an inability to surpass the inclination to generalize cultures with concepts of nation states(Thomas,2006). Perhaps further research in sub-cultures and changing cultural values is recommended to distinguish ICQ from emotional intelligence. We must aim to improve heuristics that in turn can improve one’s social cognition. Does it match brief Compare to 1st OCW Check if both articles are critiques in the analysis.